AN UPDATE TO ‘BLOODY HARVEST’ & ‘THE SLAUGHTER’

Chapter Twelve: A State Crime

I. SOURCES

Prisoners Sentenced to Death

The Government of China changed its official position on organ sources numerous times. As early as 2001, a doctor from China testified at the United States Congress1968 that the Government of China was using organs from executed prisoners without consent. The Government denied this claim until July 2005, when Huang Jiefu, then-Deputy Minister of Health, stated at the World Organ Transplant Conference that most transplant organs in China were obtained from executed prisoners.1969

On March 9, 2006, a woman with the pseudonym Annie made a public statement that there had been large-scale harvesting of organs in China sourced from living Falun Gong practitioners.1970 Three weeks later, spokesperson Qin Gang for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs responded, “it is a lie to claim that organs are being taken from executed prisoners without their consent.”1971 In April 2006, a spokesperson of the Ministry of Health, Mao Qunan, claimed that the “main source of organs in mainland China is voluntary donations from citizens at death” and denied China’s exploitation of death-row prisoners’ organs for transplantation.1972

Nine months later, in January 2007, Mao Qunan stated that China was actually using organs from executed prisoners for transplantation. Since then, the Government has maintained that these organs come from executed prisoners. In December 2008, Huang Jiefu published an article in The Lancet, entitled “Government Policy and Organ Transplantation in China,” stating that over 90% of the organs are sourced from death-row prisoners.1973

Hong Kong-based Phoenix Satellite Television, a station authorized by the Government of China to broadcast in mainland China, reported in March 2015 an interview with Huang Jiefu.1974 The Government used this channel to subtly revise its stance on the “too sensitive” issue of organ sourcing. In answering a reporter’s question regarding the “number of executed prisoners being much smaller than that of organ transplants,” Huang Jiefu said:

“What you are mentioning is too sensitive an issue, so I cannot describe it very clearly to you. It is easy to get a clear idea just by thinking of the situation–for such a country [China]: there is no transparency, what the sources are, you cannot know; how many have been done remains a secret as well…in fact, many things are a mess, you cannot know clearly how many.”

The Government of China considers its number of executions a state secret. According to Amnesty International, between 1995 and 1999, a total of 8401 Chinese citizens were sentenced to death, giving an annual average of 1,680. Between 2000 and 2005, it was 1616 per year. 1975 The numbers have fluctuated from year to year, but the overall average number for the periods remained the same before and after the persecution of Falun Gong began. Between 2006 and 2008, the average was 1,066, 1976 1977 1978 an indication of fewer executions. Amnesty International stopped reporting the number of executions in China in 2009.

These figures were calculated by totaling publicly available reports of individual executions. Amnesty International considered these totals to be an understatement. They wrote:

“Credible sources suggest that between 7,500 to 8,000 people were executed in 2006. The official statistics remain a state secret, making monitoring and analysis problematic.” 1979

Other organizations, such as Duihua Foundation, gave estimates similar to what Amnesty International attributed to credible sources. 1980 Duihua calculated its total by extrapolation from the death penalty case load of individual Chinese legal practitioners.

Although the figures by different organizations with different methodologies varied, their conclusions and time trends are similar—the actual figure of the prisoners executed is believed to be much higher than China’s official data, and the overall average figure of the prisoners sentenced to death before 1999 remains consistent with that after 1999, when the persecution of Falun Gong began.1981

Since January 2007, when the law was changed to require that all death penalty cases be reviewed by the Supreme People’s Court of China, the number of executions has decreased. For example, in 2007, 15% of death penalty cases were dismissed by the review.1982

To meet transplantation standards, sources must not have these diseases or conditions: fatty liver, hepatitis, cancer, infections, diabetes, history of cardiovascular disease, HIV antibodies, syphilis antibodies; high blood pressure, heart disease, tuberculosis, or history of liver or kidney disease. In addition, one out of ten people in mainland China carry the hepatitis B virus.1983 The percentage is much higher in the prison population. The percentage of death row prisoners who would qualify as organ sources is low.

In September 2013, Zhu Jiye, director of the organ transplant research center at Peking University and director of the hepatobiliary surgery department of the Peking University People’s Hospital, told China Economic Weekly:

“Before the launch of the pilot donation project in 2010, organs from executed prisoners accounted for almost all organ organs. In our hospital, we have done 4,000 liver and kidney transplants in a year. These organs all came from death row prisoners.”1984

Thus, the number of annual liver and kidney transplants performed by just one hospital far exceeds the Amnesty International calculation of the number of executed prisoners nationwide. Because of the high volume of organ transplants performed in China since the rapid growth began in 2000, the claim that all or most transplant organs came from executed prisoners is contradicted by the total number of transplants performed.

The Claim that China no Longer Uses Executed Prisoners

“China Network” published an article on March 5, 2013: “Ministry of Health: Organ transplants stating that China will no longer rely on executed prisoners within two years.”1985 At the China Organ Transplant Conference in November 2013, Huang Jiefu announced the “Hangzhou Resolution,” promising to discontinue the use of organs from executed prisoners by June 2014.1986

In February 2014, The Transplantation Society (TTS) published an open letter to the Chinese president entitled, “To Xi Jinping, President of the People’s Republic of China: China’s Fight against Corruption in Organ Transplantation.”1987 The letter stated, “The Tianjin website (www.cntransplant.com) continues to recruit international patients who are seeking organ transplants,” and “First hand reports from our Chinese colleagues and a number of investigations suggest that the practice of obtaining organs from prisoners in China involves notorious transactions between transplant surgeons and local judicial and penal officials.” In fact, a Chinese organ broker, Omar Healthcare Service, was still running online advertisements soliciting patients in the West to receive organ transplants in China, suggesting that Chinese transplant tourism was still ongoing.1988

In December 2014, China state-owned media declared that from January 1, 2015 onwards, China would stop using executed prisoners’ organs for transplants, and that citizens’ voluntary organ donations after death would be the only source for organ transplants.1989 This announcement was made by Huang Jiefu, former Deputy Minister of Health and now director of the Chinese Human Organ Donation and Transplantation Commission.

Voluntary Organ Donation

Traditional Chinese custom requires bodies to be preserved whole after death. Organ transplantation in China began in the 1970s, but by 2003, the number of voluntary donations remained at zero.1990

In May 2010, an article published in the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, likened organ donation in China to a wilderness.1991 According to Huang Jiefu, before 2010, there was no organ donation system in China. The national organ donation system started in 2014.1992

In March 2010, China piloted an organ donation program in Shanghai, Tianjin, Liaoning, Shandong, Zhejiang, Guangdong, Jiangxi, Fujian, Xiamen, Nanjing, Wuhan, and eventually in 19 provinces and cities.1993 This program was jointly run by the Ministry of Health and China Red Cross.

On February 25, 2011, the Yangzi Evening News noted that, since the launch of the Nanjing Organ Donation pilot program in March of 2010, not a single voluntary organ donation had been received. Over the past 20 years, only three people had donated their organs in Nanjing City.1994

In Shanghai, the first organ donation from a deceased organ donor happened on August 21, 2013. Yet there are 11 transplant centers in Shanghai approved by the Ministry of Health.1995

New Beijing Paper reported in March 2012 that 207 voluntary donors had donated organs after death over two years nationwide.1996 The title of the article was “Organ donation pilot program did not solve the dilemma of the supply and demand disparity.” On February 25, 2013, the national organ donation working video meeting reported that only 659 donations had occurred in total nationwide since March 2010.1997

According to Huang Jiefu, the voluntary organ donation rate in mainland China is 0.6 per million people.1998 A World Health Organization study shows that Chinese citizens’ organ donation rate is 0.03 per million, only 1/20 of Huang’s figure.1999 Yet, at the 2015 China Organ Transplant Congress held in Wuhan on August 6-8, 2015, Huang Jiefu declared that China had successfully realized the transformation from reliance on prison sources to voluntary organ donation from citizens.2000

Ye Qifa, Executive Chairman of the China Organ Transplant Alliance and professor of organ transplantation at Central South Medical University, reported that as of August 2015, 4,626 citizens in China donated their organs after death since 2010, totaling 12,405 major organs (implicitly claiming a rate of nearly three successfully transplanted organs per donor). At the same time, he projected that in 2015 the number of transplant surgeries in China would pass 10,000 and might surpass the historical record set in 2006.2001

In 2014, at the Hangzhou Transplant Congress, Dr. Ye had expressed frustration that around 70% of 165 approved transplant centers showed no interest in developing civilian organ donation programs. Doctors indicated that no matter how well the computer matching and deployment system works, it doesn’t make sense if there is no organ supply and that even when a donated organ became available it was often of poor quality and cannot be used. According to Ye, there was a persistently large gap between supply and demand. 2002

Huang Jiefu indicated in his interview with Beijing Youth Daily on November 18, 2015 that the organ donation system in China does not function in practice, because the Red Cross and the National Planning Commission, the two most important organizations in organ donation, did not actually coordinate with each other:

The two departments jointly established a national organ donation and transplantation committee on March 1, 2014, but it exists in name only. So far no meeting has been held yet.”2003

According to an article titled “Many Challenges in Organ Donation” published by Guangming Daily on September 3, 2013, donor organ coordinators stated that among 100 potential organ donors about half were ineligible because they could not meet the requirements for donation. Of the remaining donors, about 30 provided organs which were unusable because of delays in the availability of organs after death. Ten donations were overruled by relatives’ objections. In the end, there were fewer than five available donors.2004

In 2015, investigators from the World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong called the institutes for voluntary organ donations in China. Most did not answer the phone. The few offices that did answer the phone indicated that there were tiny numbers of people who had registered to donate, and that the number of successful donations was extremely low.2005

On December 6, 2015, the staff at the Red Cross Society of Beijing confirmed that organ donation was still in the preparatory stage. The Beijing Red Cross did not even have a donation office at the time and had not yet arranged a single case of organ donation.2006 Yet there are 20 state-approved transplant centers in Beijing, many of them with the capacity to carry out thousands of transplants per year.

On December 17, 2015, a female staff member at the Shanghai Red Cross organ donation office in Huangpu District reported that her office had begun carrying out donation work at the beginning of the previous year and that the city of Shanghai claimed 5 successful organ donations since the donation system began.2007 Yet there are 11 hospitals in Shanghai which have state approval to carry out organ transplants and all of them are capable of carrying out a large volume of transplants.

On December 12, 2015, a Tianjin Red Cross worker reported that since an organ donation database was created in 2003, there had been a total of 170 donated organs.2008 Yet Tianjin’s Oriental Organ Transplant Center has over 500 transplant beds and is estimated to have an annual capacity of at least 5,000 transplants.

On May 14, 2015, a female staff member at the organ donation office at the Red Cross chapter in Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province said:

“There are people who have registered for organ donations at some point in their life, so they intend to donate their organs. But there are not many cases like this. Moreover, none of them have actually donated their organs yet. When the person was young, they register to be an organ donor. But we have to wait until they pass away. However, when the person passes away, his or her organs may not be usable due to changes in health. We cannot use organs that are diseased. As of now, we haven’t had any donated livers or hearts.”2009

In March 2015, Liu Zhonghua, chief physician of the urologic surgery department of Henan People’s Hospital said:

“It is almost impossible for Chinese people to donate their organs. You simply can’t find anyone; you nearly can’t find anyone. If they are not related to someone by blood, who would be willing to give you their organs?”2010

In July 2015, the on-duty staff at the organ donation office of the Red Cross chapter in Jiaozuo said:

“There are some people who registered for organ donation, but the number is very, very small; and you must wait for them to die of natural causes before organ donation can take place; the number of people who donate their organs after they die from accidents is very, very few … As for those who donates organs after death, they can’t make the decision, since they’re deceased. So their family has to call us to give consent for the donation. Even if the deceased’s close relatives consent to the donation, sometimes all it takes is one word from a distant relative, and the family changes their mind about giving consent for the donation.”2011

An early interview reported by Sohu Health addressed the question, “Are 1.5 million people in China waiting for death due to the low organ donation rate because there is no love?”

“For the world’s most accepted way to obtain organs, almost all transplant doctors of China have said it is ‘impossible.’ These doctors include Li Leishi, an academician at the Chinese Academy of Engineering and founder of the National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Diseases at the Nanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command.”2012

Li Leishi, wrote in a 2008 article titled “Organ donation after death exists in theory, but is difficult to do in reality”:

“In China, for organ donation after the death of a citizen, from both the system and law there are no conditions for its existence … when a death has occurred, contacting the family members of the dead and discussing the donation issue would already miss the best time [for transplantation], and the organ’s ischemia time is then too long and it cannot be used for transplant. So in China, organ donation after death does not exist in the system. In addition, China has no standard for defining brain death, and organ donation has no legal protection.”2013

To date, these issues have not yet seen substantive changes or improvements. In recent years, official state media have reported a few high-profile cases of individual human organ sales.2014 The number of such reported transactions remains miniscule.

As early as in April 2006, Sanlian Life Weekly reported that:

“China currently has a voluntary organ donation rate from living relatives of 1.1%. The control of over 98% of organ sources originate from outside of the Ministry of Health system.”2015

The archived website of the China International Transplantation Network Assistance Center (CITNAC) reveals:

“in order to support the large number of organ transplant surgeries every year, we need to give all of our thanks to the support given by the government. In particular, the Supreme People’s Court, Supreme People’s Procuratorate, Public Security system, judicial system, Ministry of Health, and Ministry of Civil Affairs have jointly promulgated laws to ensure that organ donations receive government support and protection. This is a ‘one of its kind’ in the world.”2016

Donation Discrepancies

The New York Times reported on April 6, 2016 that donation coordinator Cao Yanfang of the Zhejiang Province Human Organ Donation Management Center said that 2,766 people donated 7,785 organs in 2015 and that there were 66,000 donors on the state registry. Those aggregate figures, like the aggregate figures for transplants in general, conflict with individual figures.

For transplants performed, looking at individual hospitals bring us to volumes far larger than the official aggregates. For organ donations, by looking at individual donation centers, we get figures far smaller than the official aggregates.

There are two explanations for this discrepancy between overall donation figures and those aggregated from individual centers. One is that organs from prisoners are classified as donations.  Huang Jiefu in March, 2014 stated that

“[transplant reform] is not about not using organs from executed prisoners, but not allowing hospitals or medical personnel to engage in private transactions with human organs.”2017 “We will regulate the issue by including voluntary organ donations by executed prisoners in the nation’s public organ donation system.”2018 “Once entered into our unified allocation system, they are counted as voluntary donations of citizens. The so-called death row organ donation doesn’t exist any longer.”2019

On October 8, 2015, the British Medical Journal, in an article titled “China’s semantic trick with prisoner organs,”2020 co-authored by five medical experts from United States, Germany and Canada stated that

“The announcement of December 2014 itself is neither a law nor a governmental regulation. It is only at best a statement of good intentions but has no force of law. The announcement is not even mentioned in the policies of the PRC National Health and Family Planning Commission, which administers the China Organ Transplant Response System (COTRS).”

The article asserts that the Chinese authorities are simply playing word games by “labeling prisoner organs as voluntary donations from citizens.”

On March 10, 2015, Agence France-Presse (AFP) reported that medical experts in United States, Germany, and Canada wrote open letters to medical journals to warn that

“China is still using death row inmates’ organs. The only difference is that these organs are now being classified as citizens’ voluntarily donated organs. This change will bypass international ethics, and their unethical practices might never stop.” 2021

According to The New York Times article “China Bends Vow, Using Prisoners’ Organs for Transplants,” organs from prisoners, including those on death row, can still be used for transplants in China, and that this use has the backing of policymakers. Dr. Otmar Kloiber, the secretary general of the World Medical Association, said that the announcement in December by Huang Jiefu was “an administrative trick.”2022

A second explanation for the discrepancy between overall donation figures and the aggregate of what individual donation centres report is that Chinese hospitals are buying from impoverished family members of patients near death, who consent to the harvesting of organs from their loved ones. What health officials now call a donation system is, for the most part, a purchase and sale system with hospitals as brokers. Patients pay large sums for organs. The families of potential donors near death are offered large sums for their consent.

Regarding the money patients pay for the purchase of organs, Huang Jiefu said:

“First of all, transplantation is an expensive operation; currently our social medical insurance does not cover organ transplantation. Transplantation belongs to high‑end medical service, and not all patients can afford such an operation and the postoperative medical expenses.”

Regarding the money families of donors receive for the donation of organs, Huang Jiefu said:

“In the United States and other countries, the decision to donate relieves the family of the potential donor of any further financial risk. This removes a significant barrier to the consideration of organ donation for the family by removing any financial disincentive for making the decision to donate a loved one’s organs. In these countries, the donor processing and charges for procurement are passed to the recipient with the government health care system as a financial backstop. In China… [a] fully funded social security network is not in place; thus, the decision of a family to donate would burden them with further financial obligations. A financial system has to be put in place that would offset the charges from the hospital with respect to organ donation. In the transition from the pilot program to the national program, for donor families with a financial burden, China adopted a humanitarian assistance system featuring the spirit of fraternity and reciprocity. This system recognizes both the altruistic nature of the gift by recognizing the donor in a public manner and the financial burden from the decision to donate a family member’s organs, which may encumber the family. The financial burden may be significant, especially in light of the median income in China.”

In an interview with Sina on March 3, 2015, Huang said:

“It is impossible for the organs from death‑row prisoners and the organs donated by citizens to exist in the one and the same system. If our organ donation system is like that, people will not trust it; they will be afraid that the system is unjust and not transparent. Poor people donate organs, and rich people have the right to receive transplants. I agree with the view elaborated by the Global Times editorial, ‘respect death‑row prisoners and there will be more healthy people to participate in donation.'”2023

The comment, “Poor people donate organs, and rich people have the right to receive transplants,” encapsulates the brokerage system hospitals are running, which is claimed to be the replacement of the prisoner system. For the distinction between rich and poor to make a difference, the funding given by the health system to the cajoled surviving relatives of those near death has to be more than just financially neutral. Dr. Jay Lavee reports that these payments are large, “some equivalent to twice the annual income of the family.”2024

There is a second discrepancy at play here–the difference between total transplants and total organs donated, no matter how inaccurately the term “donation” is used.  The official Chinese line is that all transplants come from donations. Yet, total transplants, if one aggregates the work of individual hospitals, far exceeds the figure of 7,785 reported in April 2016 for 2015.

There are two transplant systems running in China: a system however inappropriately described as a donation system, and a system outside the donation system. The donation system collects those few donations which really are voluntary, prisoner organs funneled through the donation system, and the organs of dying patients bought with the consent of their families. The non-donation system, which towers over the donation system, account for the bulk of organ transplants in China.

Falun Gong Practitioners

The medical field began to conduct human organ transplantation in the 1960s. There has been a tremendous development in China’s human organ transplant industry after 1999. The timing of this growth corresponds to that of the Chinese Communist Party’s persecution campaign against Falun Gong.

Our books, Bloody Harvest: Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners in China and The Slaughter: Mass Killings, Organ Harvesting, and China’s Secret Solution to Its Dissident Problem, have discussed transplant growth in China in detail and concluded that Falun Gong practitioners are the main victims targeted by the large-scale live organ transplant industry in China.

According to an internal survey conducted by China’s Public Security Bureau, by July 1999, at least 70 million people in mainland China were practicing Falun Gong.2025 On July 20, 1999, the Chinese Communist Party leadership launched an eradication campaign against the practice of Falun Gong.2026

Disappearances

Since the very beginning of the persecution, Falun Gong practitioners appealed to government departments in their provinces, in the Beijing appeals office, or at Tiananmen Square. The number of people petitioning the government in Beijing was at its highest between the beginning of 2000 and the end of 2001.

The Public Security Bureau in Beijing determined that up to April 2001 a total of 830,000 Falun Gong practitioners had been registered or arrested. This figure does not include those who refused to give their names to police.2027 A large number of practitioners did not disclose their identities to avoid implicating their families or people in their workplaces and neighborhoods. The unidentified practitioners were not sent back to their hometowns.2028

According to a report by China’s justice department, China had 670 operating prisons, holding a total of more than 1.5 million inmates.2029 2030 There were also 300 forced labour camps before the laogai system was abolished at the end of 2013. 2031 The book Laogai: The Machinery of Repression in China, published in 2009, stated that as many as 3 to 5 million people were imprisoned in laogai camps.2032

The U.S. Congressional Executive Committee on China’s annual report for 20082033 noted that international observers believed that half of those incarcerated in China’s forced labour camps were Falun Gong practitioners. Ethan Gutmann estimates that Falun Gong constituted about half of the laogai system in 2001 and then leveled off to 15 to 20% over the long term, translating to about 500,000 to 1,000,000 Falun Gong practitioners being detained in the laogai system at any given time.

Many detention centres were built or expanded all over China to house the large number of Falun Gong practitioners who were arrested and detained. The Chinese Communist Party also made use of military and underground civil defense facilities to establish holding units for Falun Gong practitioners.2034 These practitioners have disappeared, both legally and practically.

Policy of Destruction

On August 21, 2000, the Chinese Ministry of Public Security held a nationwide telephone conference to relay new orders that the practice of Falun Gong was to be eradicated in three months.2035 Du Daobin of Hubei Province reported in May 2003 that the local 610 Office, the Communist Party office charged with the repression of Falun Gong, had received instructions which stated, “no law regulates the treatment of Falun Gong practitioners,” and “death of Falun Gong practitioners from beating is nothing and shall be counted as suicide; the body shall be directly cremated without investigating the person’s identification.”2036

In October 9, 1984, the Supreme People’s Court, Supreme People’s Procuratorate, Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Health, and Ministry of Civil Affairs jointly promulgated the “Provisional Regulations on the Use of Corpses or the Organs of Executed Prisoners.”2037 It allowed the corpses and organs of prisoners to be used under certain conditions:

1) the body was not collected, or the family refused to collect the body; or

2) the executed prisoner voluntarily gave his body or organs for use by medical or health units; or

3) the families have given consent.

Although the law may not have been originally conceived with a specific loophole in mind, it did allow organs from prisoners to be used without their consent and also without the consent of their family, as long as the body was not collected. The law does not require a prisoner to be sentenced to death and then executed for his or her organs to be used.

In the case of Falun Gong, the authorities also used the “Provisional Regulations” to prevent the families of the dead practitioners from claiming their bodies, which in turn facilitated forced organ harvesting and the unlawful sale of bodies. The authorities do not necessarily inform family members when a Falun Gong practitioner is arbitrarily detained in a “re-education through labour” camp.  Moreover, many detained Falun Gong practitioners, in order to protect their family, friends, work colleagues and neighbors, do not self-identify once detained. For the non-self-identified, the authorities do not know who the family members are and cannot notify them.

This combination of Chinese legal factors allows for the sourcing of organs from Falun Gong practitioners without either their consent or the consent of their family members, and whether or not they have been sentenced to death. Moreover, the numbers subject to this license to harvest organs is large, because of the large numbers of non-self-identified Falun Gong practitioners in detention.

Blood Tests

In detention centres, Falun Gong practitioners are frequently given blood tests and medical examinations, while other prisoners (with the exception of Uyghurs, Tibetans and certain House Christian groups who were also targeted) receive no such treatment.

During the investigation, Ethan Gutmann interviewed over 50 Falun Gong practitioners who had been detained in labour camps and prisons in China, many of whom were forcibly given blood tests and unusual examinations. Many similar cases were recorded in Matas’ and Kilgour’s Bloody Harvest. The website Minghui.org publishes many firsthand accounts of Falun Gong practitioners all over China who had gone through such examinations.

In April 2014, in Guizhou, Liaoning, Hunan, Hubei, Beijing and other locations, police entered practitioners’ homes and forcibly took blood samples and cheek swabs. The policemen claimed to be following orders from above.2038 In one month, sixteen practitioners in the Dandong area of Liaoning Province had blood samples forcibly collected by police.2039

Cases of practitioners’ bodies being cremated without the consent of their families continue to be reported on Minghui.org. Hundreds of thousands of Falun Gong practitioners have been displaced or have gone missing.

Allocation of Organs

At the time that Chinese transplants jumped, according to official figures, to 10,000 a year, China did not have an organ allocation system.  The Public Health newspaper reported in September 2003 that Huang Jiefu had held a lecture on China’s organ transplant legislation in Xiangya Third Hospital of Central South University. He suggested that setting up an organ allocation network could resolve the chaotic situation of organ allocation and management. With the participation of the health administrative department, an organ allocation network at the provincial, regional and national levels could be gradually formed. The deployment of the network would

“prevent back-and-forth transportation of source organs and cut the surgical cost by half. Also, transplant quality can be greatly improved, because the waiting time can be shortened.”2040

“With the participation of the health administrative department, a donor allocation network at the provincial, regional and national levels could be gradually formed. The deployment of the network would prevent back-and-forth transportation of source organs and cut the surgical cost by half. Also, transplant quality can be greatly improved, because the waiting time can be shortened.”

Given that this proposal was being made a full decade before an organ donation system was established in China, Huang Jiefu must have been referring to organs from prisoners.

On March 31, 2006, a person identified as a senior military doctor who belonged to the General Logistics Department of the Shenyang Military Command wrote to the Epoch Times:

It only takes a day to transfer 5,000 people using a closed train. I witnessed the transfer from Tianjin to Jilin. There was a train that moved over 7,000 people during the night, escorted by heavily armed security personnel.”2041

The website Minghui.org publishes many firsthand accounts of Falun Gong practitioners all over China who had gone through such transfers.

II. PARTY AND GOVERNMENT AGENCIES

610 Office and Political and Legal Affairs Committee

In March 2015, Phoenix Satellite Television, a Hong Kong-based mandarin language station authorized by the Chinese government to broadcast in mainland China, published an interview with Huang Jiefu.2042 Huang said:

“When we decided to stop the reliance on executed prisoners for organ transplants [it was] the most helpless period we’ve been in….Using prisoner organs, this kind of situation naturally would come to have all kinds of murky and difficult problems in it. Do you know the meaning of my words? …. It became filthy, it became murky and intractable, it became an extremely sensitive, extremely complicated area, basically a forbidden area.”

He mentioned that because of the downfall of a ‘big tiger’ in the anti-corruption campaign, it is now possible to touch this forbidden area. When asked which “big tiger” he was referring to, Huang answered:

“It’s just so clear. Everyone knows the big tiger. Zhou Yongkang is the big tiger; he was our general secretary of the national Political and Legal Affairs Committee, and a formerly member of the Politburo Standing Committee. Everyone knows this….So as for where executed prisoner organs come from, isn’t it very clear?”

The Political and Legal Affairs Committee was established in September 1949 to direct the work of the Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of Justice, Committee for Social and Legal Affairs, and the Ethnic Affairs Commission.2043

On June 10, 1999, before the campaign against Falun Gong was officially launched, the Chinese Communist Party created a “Central leading group to handle the Falun Gong issue,” under which an “Office of the leading group to handle the Falun Gong issue” was established. It is internally known as the “610 Office,” deriving its name from the date of its founding, June 10th, 1999. With a structure extending from top to bottom throughout the Party, government, and military, it has the power to command all police and judicial organs. This organization is akin to the Chinese Communist Party’s Central Cultural Revolution Group, and is dedicated to carrying out the systematic eradication of the practice of Falun Gong. It is an ad hoc agency at the highest levels endowed with extraordinary and extralegal power. It later changed its name to the Central Leading Group on Dealing with Heretical Religions or Office of Maintaining Stability. The organization is directly under the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee.2044

Figure 12.12: 610 Office & Chinese Communist Party Political Legal Committees organization 2045

 

The 610 Office is the main organization created by the Communist Party to eliminate Falun Gong. It is nominally subordinate to the Political and Legal Affairs Committee. The Committee’s purview was expanded after the 610 Office was incorporated into it. The Committee and, in consequence, the 610 office, oversees the public security bureau, the procuratorate, and judicial systems.

The Political and Legal Affairs Committee and 610 office have the power to control personnel and resources in the police, Ministry of State Security, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the fields of finance, culture, education, science and technology, and health departments throughout the country. The regime mobilized the entire state apparatus in the campaign against Falun Gong.2046

A propaganda campaign has been a key tool in the suppression of Falun Gong. Since the persecution began in July 1999, the 610 Office has used the country’s newspapers, television stations, radio stations, websites, and loudspeakers in rural areas to broadcast anti-Falun Gong propaganda. It also has used Xinhua News Agency, China News Service, China News Agency, Party-controlled media overseas, and Chinese consulates to spread this propaganda globally.

The demonization of Falun Gong provided a basis on which crimes against practitioners could be justified. In 2002, Jiang Zemin promoted Zhou Yongkang (who did not have prior experience in the public security system) from Party Secretary of Sichuan Province to Minister of Public Security, as well as Deputy Secretary of the Central Political and Legal Affairs Committee, in which role he cooperated with Committee Party Secretary Luo Gan to implement the suppression of Falun Gong nationwide.2047

Zhou made the capture and repression of Falun Gong a major focus of domestic security work in China. During his tenure the quantity of transplants taking place in China – sourced from Falun Gong – continued to grow rapidly.

Judicial systems sold organs to the transplant centres. Forensic hospitals actively conducted organ transplant. Special institutions under Public Security Bureaus, such as, Wang Lijun’s Jinzhou and Chongqing Public Security Bureau On-Site Psychology Research Centres, carried out organ transplantation and human body experiments on a large scale.

During the Communist Party’s 17th National Congress in October 2007, Zhou Yongkang replaced Luo Gan as the Party Secretary of the Political and Legal Affairs Committee. Zhou became head of the “Central leading group to handle the Falun Gong issue” and was placed on the Party’s highest strategic tier—the Politburo Standing Committee. At the end of 2013, the new Chinese Communist Party leadership removed Zhou Yongkang under charges of corruption and plotting to stage a coup. But the machinery of the Falun Gong persecution has not stopped.

Ministry of Health, National Population and Family Planning Commission, and Others

The Ministry of Health (MOH) and later the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NPFPC) led the health care system in the transplantation of organs. In organizing, driving, and directly carrying out such activities, these agencies are fully responsible for overall planning, making policies, regulating and managing China’s human organ transplant industry and the organ donation and allocation system.2048

These agencies centrally coordinate and guide the Chinese organ transplantation systems: procurement and allocation, clinical care and services, post-operative registration, oversight, and donation. These agencies also organize and implement training and sharing in the regulations, policies, and techniques for transplantation. In particular, they evaluate the qualifications of the transplant institutions, as well as the capabilities and management of clinical practices. They also grant and manage permits to the qualified transplant centres.

Since organ transplantation has been made a high priority in the Chinese Communist Party’s national strategy and heavily emphasized as a future emerging industry, a large number of organ transplant projects have been funded under major national programs. The Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education, other departments, and the military have invested heavily in research, development, and personnel training in transplantation technology to meet the needs of this rapidly-growing industry. New capabilities and techniques have emerged and been extensively spreading, allowing live organ transplantation in China to grow into a large, industrialized operation in less than two decades.

In March 2013, at the Twelfth National People’s Congress, the former Ministry of Health and the National Population and Family Planning Commission were dissolved, and Huang Jiefu was relieved from his position as Deputy Minister of Health. Meanwhile, a new National Health and Family Planning Commission was founded.2049 Huang Jiefu served as chairman of the China Organ Transplant Board. He was the chief editor of 11 surgery monographs and participated in the editing of 5 surgery monographs.2050 On March 1, 2014, China Human Organ Donation and Transplantation Commission announced its establishment. It declared that, under the leadership of the National Health and Family Planning Commission and the China Red Cross Society, the Commission would work as a central management unit to guide and oversee the human organ transplant and donation system in China. Huang Jiefu was named the Commission’s director.2051 Since then, Huang Jiefu has been the spokesperson for China in the field of organ transplantation.

Huang’s new title, director of the Chinese Human Organ Donation and Transplant Committee,2052 is not an official designation, according to Communist Party personnel information. The news section of the official Chinese Communist Party leadership repository lists Huang’s titles as “former Deputy Minister of Health” and “deputy director of the Central Health Committee.”2053 It is also germane that on the website of the National Health and Family Planning Commission the “Chinese Human Organ Donation and Transplantation Commission” established in 2014 is not listed under any departmental structure. 2054 Even though described as the central management agency for transplantation in China, the agency does not have an official website. It was announced at the inaugural meeting that its secretariat belongs to the National Health and Family Planning Commission. The Transplantation Commission appears to be a shell organization with no dedicated personnel or offices.

Huang Jiefu’s announced that China will discontinue the use of organs from prisoners on January 1, 2015. That announcement, itself, has no legal effect and cannot be traced to any officially promulgated policy statements or laws. The State Council’s Human Organ Transplant Ordinance promulgated on March 21, 2007, did not abolish the Provisional Regulations of 1984 2055 which allow the sourcing of organs from prisoners without consent. The1984 Provisional Regulations are still valid today.2056

The Military

The People’s Liberation Army is controlled by the Chinese Communist Party and is one of the few militaries in the world that belong to a party rather than the State. It is a tool used to sustain the Chinese Communist Party’s control over China.

From 1999 to May 2006, the Chinese Communist Party Central Military Commission held six special meetings on “handling foreign-related religious issues,” which mainly targeted Falun Gong.2057 The General Logistics Department was authorized as the core unit to lead every level of the military to eradicate the practice of Falun Gong including the power to manage the secret detention facilities and the process of live organ harvesting.

According to an investigation by the World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong, over 100 different military hospitals have developed or expanded their organ transplant facilities, with over 2,000 medical personnel involved.2058 These include military general hospitals which belong directly to the Central Military Commission, all military branch general hospitals, general hospitals which belong to the seven regional military commands, hospitals affiliated with military medical universities, military hospitals coded with numbers, and armed police general hospitals. The transplant volume performed by Chinese military hospitals is the largest of any military in the world. They also play a role in resolving core technical issues in organ transplantation and supporting civilian hospitals with living organ supplies and technical assistance.

III. ADMISSIONS

New Whistleblowers

Although whistleblowers have played an important role in our previous investigations, it is important to note that they often could only fill in one piece of the puzzle. Surgeon Enver Tohti only knew that he was told to take out the liver of a living human being. He didn’t know why the man was being executed.2059

“Annie”, who made a public statement about the organ harvesting of Falun Gong practitioners in March 2006,2060 was an employee at Sujiatun Hospital and knew that the requests for goods such as toilet paper and rice were going through the roof. The supplies were sufficient not just for her hospital but also for a second hospital full of patients. Ultimately, her husband, a surgeon, told her that the hospital was housing practitioners of Falun Gong and murdering them for their organs in large numbers.2061

Dr. Ko Wen-je was simply inquiring about the price and quality of organs on behalf of his clinic in Taiwan. He did not expect to be told that all of the organs would come from Falun Gong.2062

What distinguishes the whistleblowers we highlight in this section is that they know much more about the entire landscape of organ harvesting than these other whistleblowers did. They are also harder to vet. In the case of the first three witnesses below, they are only slightly better than anonymous electronic communications. In the case of the investigative phone calls set out after the first three below, the situation is better; the calls were recorded, the officials are known, and one could theoretically match the voice signatures.

A Military Doctor in Shenyang

On March 31, 2006, a person who identified himself as a senior military doctor who belonged to the General Logistics Department of the Shenyang Military Command wrote to the Epoch Times:2063

“Sujiatun is one of 36 similar secret detention facilities. From the information I can access, Jilin has the largest camp that detains Falun Gong practitioners, with the code of 672-S. There are more than 120,000 people detained there, including Falun Gong people from throughout the country, serious offenders, and political prisoners. Just the Jilin Jiutai region, which has the fifth-largest secret detention facilities holding Falun Gong practitioners, detained more than 14,000 of them.”

According to this military doctor, who indicated that he has chosen to remain anonymous for his safety:

“the Chinese Communist Party Central Military Commission had documentation since 1962, and has followed through to today, that all death row and serious offenders can be treated according to the needs of national and socialist development and can be dealt with according to the ‘revolutionary protocol.’”

“The seizure of organs from serious offenders was legalized by a supplementary regulation enacted in 1984. Many local public security departments deal with this either by directly transplanting from these people and cremating them afterwards, or by wounding them, forming death rituals, directly transplanting, and then cremating. After 1992, with the rising costs of industrial raw materials as a result of the development of many industries, human bodies became a valuable raw material. Both living bodies and corpses became raw materials.”

“At present, the Chinese Communist Party Central defines Falun Gong members as a class enemy. This means that there is no need to report if they are treated in line with the needs of economic development. In other words, like serious offenders, Falun Gong people are no longer seen as human beings, but raw materials for products, and they became a commodity.”

He wrote again to the Epoch Times in April 2006 to give more details of the process:

“Anyone targeted for organ transplantation would be taken away from prisons, forced labour camps, detention centres, secret camps, etc. At that point, their real name would be replaced with a code corresponding to a forged voluntary organ’s name … the next step would be to undergo the live organ transplant … this person is no longer seen as a human being, but an animal. [Doctors] who have performed one or two cases may still have some lingering fear, but after tens of thousands of live transplants and destroying the bodies, one becomes numb.”2064

“All organ sources targeted are said to be voluntary. Falun Gong and other inmates use their real names during custody. However, a forged name is used during organ transplantation. They become a fictitious person, but this person’s information is complete. There was also a signature on the voluntary organ donation form, but of course it was signed by someone else.”

“I have seen more than 60,000 such counterfeit forms. Basically, it says that the person voluntarily donates the organ and bears all the consequences. Many signatures were from same person’s handwriting.”

“These materials will be kept for 18 months and be destroyed afterwards. They are kept at the provincial level of military commands and can be accessed only with approval from the commissioner(s) of the Central Military Commission.”

“In fact, the number of underground, unofficial organ transplants in China is several times higher than the official figures. With an abundant source of living organs, many hospitals with military backgrounds also engage in large-scale organ transplantation in private, in addition to the official reports they submit to their superiors.”

“China is the center of international live organ trading, and has accounted for more than 85% of the total number of live organ transplants in the world since 2000. According to the data reported to the Central Military Commission, a few people have been promoted and became Generals due to their ‘achievements’ in this field. ”

“The military acts as the organ transplantation management system. This type of management and organizational core belongs to the military system. This is something that the local government cannot match, because once it becomes a military secret, no one can acquire the information. We all understand how the military system works. There is a huge source of living organs, and many military hospitals report their transplants to their supervising authorities. At the same time, they also carry out organ transplants on a large scale in private. This leads to the fact that actual numbers are much higher than the official statistics.”

“The Central Military Commission authorizes relevant military personnel and units to manage military affairs. All related information is regarded as military secrets. Personnel responsible for military control have the authority to arrest, detain or execute any doctors, police, armed police, and researchers who leak information.”

A Healthcare Worker in Jinan

On April 14, 2006, a healthcare worker who worked in Jinan healthcare system for more than 20 years wrote to the Falun Gong information website Minghui.org:

“the Shandong Qianfoshan Hospital and the Police General Hospital of Shandong Province colluded with the prisons and forced labour camps in a large-scale operation to conduct live organ harvesting for transplants. The bodies of Falun Gong practitioners were used for hospitals’ interns to conduct experiments. The hospital obtained directives from the Central and was fully involved.”2065

“Both the Shandong Qianfoshan Hospital and the Shandong Police General Hospital (commonly known as Laogai Hospital, since such hospitals belong to the labour camp system) directly participated in organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners. These hospitals received and fully cooperated with instructions directly from the central level of the Communist Party. Many transplants using organs from living practitioners were performed by these two hospitals, which partnered with Shandong Provincial Prison, Shandong Province Women’s Prison, and other prisons and forced labour camps. These institutions streamlined the supply of organs, including surgeons, extraction of organs, transplantation, distribution of profit, etc.”

“Qianfoshan Hospital partnered with the Tianjin Oriental Organ Transplant Centre to establish the Shandong Liver Transplant Institute. It boasted the largest transplant volume and the most advanced technology in liver transplantation in the province. The centre also performed kidney, testicular, lung, and corneal transplants.”

The hospital has a capacity of 800 beds. It has over 300 senior technical personnel, 44 doctoral and graduate advisors, and more than 90 part-time professors from Shandong University. These faculty members have clinical teaching responsibilities in not only Shandong University’s clinical medical school, but also Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Weifang Medical College, Taishan Medical College, Binzhou Medical College, Shandong Province Nursing School, and other institutions.

An Armed Police Officer in Jinzhou

On December 10, 2009, an armed police officer in Jinzhou, Liaoning Province reported and testified via phone to the World Organization to Investigate Persecution of Falun Gong that he had guarded one of the organ harvesting sites and personally witnessed the entire scene of two military doctors excising organs from a female Falun Gong practitioner. 2066

The armed guard was an eyewitness to a surgery on April 9, 2002, in an operating room on the 15th floor of the General Hospital of Shenyang Military Command, People’s Liberation Army. He observed two military doctors extract organs from a female Falun Gong practitioner. The Military Identification No. of one of the doctors is 0106069. The victim was a middle school teacher in her thirties. Before the doctors killed her, she had been subjected to a month of severe torture, molestation and rape. He stated:

“No anesthetic was given. The knife dug straight into the chest. Their hands didn’t even shake. If it were me, my hands would definitely shake…”

In 2002, this witness worked in the Liaoning Province Public Security system and participated in the arrest and torture of Falun Gong practitioners, including this female practitioner. She was covered in wounds from the ordeal. On April 9, 2002, the Liaoning Public Security department sent two military doctors to the scene – one from the Shenyang Military Command General Hospital and another who had graduated from the Second Military Medical University. This female practitioner was fully conscious when her heart, kidney, and other organs were removed without anesthesia. The witness, armed with gun, guarded the scene throughout the whole process. He also stated that Wang Lijun, head of Jinzhou City Public Security, gave an order that they “must destroy Falun Gong practitioners completely.”

A Vice President of a Medical University and Official of the Ministry of Public Security

In 2014 and 2015, Yang Guang, a China expert who resides in Denmark, reported to the Epoch Times and New Tang Dynasty Television about two of his friends. One of his friends was a vice president of a medical university in northeastern China, in charge of logistics for its two affiliated hospitals. Before 2009, he was put in charge of the two hospitals, each of which conducted 2,000 to 3,000 organ transplants every year. The real name and former workplaces of Mr. Yang’s first friend were verifiable online. There was no attempt to contact the witness, because of the dangers to which the contact would expose him. The hospitals’ and witness’s names are redacted for safety concerns.

Below are excerpts of the account of the first friend:

“The two affiliated hospitals of our university conducted 2,000 to 3,000 organ transplantation surgeries each year. Due to a pool of living organ sources, tissue matching took less than a month, sometimes as short as 48 hours…The 610 Office (the Communist Party bureaucracy charged with eradication of Falun Gong) transported organ sources to the hospitals in prisoner transport vehicles. Once the tissue matching was verified, the transplants were performed. After the surgeries, the bodies were cremated…We only get serial numbers [of the “organ sources”] and knew only that they were Falun Gong practitioners. Such cases accounted for 90% of transplants in the hospitals. The whole process was monitored by the members of 610 Office…We were strictly required to keep secret. All the serial numbers and data of organ transplants were reported to the supervising Chinese Communist Party Committee at the end of each year, and then were removed from our computers under the supervision of 610 Office personnel.”2067

“Since 2000, the 610 Office started to supply us such kind of organs of Falun Gong practitioners. There were no names and addresses, just their gender, age, and a serial number. Whenever our hospitals sent medical teams to collect blood samples from the prisons, labour camps, and brainwashing centres, I had to prepare the tools, drugs, coolers and provide transportation. I have the complete records in hand…The military and police hospitals usually conduct more transplants than civilian hospitals.”

The vice president added, the actual death row prisoners, criminals who had been sentenced to death account for only a small number of the organs procured. 2068 Even in the ten biggest cities in China, no more than fifty prisoners were executed annually. Senior Chinese Communist Party officials and their relatives refuse to accept organs from executed prisoners. Those organs were usually reserved for foreigners who come to China for organ transplants. Prices for foreigners are not fixed—in some cases, those with money, desperate for an organ, have been charged up to $2 million for a transplantation and hospital stay.

Yang’s other friend worked at the Ministry of Public Security and was in charge of informant stations of a major city on the coast of mainland China. During the New Year holidays in 2012, he told Yang that as far as he knew, over the past decade, at least 500,000 Falun Gong practitioners’ organs were harvested for transplants in civilian hospitals in China. This number did not include the portion from the hospitals affiliated with the armed police, military, and public security. The statistics of these hospitals were top secret and even the personnel in the Ministry of Public Security could not obtain them.2069

Phone Calls

Since Anne made her public statement about live organ harvesting in March 2006, the World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong has documented more than 2,000 recorded phone interviews with members of the judiciary, military, armed police, and organ transplant centres in 31 provinces, municipalities directly under central government and autonomous regions.

The targets of investigation include members of the Politburo and the Politburo Standing Committee, the Vice Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party Central Military Commission, a CMC member and former defense minister, a former head of the People’s Liberation Army General Logistics Department’s Health Division, members of central and local Political and Legal Affairs Committees, agents of the 610 Office, transplant doctors in military and civilian hospitals all over China, and an organ broker.

Chen Qiang, Organ Liaison at People’s Liberation Army No. 307 Hospital

In Fengtai, Beijing, Chen Qiang, a People’s Liberation Army 307 Hospital’s kidney source liaison personnel, provided further evidence that many Falun Gong practitioners who went to appeal to the central government were secretly detained, given a code, and became living organ sources.2070

The following is part of the recorded dialogue between Chen Qiang and an investigator under the guise of a relative of a patient looking for organs (April 10, 2007, 3:09-3:28am EDT):

Investigator: …by the way, how could you be so sure he [the source] was a Falun Gong practitioner? Did you find out for sure?

Chen:  How to identify a Falun Gong practitioner? Well, when the time comes, then our side, our boss will have people showing you information, you know. He will show you the information and data. You can be sure. We have connections with government officials. There are connections to high ranking officials. You know, I will show you such material even if you don’t ask me for it.

Investigator: I heard from others that, several years ago, the Falun Gong practitioners did not disclose their names after they were taken away. There are quite many who belong to this type. Some were kept in the basement, and some are detained in neither prison nor forced labour camps.

Chen: What you said was what happened in 2003. I understand what you said. Those who didn’t provide their names were in the 2003 records. You need to find them from the 2003 archival records.

Investigator: Were there many in 2003?

Chen: Oh yes. In 2003 records, there were many Falun Gong people.

Investigator: You know that several years ago, they secretly detained many Falun Gong practitioners who went to appeal but did not provide their names. There were no records, no registrations.

Chen:  Yes, this is quite normal. If Falun Gong practitioners did not give their names, they would be given a code. If their names couldn’t be identified, there would be their code numbers. Also, one can be tracked by fingerprints. That’s how the source can be tracked. Nowadays in our society, especially for these types of matters…like our boss, like the connections to the detention centres, I cannot tell you. For situations like what you said, I cannot say casually. We have close relationships with them. Since we are engaging in this business, we have our people in each and every department. How can you get things done if we don’t have our connections? This thing is just like a supply line, you know?

Bai Shuzhong

On September 30th, 2014, Bai Shuzhong,2071 former head of the People’s Liberation Army General Logistics Department Health Division, spoke to a World Organization to Investigate Persecution of Falun Gong investigator who assumed the identity of a Party investigator and proceeded to ask Bai pointed questions about living organ harvesting. Bai served from 1998 to 2004, and, as the top officer leading core institutions of the military health system, he would have been the main person responsible for conveying instructions to implement policy.

Investigator: When you were head of the health division for the People’s Liberation Army General Logistics Department, regarding taking organs from the detained Falun Gong people for organ transplantation, was it an order from Wang Ke, the then-director of the People’s Liberation Army General Logistics Department? Or did it directly come from the Central Military Commission?

Bai: Back then, it was Chairman Jiang … There was an instruction … to carry out this thing, that is, organ transplantation …, Chairman Jiang had an instruction that said this… about people selling kidneys for transplant surgeries. This, I should say, was not just the military that was doing kidney transplants.

Investigator: We also obtained some intelligence, that is to say back then, the Joint Logistics Departments [of the Military Regions] had detained a number of Falun Gong people as “live organs”. Is that true?

Bai: This, this is back then, ah, I think, at least this is how I remembered, because back then after Chairman Jiang issued instructions, we all did a lot of work against the Falun Gong practitioners.

Investigator: You guys [the People’s Liberation Army General Logistics Department] and the Joint Logistics Department No. 1, Joint Logistics Department No. 2, including the Joint Logistics Department No. 40 subdivision, and the military hospitals they were in charge of, do you have a supervisory relationship with them?

Bai: We directly control the military medical universities. They are directly affiliated with the People’s Liberation Army General Logistics Department, and they received repeated orders, because Jiang paid a lot of attention to this matter back then, and put a lot of emphasis on this matter … Jiang, when he was in the position, put a lot of emphasis, he gave instruction on this.

Chinese Communist Party Officials

The World Organization to Investigate Persecution of Falun Gong investigated a number of Politburo Standing Committee members, a vice chairman of the Chinese Communist Party Central Military Commission, and a Central Military Commission member.2072

Li Changchun 2073

On April 17, 2012, Li Changchun, a Politburo Standing Committee member, was asked by an investigator who assumed the identity of the chief secretary of Luo Dan about “the use of organs from detained Falun Gong practitioners for organ transplants and possible conviction of Bo Xilai for doing that.” Li replied, “Zhou Yongkang is in charge of this specifically. He knows this.”

Liang Guanglie 2074

From May 4 to May 10, 2012, Liang Guanglie, former Secretary of Defense, former People’s Liberation Army Chief of Staff, and member of the Central Military Commission, was investigated by the World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong during a visit to the U.S. The investigator had assumed the identity of a member of special group investigating Wang Lijun. Regarding the Grade 3A military hospitals using Falun Gong practitioners’ organs for transplants, Liang replied, “I’ve heard about it …I did not take care of that thing. I was in charge of military affairs, instead of the logistics and medically related [affairs].” When asked about this, he stated that “it was discussed” during the Central Military Commission meeting.

Wei Jianrong 2075

In September 2008, Wei Jianrong, former deputy director of the central Political and Legal Affairs Committee, Chinese Communist Party stated that organ harvesting from detained Falun Gong practitioners had “happened a long time ago.” The investigator had assumed the identity of an official of the Ministry of State Security.

Tang Junjie 2076

In April 2012, when answering the investigator’s question on “what kind of directions or commands did Bo give regarding removing organs from Falun Gong practitioners?” Tang Junjie, former Deputy Party Secretary of the Liaoning Political and Legal Affairs Committee, said, “I was asked to take care of this task. The Party’s central [leadership] is actually taking care of this. The impact was quite big…” He added, “At that time we mainly talked about it during the meetings within the [Politburo] Standing Committee.”

During this investigation, the investigator of World Organization to Investigate Persecution of the Falun Gong assumed the identity of a member of the Bo Xilai special investigation group under the Committee for Disciplinary Inspection of the Chinese Communist Party.

IV. PARTY POLICY AND TRANSPLANT VOLUME

This is a story which begins in mystery and ends in mass murder. From where do all the organs for transplants come in China?

China, for most of its transplant history, did not have a donation system at all. China now has a donation system which produces almost no donations, so that is not the answer. Because of the availability of organs with short waiting times and the absence of a law sourcing organs from brain dead cardiac alive patients, the answer is not accident victims. Because of disease in the prison population, the need for blood type compatibility, a law which requires execution seven days after the sentence, and the decreasing number of persons sentenced to death, the answer, for the most part, is not death penalty criminals.

So what is the answer? The answer is mostly innocents, prisoners of conscience, Tibetans, Uyghurs, select House Christians and, most of all, Falun Gong practitioners.

What is driving this mass murder? Is it the Chinese Communist Party and its abhorrence of Falun Gong? Or is it the demand for organs and needs of the health system, particularly the military hospitals, for funding? Did the Party lead the health system in these mass killings, or did the health system take advantage of a vulnerable population that the Party had made available for exploitation?

The constitution of China refers to “the Chinese people of all nationalities led by the Chinese Communist Party” or “under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party” six different times. When something occurs in China as systematic and widespread and in such great numbers as the killing of Falun Gong for their organs, it is a denial of the reality of China to ascribe leadership to anything but the Chinese Communist Party. When the Chinese Communist Party issues an order that Falun Gong must be physically destroyed, as it has done, it is not too big a leap to conclude that the Communist Party has ordered that Falun Gong be physically destroyed through organ harvesting.

This explanation concludes that the large-scale organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners was directly ordered by the Standing Committee of the Party and implemented by both military and civilian institutions. Through various levels of the 610 Office, the Party established a unified chain of operations to enable harvesting of organs on demand. The People’s Liberation Army General Logistics Department has served as the core operations unit, with cooperation from other military units, armed police, Political and Legal Affairs Committee at different levels, the medical system, and organ brokers.

Through this chain of operations, practitioners arrested when petitioning in Beijing and those detained across the country were forced to undergo blood tests and other medical examinations. The results were registered in a database of living organ sources to enable quick tissue matching for allocation. The People’s Liberation Army General Logistics Department operates in a centralized and secretive mode, allocating detention facilities, distribution, transportation, delivery, security, and accounting of supplied organs.2077 Under the direction of the Chinese Communist Party’s leadership, led by the military, organized and driven first by the Ministry of Health and later by its successor, the National Health and Family Planning Commission, China’s transplant centres grew rapidly.

The alternative is that the Party passively acquiesced to mass killings led by the transplant profession and the hospitals in search of funding and, perversely, reputation, and by patients who did not care who was killed as long as they could live. Greed, selfishness and institutional demands drove the health system to pillage the organs of a marginalized, dehumanized minority. The large sums patients paid for organs went not just to medical personnel and hospitals, but also, in part, to prison, labour camp and detention centre guards who handed over Falun Gong detainees. Corruption has become pervasive in China, and the killing of Falun Gong for their organs is one aspect of it.

The massive organ supply available from Falun Gong practitioners was, to hospitals and transplant professionals, an opportunity. Hospitals grasped the opportunity. They innovated continuously in transplant capabilities and technology. The innovations became standardized and shared among the hospitals. Within a few years, liver and kidney transplants became routine clinical surgery. Organ transplantation techniques and volume increased rapidly. National level transplant centres popularized their clinical technology throughout the country, trained a large number of transplant doctors, and led the exponential growth of China’s transplant industry.

A third explanation is a synthesis of the previous two. The Communist Party’s demonization and brutalization of Falun Gong and the health system’s insatiable demand for organs have lived in China in symbiosis. Each feeds off the other. The combination is a human rights and humanitarian disaster.

Before 2000, the technology in kidney and liver transplants had matured through the sourcing of organs from prisoners sentenced to death and prisoners of conscience. The repression of Falun Gong opened up a mass organ supply. If the Chinese Communist Party had not approved and supported the mass killing of Falun Gong for their organs, it would not have been possible for the transplant profession and the hospitals to participate in and benefit from these killings. Unless transplant professionals and hospitals were motivated for their own reasons to transplant organs without regard to their source, a Party-driven policy of killing Falun Gong for their organs would have not gone very far.

As noted earlier incentives to growth in transplant volume are supported by the Party’s national strategic planning. Since 2001, the Party has incorporated organ transplantation into its Five-Year Plans.

In an interview with Phoenix TV on January 11, 2015,2078 former Deputy Health Minister Huang Jiefu was asked these questions and gave these answers:

Reporter: Minister Huang, have you ever taken organs from executed prisoners?

Huang: I said I went there once, but I was not the one who did the extraction. But after that one time, I did not want to go again. I am a doctor. Doctor has a moral bottom line, which is respecting life and helping the sick. This must be done in sacred places. Otherwise, it is against the moral bottom line of a doctor.

Reporter: Do you remember which year it was?

Huang: 1994.

Reporter: Was that the first year you did a human organ transplant?f

Huang: First year. Because organ transplant is divided into two teams. One is the organ team, who extracts the organs. One is the recipient team, who transplants the organs.

Reporter: You?

Huang: I am in the recipient team. I’ve never been in the organ team. But I did go once to see how they do it. So, I have only been there once. After that time, I never wanted to have anything to do with the organ team. But I feel that I needed to change it.

Reporter: When you help the recipient, you think it is saving a life. But do you try not to think about the “organ”?

Huang: The majority of the transplant surgeons feel helpless. On the one hand, you face the patient who has a failing organ. As a doctor, you have the ability and responsibility to save people. But the other side of the story, when you think about the organ source, you feel helpless.

In criminal law, the term for this behavior is willful blindness. A person who commits a criminal act and is willfully blind is as guilty of a crime as a person who commits the act with full knowledge.

Huang said that he felt helpless. However, he was not helpless. He could have said “no” to participating in organ transplantation using an organ from an improper source. If Huang truly “never wanted to have anything to do with the organ team,” then he could have stopped performing transplants. The notion that he has nothing to do with the organ team, when he is taking organs from the organ team, is a fantasy. If organ harvesting goes against the moral bottom line of a doctor, and in this case Huang stated that it did, then using an organ from an improper source also goes against the moral bottom line of the doctor. There is no difference in the morality of harvesting from an improper source and transplanting an organ harvested from a source which the transplanting doctor knows to be improper or to which the transplanting doctor is willfully blind.

Health workers went along. The detailed testimony of the Uyghur surgeon, Dr. Enver Tohti, tells us there were professional consequences for not going along. There were lucrative benefits for cooperating. Some rationalized their behavior by claiming that they were changing the system from within.

Live organ transplants from prisoners of conscience have been taking place since at least 1997. Live organ transplants of scale, and thus, from Falun Gong practitioners, have been taking place for 16 years, and counting. Although a few kingpins of harvesting such as Bo Xilai, Wang Lijun and Zhou Yongkang were arrested and jailed (using pretexts and not organ harvesting,) the reform never came. And that is a tragedy for the Chinese people.

The Chinese transplant system needs to be reformed. However, such reform is difficult in its current context—an autocratic Communist state in which the abuse and torture of enemies of the state is accepted practice. Stopping the persecution of Falun Gong and other prisoners of conscience, ending the sourcing of transplants from prisoners of conscience, and bringing to justice the perpetrators of organ transplant abuse would mean changing the nature of the Chinese Communist Party. Expecting an organ transplant island of transparency and rule of law in a raging sea of tyranny, repression, cover-up, and incitement is delusional.

Yet there may be a reckoning. Perhaps the Chinese people will have the opportunity judge its former leadership and its medical establishment. Once the reckoning begins, the road to justice will be lined with families, Han Chinese, Uyghurs and Tibetan, who have lost someone.

China has been one of the great cradles of medical innovation, a land where solutions to problems that we think of as novel and modern, developed and thrived. As a singularly great culture, China is second to none in its ingenuity, and, over thousands of years of civilization, it was second to none in its attention to ethics. Today, that ethical spirit may be suppressed and appear to be sleeping, but the ethics and the ethical are still there. Many Chinese people aspire to moral principles. In restoring the ethical and moral baseline, there is no better place to start for both the Chinese and the international community alike than stopping the Chinese organ harvesting juggernaut.

References

1968 Doctor Says He Took Transplant Organs From Executed Chinese Prisoners
By CRAIG S. SMITH   Published: June 29, 2001
http://www.nytimes.com/2001/06/29/world/doctor-says-he-took-transplant-organs-from-executed-chinese-prisoners.html

1969 China to ‘tidy up’ trade in executed prisoners’ organs
Source: Asia Times   December 3 2005   From Jane Macartney in Beijing
http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/news/world/asia/article2612313.ece   50-2

1970 Shenyang Camp Set up Crematoria, Sells Organs of Falun Gong Practitioners   The Epoch Times
http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/6/3/9/n1248687.htm
《大纪元时报》《沈阳集中营设焚尸炉售法轮功学员器官

1971 At the heart of China’s organ trade     May 12, 2006   Bruno Philip
http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/2006/may/12/guardianweekly.guardianweekly11

1972 It is a Rumor That China Performs Transplantation with death-row prisoners’ Organs,
Source: Labor Daily,April 11, 2006
http://news.sina.com.cn/o/2006-04-11/09378666246s.shtml
https://archive.is/y1w1i
2006年4月11日 《东方网-劳动报》 《中国取死刑犯器官移植是谣言》

1973 Government policy and organ transplantation in China,
Source:The Lancet,Author: Huang Jiefu, etc.
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140673608613598/fulltext?isEOP=true
https://archive.is/VHdyK
《中国器官移植的政策》,黄洁夫等,国际医学杂志《柳叶刀》(The Lancet)

1974 Huang Jiefu: Voluntary organ donation by citizens is a continuation of life under the sun,
Source: Phoenix Television   March 16, 2015
http://news.ifeng.com/a/20150316/43349299_0.shtml
https://archive.is/YRmiK
黄洁夫:公民自愿器官捐献是阳光下的生命延续

1975 AI Records of the Number of People Sentenced to Death/Executed in China
http://organharvestinvestigation.net/report0701/report20070131.htm#_ftnref100

1976 The death penalty in China in 2006 Amnesty International   October 8, 2007
http://www.amnesty.org.au/adp/comments/4059/

1977 2007 world death penalty statistics published     Amnesty International   April 15, 2008
http://www.amnesty.org.au/news/comments/11957/

1978 Death Penalty: 2,390 executions in 2008 worldwide, 72 per cent in China.     Amnesty International   March 22, 2009
https://www.amnesty.org/en/press-releases/2009/03/death-penalty-2390-executions-2008-worldwide-72-cent-china-20090324/

1979 Death sentences and executions in 2006
Amnesty International   27 April 2007, Index number: ACT 50/004/2007
https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/act50/004/2007/en/

1980 China to Stop Harvesting Inmate Organs   The Wall Street Journal   By Laurie Burkitt     Updated March 23, 2012
https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/act50/004/2007/en/

1981 Report into Allegations of Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners in China
Source: organharvestinvestigation.net   July 6, 2006   David Matas, David Kilgour
http://www.organharvestinvestigation.net/report0701/report20070131-ch.pdf
《器官移植调查网》2006年7月6日

1982 In 2007 15% of the Death Penalty Case was Dismissed by the Review
Source: china.com.cn   2008-03-09
http://www.china.com.cn/aboutchina/txt/2008-03/09/content_12026073.htm
https://archive.is/pLTVP#selection-743.57-743.60
2007年15%的死刑案经复核被驳回   中国网 china.com.cn   2008-03-09

1983 Dilemma and Resolution Strategy of Sources of Liver Transplantation in China
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy   May 2010, Volume 31, No. 5   Puchao Yu, Chen Hong, Armed Police General Hospital
http://www.docin.com/p-230290924.html
https://archive.is/fEaF6
《我国肝移植肝源的困局及其化解方略》- 作者:武警总医院 蒲朝煜,陈虹
《医学与哲学杂志》 2010年5月第31卷第5期

1984 Interview with Zhu Jiye, Director of Institute of Organ Transplantation at Beijing University, Director of Hepatobiliary Surgery at Beijing University People’s Hospital – Sharing System to Promote Chinese Organ Transplantation Entering the Era of Public Service, China Economic Weekly,2013, No. 5   Liu Yan Qing
http://paper.people.com.cn/zgjjzk/html/2013-09/06/content_1295101.htm
https://archive.is/quP4a
专访北京大学器官移植研究所所长, 北京大学人民医院肝胆外科主任朱继业
共享系统推动中国器官移植进入公益化时代 《中国经济周刊》2013年第34期 记者 刘砚青| 北京报道

1985 Ministry of Health: Two Years Later, Organ Transplantation Will No Longer Depend on Executed Prisoners
Source: china.com.cn   March 5, 2013
http://news.163.com/13/0305/02/8P60BFLF0001124J.html
https://archive.is/rPPNz
《卫生部:两年后器官移植不再依赖死刑犯》 2013年3月5日 《中国网》

1986 China put forward the “Hangzhou resolution” to promote organ transplant system reform
Source: Xinhua net   November 2, 2013
http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/2013-11/02/c_117979498.htm
https://archive.is/SBt59
中国提出“杭州决议”推动器官移植体系改革   2013年11月02日 20:15:10 来源: 新华网

1987 Open Letter to President of China
http://www.tts.org/home-660/newletters/past-newletters/2014-volume-11-issue-1/1585-open-letter-to-president-of-china

1988 David Matas: Flip Flopping in China Over Sourcing Organs From Prisoners
http://www.theepochtimes.com/n3/722649-david-matas-flip-flopping-in-china-over-sourcing-organs-from-prisoners/

1989 China to scrap organ harvesting from executed prisoners, Source: chinadaily.com.cn, Dated:2014-12-04
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2014-12/04/content_19025683.htm
https://archive.is/Cywei

1990 For the First Time, China Releases Organ Donation Guidelines to Prevent Organ Trading,
Xinhua News Agency
http://news.xinhuanet.com/legal/2015-08/24/c_128159262.htm
https://archive.is/3zrpL
《新华网》 –中国首次发布器官捐献指南 杜绝器官买卖

1991 Dilemma and Resolution Strategy of Sources of Liver Transplantation in China
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy   May 2010, Volume 31, No. 5   Puchao Yu, Chen Hong, Armed Police General Hospital
http://www.docin.com/p-230290924.html
https://archive.is/fEaF6
《我国肝移植肝源的困局及其化解方略》作者:武警总医院 蒲朝煜,陈虹,
《医学与哲学杂志》 2010年5月第31卷第5期

1992 Huang Jiefu: I only watched once the organ extraction procedure and felt changed needed Phoenix TV 2015-01-11
http://news.ifeng.com/a/20150111/42906812_0.shtml
https://archive.is/YxJwf
黄洁夫:我只看过一次摘取器官 觉得需要改变 凤凰卫视 2015年01月11日

1993 Sharing System Moves Chinese Organ Transplantation into the Public Welfare Era
China Economic Weekly, 2013, Issue 34     Liu, Yanqing
http://paper.people.com.cn/zgjjzk/html/2013-09/06/content_1295101.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160116163206/http://paper.people.com.cn/zgjjzk/html/2013-09/06/content_1295101.htm

1994 After One Year, No Donations at Nanjing Organ Donation Pilot Program Site
EastDay.com, Source: Yangtze Evening News   February 25, 2011
http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2011-02-25/051122011730.shtml
https://archive.is/nZsLE
2011年2月25日,《东方网》 来源:《扬子晚报》,<一年来南京器官捐献试点无捐献>

1995 Sharing System Moves Chinese Organ Transplantation into the Public Welfare Era
China Economic Weekly, 2013, Issue 34     Liu, Yanqing
http://paper.people.com.cn/zgjjzk/html/2013-09/06/content_1295101.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160116163206/http://paper.people.com.cn/zgjjzk/html/2013-09/06/content_1295101.htm

1996 Organ Donation Pilot Program did not Solve the Dilemma of the Supply and Demand Disparity After Two Year Trial
New Beijing Paper   March 26, 2012
http://news.sciencenet.cn/htmlnews/2012/3/261753.shtm
https://archive.is/fL2bJ
我国器官捐献试点两年未破供求悬殊困局 作者:吴鹏 底东娜 来源:新京报 发布时间:2012-3-26

1997 National Organ Donation Working Meeting     China Red Cross   2013-02-26
http://2010.scredcross.org.cn/html/detail.asp?ID=5151
https://archive.is/hwRFF
全国人体器官捐献工作视频      China Red Cross   2013-02-26

1998 Huang Jiefu: Stopping the sourcing of organs from executed prisoners marks China’s human rights progress
Source: chinanews.com
http://www.chinanews.com/gn/2015/03-11/7120692.shtml
https://archive.is/v7jv9
来源:《中国新闻网》 黄洁夫:取消死囚器官来源标志中国人权事业进步

1999 Sharing System to Promote Chinese Organ Transplantation Entering the Era of Public Service:
Interview with Zhu Jiye, Director of Institute of Organ Transplantation at Beijing University, Director of Hepatobiliary Surgery at Beijing University People’s Hospital
Source: China Economic Weekly   Issue: 34, 2013, No. 5   Liu Yan Qing
http://paper.people.com.cn/zgjjzk/html/2013-09/06/content_1295101.htm
https://archive.is/quP4a
共享系统推动中国器官移植进入公益化时代–专访北京大学器官移植研究所所长, 北京大学人民医院
肝胆外科主任朱继业, 来源:《中国经济周刊》(2013年第34期) 记者 刘砚青

2000 WHO Officials Claim Organ Transplants in China Becoming Transparent   China News Service, Aug 20, 2015
http://www.hb.chinanews.com/news/2015/0820/222847.html
https://archive.is/8OlTf
《中新网》 世卫官员称中国器官移植变得阳光透明   Aug 20, 2015 – 中新社

2001 WHO Officials Claim Organ Transplants in China Becoming Transparent
China News Service, Aug 20, 2015
http://www.hb.chinanews.com/news/2015/0820/222847.html
https://archive.is/8OlTf
《中新网》 世卫官员称中国器官移植变得阳光透明   Aug 20, 2015 – 中新社

2002 Expert: 70% of Hospitals Qualified to Perform Organ Transplants Did Not Purse Organ Donations for Transplants
Source: Caixin.com, Dated: November 29, 2013
http://china.caixin.com/2013-11-29/100611484.html
https://archive.is/Xtyzf
专家:七成器官移植资质医院未推行捐献移植 2013-11-29 15:48【财新网】

2003 “Huang Jiefu: ‘Can death-row prisoners donate organ?’ is a pseudo-proposition”
Beijing Youth Daily. November 23, 2015
http://epaper.ynet.com/html/2015-11/23/content_167300.htm?div=-1
https://archive.is/hSlEd
黄洁夫:死囚可否捐器官是伪命题   《北京青年报》, 2015年11月23日

2004 Many Challenges in Organ Donation,   Guangming Daily   Dated: Sep. 3, 2013, Author: Chen Haibo
http://guancha.gmw.cn/2013-09/03/content_8778961.htm
https://archive.is/4XrRr
器官捐献尚存多种阻力   来源:光明日报, 2013年9月3日, 作者:陈海波

2005 The volume of organ transplants in China did not decrease   WIOPFG, Dated: Dec 20, 2015
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/50795
《追查国际最新调查: 中共活摘法轮功学员器官没停反增》 2015年12月20日更新

2006 Phone audio recording (phone number 86-10-6355-8766) :
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/report/2015/50795_2015_12_06_13-25-37_861063558766bei_jing_shi_hong_hui_juan_xian_zai_chou_jian_-edited-ms.mp3

2007 Phone recording (phone number 86-63-365-880):
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/report/2015/64139_2015_12_17_09-30-25__shang_hai_huang_pu_qu_hong_shi_zi_zhi_you_5li_qi_guan_juan_xian_shi_xian_._862163365880.mp3

2008 Phone recording (phone number 86-22-2731-1180):
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/report/2015/50795_2015_12_11_tian_jin_shi_hong_shi_zi_hui__gong_zuo_ren_yuan_shuo_cong_2003nian_jian_ku_dao_xian_zai_juan_liao_170duo_ge_-edited-pb.mp3

2009 Phone audio recording:
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/report/2015/50795_3-1.1-2015_05_14_he_bei_qin_huang_dao_shi_hong_shi_zi_hui_qi_guan_juan_xian_ban_gong_shi_-you_qian_de_mei_you_shi_shi_juan_xian_de_-pub-2-k.mp3
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/report/2015/50795_3-1.2-2015-5-15-qin_huang_dao_shi_hong_shi_zi_hui_juan_cheng_de_zhi_li_-hou_cheng_qing_juan_cheng_gong_de_huan_mei_you_-pub-2-k.mp3

2010 phone audio recording (phone number 86-135-0371-6066):
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/report/2015/50795_3-2-he_nan_sheng_ren_min_yi_yuan_mi_niao_wai_ke_zhu_ren_liu_zhong_hua_-juan_xian_qi_guan_zhao_bu_dao_-ji_hu_zhao_bu_dao_-pub-2-k.mp3

2011 Phone recording:
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/report/2015/50795_3-4-2015-7-2-jiao_zuo_shi_hong_shi_zi_hui_qi_guan_juan_xian_ban_gong_shi_zhi_yuan_-jin_qin_tong_yi_liao_-yuan_qin_you_ge_bu_tong_yi_jiu_juan_bu_cheng_-pub-2-k.mp3

2012 1.5 Million People in China Waiting to Die – Is China’s Low Organ Donation Rate Due to Lack of Love?
Source: Sohu Health,   December 1, 2008
http://health.sohu.com/20081201/n260956890_1.shtml
https://archive.is/8gz3P
150万人在等死 中国器官捐献率低是因为没爱心?2008年12月01日《搜狐健康》

2013 黎磊石:死亡后器官捐献理论上存在 现实中难做到, 来源:《搜狐健康》,2008年11月27日
http://health.sohu.com/20081127/n260870584.shtml

2014 The Case of “Murder and Organ Theft”    Source: CAIJING Magazine, Dated:September 2, 2009
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/zyienizhonghe/2009-09/3906.htm
https://archive.is/5TBaY
“杀人盗器官”案   《财经》,欧阳洪亮, 贺信, 2009年第18期 总第245期日期:2009年08月31日

2015 In China, 98% of Organ Transplant Sources Controlled by Parties Other Than Ministry of Health
China Liver Transplant Net   Life Week, Sina   April 7, 2006   Guo Na
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/zyieneilifa/2006-04/467.htm
https://archive.is/Ixf9t
中国98%器官移植源控制在非卫生部系统- 中国肝移植网 来源:《三联生活周刊》2006年4月7日

2016 International Transplantation (China) Network Support Center – China’s Actual Organ Transplantation Situation
http://web.archive.org/web/20041207095843/http://www.zoukiishoku.com/cn/china/list/zgqk.htm
《国际移植(中国)网络支援中心》中国脏器移植实际情况

2017 Former Deputy Minister of Health: 38 Hospitals stopped using
Death-Row Prisoners for Organ Transplants  2014-03-05
http://news.china.com.cn/2014lianghui/2014-03/05/content_31674738.htm
https://archive.is/WjyU4
原卫生部副部长:38家医院已停止使用死囚器官     京华时报 发布时间: 2014-03-05

2018 “Govt  seeks fairness in organ  system for inmates”    China Daily USA,  2014 March 07, Shan Juan
http://usa.chinadaily.com.cn/epaper/2014-03/07/content_17331138.htm
https://archive.is/LVEGi

2019 Former Deputy Minister of Health: 38 Hospitals stopped using Death-Row Prisoners for Organ Transplants
Source: Capital Times 2014-03-05
http://news.china.com.cn/2014lianghui/2014-03/05/content_31674738.htm
https://archive.is/WjyU4
原卫生部副部长:38家医院已停止使用死囚器官     京华时报 发布时间: 2014-03-05

2020 China’s semantic trick with prisoner organs,   Source: British Medical
Journal, Dated: 8 Oct, 2015,
By Kirk C Allison, Norbert W Paul, Michael E Shapiro, Charles Els, and Huige Li.
http://blogs.bmj.com/bmj/2015/10/08/chinas-semantic-trick-with-prisoner-organs/

2021 Doubts over China prisoner organ harvesting ban.,  Source:  Agence
France-Presse, Dated: 2015 March 10
http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2015/03/10/doubts-over-china-prisoner-organ-harvesting-ban.html

2022 China Bends Vow, Using Prisoners’ Organs for Transplants ,
Source: The New York Times,   By Didi Kirsten Tatlow,  Dated: November 17, 2015
http://cn.nytimes.com/china/20151117/c17prisoners/en-us/

2023 “China’s Organ Transplant will step into the world” 2015 January 18
CN‑Healthcare

2024 “In the Spotlight: Bleaching Organ Procurement Crimes in China”
ISHLT Links February 2015 Volume 6, Issue 10
http://www.ishlt.org/ContentDocuments/2015FebLinks_Spotlight.html

2025  Number of Falun Gong practitioners in China in 1999: at least 70 million – See more at:
http://faluninfo.net/article/517/Number-of-Falun-Gong-practitioners-in-China-in-1999-at-least-70-million/#sthash.FUe8zweP.dpuf
http://faluninfo.net/article/517/Number-of-Falun-Gong-practitioners-in-China-in-1999-at-least-70-million/

2026  Bloody Harvest: Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners in China (Revised Edition)
January 1, 2007      David Matas, David Kilgour
http://bloodyharvest.info/
http://www.organharvestinvestigation.net/report0701/report20070131-ch.pdf
《血淋淋的器官摘取——关于指控中共摘取法轮功学员器官的独立调查报告修订版》
作者:大卫·麦塔斯及大卫·乔高,    2007年1月  第 16页

2027 Bloody Harvest  23) Massive arrests     David Matas, David Kilgour
http://organharvestinvestigation.net/report0701/report20070131.htm#_Toc160145135

2028 Bloody Harvest      25) Unidentified   David Matas, David Kilgour
http://organharvestinvestigation.net/report0701/report20070131.htm#_Toc160145137

2029 More than 670 prisons in China detain more than 1.5 million inmates
Chinanews.com   October 26, 2004
http://www.chinanews.com/news/2004/2004-10-26/26/498645.shtml
https://archive.is/PN0Fm#selection-415.0-415.17
中国监狱670多所在押150多万人 罪犯改好率超90%   Chinanews.com   2004年10月26日

2030 The Sixth Annual Conference of International Corrections and Prisons
Association Held in Beijing
http://www.moj.gov.cn/jcgzzds/content/2005-05/17/content_133959.htm?node=288
https://archive.is/PLQIa
国际矫正与监狱协会第六届年会在京举行 2005-05-17

2031 More than 300 labor camps and more than 50,000 detention police facing function and job transition
Yanzhao Evening News   November 21, 2013
http://www.dffyw.com/fayanguancha/sh/201311/34418.html
https://archive.is/tFZF1
300多家劳教所5万余名劳教警察面临转型转岗

2032 Laogai: The Machinery of Repression in China  2009-10-01
http://www.amazon.com/Laogai-The-Machinery-Repression-China/dp/1884167772

2033 Congressional-Executive Commission on China – 2008 Annual Report
http://www.cecc.gov/publications/annual-reports/2008-annual-report
77

2034  On the Chinese Communist Party’s Murder Industry in Recent Years, Part 1
Source: Minghui.org   May 5, 2006
http://www.clearwisdom.net/emh/articles/2006/5/20/73525.html   check WOIPFG link or google search original links
看近年来中共的杀人产业(上) 【明慧网】
http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/5/5/%E7%9C%8B%E8%BF%91%E5%B9%B4%E6%9D%A5%E4%B8%AD%E5%85%B1%E7%9A%84%E6%9D%80%E4%BA%BA%E4%BA%A7%E4%B8%9A%EF%BC%88%E4%B8%8A%EF%BC%89-126892.html

2035 Chinese Gov’t Plan to “Eradicate Falun Gong in 3 Months” August 30, 2000 (Falun Dafa Information Center)
http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2000/8/31/7247.html

2036  “My conscience forbids me to keep silent any longer”
AFAR Association for Asian Research, 12/5/2003
http://www.asianresearch.org/articles/1739.html

2037 Supreme People’s Court, Supreme People’s Procuratorate, Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Civil Affairs Interim Provisions on the Use of Organs from Executed Prisoners
Source: 110.com   October 9, 1984
http://www.110.com/fagui/law_21137.html
https://archive.is/FjDaf
最高人民法院, 最高人民检察院, 公安部, 司法部, 卫生部, 民政部关于利用死刑罪犯尸体或尸体器官的暂行规定

2038 Falun Gong Practitioners Forced to Submit to Blood Tests
http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2014/7/19/2101.html
《明慧网》多地警察上门逼迫法轮功学员验血
http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2014/7/5/多地警察上门逼迫法轮功学员验血-294315.html

2039 Dandong Police Claimed It Is a “Task” to Forcibly Perform Blood Tests on Falun Gong Practitioners – Terrible Secret Lies Behind   The Epoch Times
http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/14/9/19/n4252384.htm法轮功学员被强验血成任务-背后藏惊天秘密.html
丹东警察 称是“任务” 法轮功学员被强验血成任务 背后藏惊天秘密     《大纪元》

2040  Experts from oversee and abroad gathered in ChangSha
organ transplant act is coming      hnol.net  Sep. 24, 2003
http://hunan.voc.com.cn/gb/content/2003-09/24/content_2146397.htm
https://archive.is/xJIk7
国内外专家汇聚长沙器官移植法呼之欲出      大众卫生报     2003-09-24

2041 Insider Testimony of Senior Military Doctor in Shenyang Military Command Regarding Sujiatun Concentration Camp
The Epoch Times      March 31, 2006
http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/6/3/31/n1271996.htm
《大纪元》沈阳军区老军医指证苏家屯集中营内幕

2042 Huang Jiefu: Voluntary organ donation by citizens is a continuation of life under the sun
Phoenix Television, March 16, 2015
http://news.ifeng.com/a/20150316/43349299_0.shtml
https://archive.is/YRmiK
黄洁夫:公民自愿器官捐献是阳光下的生命延续

2043 The previous and present life of the Central Political and Legal Affairs Committee
Source: CCTV network – Observer   Dated: January 8, 2014    Reporter: Wang Lei
http://opinion.cntv.cn/2014/01/08/ARTI1389186023778553.shtml
https://archive.is/IfBNv
中央政法委的前世今生   央视网-观察家   2014年01月08日   记者王磊

2044 Downfall of Zhou Yongkang – Chinese Communist Party Fails to Mention His Responsibility for Organ Harvesting & Other Atrocities Against Falun Gong     MingHui.org   Dec 18, 2013
http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2013/12/18/%E5%BD%BB%E5%BA%95%E6%B8%85%E6%9F%A5%E5%91%A8%E6%B0%B8%E5%BA%B7%E8%BF%AB%E5%AE%B3%E6%B3%95%E8%BD%AE%E5%8A%9F%E6%89%80%E7%8A%AF%E4%B8%8B%E7%9A%84%E7%BE%A4%E4%BD%93%E7%81%AD%E7%BB%9D%E7%BD%AA%E6%81%B6-284151.html
https://archive.is/2o1tQ
彻底清查周永康迫害法轮功所犯下的群体灭绝罪恶   明慧网   2013年12月18日

2045 610 Office & Chinese Communist Party Political Legal Committees organization   Falundafa.info.org
http://media.faluninfo.net/media/doc/2008/06/6-10_02_Graph-from_Compassion.pdf
https://web.archive.org/web/20160326185834/http://media.faluninfo.net/media/doc/2008/06/6-10_02_Graph-from_Compassion.pdf

2046 Former 610 Office Head Li Dongsheng Indicted
MingHui.net   August 24, 2015
http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2015/8/24/%E6%81%B6%E6%8A%A5%E4%B8%B4%E5%A4%B4-%E6%9D%8E%E4%B8%9C%E7%94%9F%E8%A2%AB%E5%85%AC%E8%AF%89-314629.html
李东生被公诉   明慧网   2015年8月24日

2047 Downfall of Zhou Yongkang – Chinese Communist Party Fails to Mention His Responsibility for Organ Harvesting & Other Atrocities Against Falun Gong     MingHui.net   Dec 18, 2013
http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2013/12/18/%E5%BD%BB%E5%BA%95%E6%B8%85%E6%9F%A5%E5%91%A8%E6%B0%B8%E5%BA%B7%E8%BF%AB%E5%AE%B3%E6%B3%95%E8%BD%AE%E5%8A%9F%E6%89%80%E7%8A%AF%E4%B8%8B%E7%9A%84%E7%BE%A4%E4%BD%93%E7%81%AD%E7%BB%9D%E7%BD%AA%E6%81%B6-284151.html
https://archive.is/2o1tQ
彻底清查周永康迫害法轮功所犯下的群体灭绝罪恶   明慧网   2013年12月18日

2048 China Human Organ Donation and Transplantation Commission was set up
National Health and Family Planning Commission People’s Republic of China 2014-03-07
http://www.nhfpc.gov.cn/yzygj/s3586q/201403/89105886fc9b4d3991c034364f52878c.shtml
https://archive.is/tb0UM
《中国人体器官捐献与移植委员会成立》   中华人民共和国国家卫生和计划生育委员会     2014-03-07

2049 BBC China 3/10/2013 (in Chinese): China State Council announced organizational reform plans
http://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/simp/china/2013/03/130310_china_ministries.shtml?c
BBC中文网 – 中国宣布国务院机构改革方案 2013年3月10日

2050 Introduction to the liver surgery departmental – Peking Union Medical College Hospital
http://www.pumch.cn/Category_691/Index.aspx
https://web.archive.org/web/20110726090452/http://www.pumch.cn/Category_691/Index.aspx
肝脏外科- 北京协和医院

2051 China Human Organ Donation and Transplantation Commission was set up
National Health and Family Planning Commission People’s Republic of China 2014-03-07
http://www.nhfpc.gov.cn/yzygj/s3586q/201403/89105886fc9b4d3991c034364f52878c.shtml
https://archive.is/tb0UM
《中国人体器官捐献与移植委员会成立》   中华人民共和国国家卫生和计划生育委员会     2014-03-07

2052 China Human Organ Donation and Transplantation Commission was set up
National Health and Family Planning Commission People’s Republic of China 2014-03-07
http://www.nhfpc.gov.cn/yzygj/s3586q/201403/89105886fc9b4d3991c034364f52878c.shtml
https://archive.is/tb0UM
《中国人体器官捐献与移植委员会成立》   中华人民共和国国家卫生和计划生育委员会     2014-03-07

2053 Huang Jiefu   Source: China Leaders Library / CCP News
http://gbzl.people.com.cn/grzy.php?id=121001565
https://archive.is/4tD1F
黄洁夫   来源:中国领导干部资料库 / 中国共产党新闻网

2054 The portal of the National Health and Family Planning Commission People’s Republic of China
http://gbzl.people.com.cn/grzy.php?id=121001565
https://archive.is/4tD1F
中华人民共和国国家卫生和计划生育委员会网站

2055 Human Organ Transplant Ordinance
The central government portal / Source: State Council   Dated: April 6, 2007,
http://www.nhfpc.gov.cn/
https://archive.is/iGd8t
《人体器官移植条例》   中央政府门户网站 /来源:国务院办公厅   2007年04月06日

2056 “Interim Provisions regarding the use of the executed prisoners’ bodies or organs from corpses by the Supreme People’s Court, Supreme People’s Procuratorate, Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Health, and Ministry of Civil Affairs”
Status: valid   Publish date: October 9, 1984; validate date: October 9, 1984
http://www.110.com/fagui/law_21137.html
https://archive.is/FjDaf
《最高人民法院, 最高人民检察院, 公安部, 司法部, 卫生部, 民政部关于利用死刑罪犯尸体或尸体器官的暂行规定》   状态:有效    发布日期:1984-10-09   生效日期: 1984-10-09

2057 Military Doctor Discloses Content of Meeting of Central Military Committee on How to Deal with Foreign Religions
Source: The Epoch Times     2006-05-07
http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/6/5/7/n1310577.htm
98 军医披露中央军委处理涉外宗教会议内容 大纪元 2006-05-07

2058 WOIPFG Releases List of 2098 Medical Personnel in 100 PLA and Armed Police Hospitals Suspected of Live Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/45100#_Toc401944927
《追查国际发布中共军队和武警系统100家医院涉嫌活摘法轮功学员器官的2098名医务人员的追查名单》

2059 The Slaughter pp. 17-19.

2060 Witnesses Testify on Live Organ Harvesting at Sujiatun Concentration Camp   The Epoch Times
http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/6/3/17/n1257362.htm
《大纪元时报》《证人现身指证苏家屯集中营摘活体器官》

2061 Bloody Harvest 31) A confession
http://organharvestinvestigation.net/report0701/report20070131.htm#_Toc160145143

2062 The Slaughter pp. 253-258. See also ethan-gutmann.com, “The Dr. Ko Interview”
http://ethan-gutmann.com/ko-wen-je-interview

2063 Insider Testimony of Senior Military Doctor in Shenyang Military Command Regarding Sujiatun Concentration Camp
Source: The Epoch Times   March 31, 2006
http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/6/3/31/n1271996.htm
《大纪元》沈阳军区老军医指证苏家屯集中营内幕

2064 Military Doctor Discloses the Chinese Communist Party’s Official Process of Stealing and Selling Falun Gong Organs
Source: The Epoch Times
http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/6/4/30/n1303902.htm
《大纪元》军医披露中共盗卖法轮功器官官方流程

2065 Investigating the Organ Harvesting Case Together to Stop the Persecution (Part 1)   Minghui.org
http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/6/22/130561.html
共同追查活摘器官案 制止迫害(上)   明慧网

2066 WOIPFG: Additional Testimony Provided by Eyewitness of Organ Harvesting from Living Victim(s)
http://www.upholdjustice.org/node/336
追查国际:活摘现场目击者的更多证词

2067 Exclusive: Revealing the Shocking Secrets Hidden in Medical University Affiliated Hospitals   Epoch Times
http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/14/2/28/n4094048.htm
曝隐藏在医科大学附属医院里惊天秘密 《大纪元时报》

2068 Account Sheds Light on Organ Harvesting From Falun Gong in China
Source: Epoch Times | July 10, 2014 by Huang Qing, Gisela Sommer & Matthew Robertson
http://www.theepochtimes.com/n3/795506-account-sheds-light-on-organ-harvesting-from-falun-gong-in-china/

2069 Insider Discloses Shocking News About the Chinese Communist Party’s Live Organ Harvesting   Epoch Times
http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/15/7/25/n4488461.htm
中共活摘器官   知情人曝光惊人内幕     《大纪元时报》

2070 Collection of Evidence of Live Organ Harvesting from Falun Gong Practitioners by the Chinese Communist Party
http://www.upholdjustice.org/node/241#_Toc367315077
Audio recording: http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/files/report/2013/09/35848_2-chenqiang-307-new-edited.mp3
《追查国际关于中共活体摘取法轮功学员器官证据专辑》http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/46728#_Toc366574827

2071 WOIPFG Obtained New Evidence: Jiang Zemin Ordered the Harvesting of Organs from Falun Gong Practitioners for Transplantation
http://www.upholdjustice.org/node/260
Phone recording:
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/investigation_report/2014/09/44818_baishuzhong10sep-2-final-mp3.mp3
《追查国际查获是江泽民直接下令用法轮功学员器官做移植》2014年9月30
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/44818

2072 WOIPFG’s investigation of harvesting living Falun Gong practitioners’ organs by Zeng Qinghong, former member of the Standing Committee of the CCP Central Committee, Liang Guanglie, former Secretary of Defense, and Guo Boxiong, CMC Vice Chairman   October 21, 2014
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/45053
追查国际对原中央常委曾庆红, 原中共国防部长梁光烈, 原中央军委副主席郭伯雄就活摘法轮功学员器官的调查取证
2014年10月21日

2073 Collection of Evidence of Live Organ Harvesting from Falun Gong Practitioners by the Chinese Communist Party
http://www.upholdjustice.org/node/241#_Toc367315094
Audio recording:
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/files/report/2013/09/35848_19-21595_luyin2_lichangchun-final.mp3
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/46728#_Toc366574844

2074 WOIPFG’s investigation of harvesting living Falun Gong practitioners’ organs by Zeng Qinghong,
former member of the Standing Committee of the CCP Central Committee, Liang Guanglie,
former Secretary of Defense, and Guo Boxiong, CMC Vice Chairman   October 21, 2014     http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/45053
Audio recording: http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/files/report/2014/10/45053_liangguanglie.mp
追查国际对原中共国防部长梁光烈, 原中央常委曾庆红, 原中央军委副主席郭伯雄就活摘法轮功学员 器官的调查取2014年10月21日

2075 WOIPFG releases phone records regarding involvement of Zhou Yongkang and key Chinese Communist Party officials in organ harvesting   April 30, 2012
http://www.upholdjustice.org/node/216
Audio recording: http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/files/report/2012/04/21595_luyin1_weijianrong-final.mp3
《追查国际》追查国际公布最新关于周永康涉嫌介入活摘法轮功学员器官罪行的部分录音  2012年4月30日
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/21595

2076 WOIPFG releases phone records regarding involvement of Zhou Yongkang and key Chinese Communist Party officials in organ harvesting   April 30, 2012
http://www.upholdjustice.org/node/216
Audio recording: http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/files/report/2012/04/21595_luyin1_weijianrong-final.mp3
《追查国际》追查国际公布最新关于周永康涉嫌介入活摘法轮功学员器官罪行的部分录音  2012年4月30日
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/21595

2077 Forced Live Organ Harvesting Program in China is State-Orchestrated and Militarized    Minghui.org
http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2015/1/15/147973.html
江泽民军事化活摘器官的罪恶产业(图) http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2015/1/10/%E6%B1%9F%E6%B3%BD%E6%B0%91%E5%86%9B%E4%BA%8B%E5%8C%96%E6%B4%BB%E6%91%98%E5%99%A8%E5%AE%98%E7%9A%84%E7%BD%AA%E6%81%B6%E4%BA%A7%E4%B8%9A%EF%BC%88%E5%9B%BE%EF%BC%89-302972.html

2078 Huang Jiefu: I only watched once the organ extraction procedure and felt changed needed
Phoenix TV 2015-01-11
http://news.ifeng.com/a/20150111/42906812_0.shtml
https://archive.is/YxJwf
黄洁夫:我只看过一次摘取器官 觉得需要改变 凤凰卫视 2015年01月11日