Chapter Three: Approved National Military Transplant Centres
National level transplant centres encompasses highly qualified and capable organ transplant centres selected from over 1,000 candidates and approved by the Ministry of Health in 2007. Among them are 23 military and armed police transplant centres and 68 civilian transplant centres.
The People’s Liberation Army (PLA) is one of the few militaries in the world that belong to a political party rather than the state. It is a tool used to sustain the Communist Party’s control over China.
After 2000, a large number of People’s Liberation Army Organ Transplant Centres were named and supported by the Central Military Commission and regional military commands. In December 2008, Zhang Yanling, director of the People’s Liberation Army General Logistics Department Health Division, told Xinhua News Agency, “In 1978, there were only three hospitals in the entire People’s Liberation Army capable of performing kidney transplants. Now, there are forty hospitals capable of liver, kidney, heart, lung and multi-organ transplants.”14
According to an investigation by the World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong, the military and armed police have developed over 100 transplant institutions. 15
The 23 top-level military transplant centres among the first batch approved by the Ministry of Health in 2007 were the core units that the evidence shows were carrying out live organ transplants.
People’s Liberation Army No. 301 Hospital (People’s Liberation Army General Hospital)
The People’s Liberation Army No. 301 Hospital is the People’s Liberation Army’s largest comprehensive military hospital, incorporating medical treatment, health care, education, and scientific research. The hospital is responsible for the health care of the leaders of the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee, Central Military Committee, and high-ranking generals. 17It claims to have been leading the country in kidney transplantation technologies. 18
The People’s Liberation Army General Hospital International Medical Centre opened up the exclusive South Building previously reserved for the above category of patients. In December 2009, the Centre began serving provincial and ministerial-level leaders, international VIPs, elites in various industries, celebrities, and other high-end clients.19 Its chief surgeon Huang Zhiqiang was a well-known hepatobiliary surgeon in China and a member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering.
The hospital retains six members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering, more than 100 third-class experts (equivalent in rank to generals in non-combat positions), and more than 1,000 senior professional staff members. Its staff includes 184 doctoral advisors, 293 master’s advisors, and more than 180 who serve as directors or deputy directors of various medical committees at national and militarywide levels. This hospital is also called the Medical School of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, the only military education facility founded by a military hospital. Over the years, it has trained more than 4,000 clinical medical professionals with doctoral or master’s degrees, more than 10,000 clinical trainees from many military and local hospitals, and tens of thousands of students under its education programs.
The hospital has carried out more than 800 research projects under the National 973 Program and the 863 Program. It has won more than 1,300 science and technology awards at national, provincial, and ministerial levels, including 7 national first-class and 20 national second-class scientific improvement awards. It publishes 23 national core scientific and technological journals, one of which is listed by Science Citation Index. The hospital has led the country for four years in a row in the total number of papers published domestically and internationally. It has established partnerships with over 100 leading institutions in the field, both in China and abroad, and employs more than 200 experts as guest professors.
Li Wenhua, a political commissar with the Beijing Garrison Area Army, received a liver transplant at No. 301 Hospital on July 27, 2007. Li was a division commander with the No. 27 Army who led troops to fire on students during the 1989 Tiananmen Massacre. He was later promoted to political commissar. According to Li’s relatives, Li was diagnosed with a liver disease in early 2007, which worsened despite treatment. The Central Military Committee ordered staff to treat his condition by whatever means necessary. Within eight days, doctors found a liver source (reportedly from a 32-year-old death row prisoner) and transported the organ to No. 301 Hospital on a 40-minute helicopter flight.20
According to medical personnel who work in operating rooms at No. 301 Hospital, organ transplants are among the most frequent, common surgeries, and that transplants are performed there almost every day.21
The hospital’s former president and well-known medical expert Li Qihua was a Falun Gong practitioner. In the initial stages of the persecution, his high profile led to his being directly targeted by Jiang Zemin. Under daily visits from officials and constant duress, Li was forced to give up Falun Gong.22
A surgeon at this hospital told an investigator in April 2006 that she did liver transplants herself. The surgeon added that the source of the organs was a “state secret” and that anyone revealing the source “could be disqualified from doing such operations.”23
The number of transplants performed at this hospital is also a military secret. However, we can gain some insight from financial information of one of its clinical divisions, the No. 309 Hospital. The archived web page of the Organ Transplantation Centre at No. 309 Clinical Division of People’s Liberation Army General Hospital states, “Our Organ Transplant Centre is our main department for making money. Its gross income in 2003 was 16,070,000 RMB. From January to June of 2004 income was 13,570,000 RMB. This year  there is a chance to break through 30,000,000 RMB.” Furthermore, its gross revenue rose from 30 million RMB in 2006 to 230 million RMB in 2010, an increase of nearly 8-fold in 4 years.24 We should note that such figures are commonly face data underreported (for more details, see the “Cover-Up” section in Chapter Three).
According to a Xinhua report titled “People’s Liberation Army General Hospital Hepatobiliary Surgery Department’s Glorious History” on July 4, 2007:
“On the foundation of first-class technologies and strict organization operational program, [the hospital] advances liver transplant surgeries, perioperative management, and a series of management models for long-term postoperative follow-ups. Its one-year survival rate for liver transplants reached 91.4%, three-year survival rate was 80.2%, and five-year survival rate was 71.3%. Liver transplants have become our department’s routine surgery…Under the leadership of Professor Dong Jiahong, director of the hepatobiliary surgery department and currently one of our country’s military leaders in liver transplantation, the hepatobiliary surgery department has completed more than 500 liver transplant surgeries.” 25
The department’s five-year survival data implies that it has performed liver transplants regularly since 2002 at the latest. It is also worth noting that Dong Jiahong was not transferred to this hospital until 2006,26 so this report implies that the department performed more than 500 liver transplants that year; this is only the public figure.
No. 301 Hospital has not only conducted a large number of organ transplants by itself, but also has played a role in resolving core technical issues in organ transplantation and supporting civilian hospitals with organ sources and technical consultants.
The Kidney Transplant Centre at Yiyang Central Hospital collaborates with the People’s Liberation Army General Hospital and the kidney transplant centre affiliated with the First Military Medical University. The centre’s mandate states, “We select the best kidneys. We perform overall examinations of the donor kidneys to ensure that the best-quality matching kidneys are chosen. Patient treatment costs charged are lower than the standard of other hospitals within and outside of the province.”27
This photo was taken in 2007, when Francis L. Delmonico, former director of medical affairs for The Transplantation Society (TTS) and an advisor to the World Health Organization (WHO), visited China. In addition, Chen Zhu and Huang Jiefu, Chinese Minister and Vice Minister of health, two military representatives were from No. 301 People’s Liberation Army General Hospital.28 This shows the important role which this hospital played in China’s organ transplant field.
The Hepatobiliary Surgery Department is a People’s Liberation Army Hepatobiliary Surgery Center and Liver Transplant Center. 29 It claims to be the largest in northern China30 and it is authorized to award Medical Doctor degrees. It also serves as a post-doctoral station, the People’s Liberation Army’s Hepatobiliary Surgical Research Institute (a national prioritized development subject), and one of the People’s Liberation Army’s major laboratories.
According to a report titled “The Hepatobiliary Department’s Battle Team” posted on July 10, 2007 on Xinhua Net, its Liver Transplant Center engages in academic exchanges from time to time with the University of Paris-Sud Hepatobiliary Center in France, the University of Pittsburgh Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute in the United States, the University of Melbourne National Liver Transplant Center in Australia, and the Hong Kong University Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery department, and other well-known international institutions. 31
In 2007 the Center had 7 chief surgeons and professors, as well as 11 associate chief surgeons and associate professors. The vast majority of its medical and research personnel hold PhD or postgraduate degrees and can independently complete various hepatobiliary surgeries. The Xinhua.net Report states:
“The People’s Liberation Army General Hospital Liver Transplant Center is a strong, multidisciplinary cooperative team. It includes the hepatobiliary surgery department, operating rooms, anesthesiology department, ICU ward, imaging center, blood transfusion department, pathology department, examination center, and others. Each liver transplant case must go through a careful discussion by the entire team to develop a detailed surgical and postoperative treatment plan. The hepatobiliary surgery department performs no fewer than 5 to 8 surgeries a day. In view of a shortage of beds, it is difficult to better arrange for more complicated patients to be hospitalized and given operations. Our hospital is now speeding up the construction of the new ward building, and estimates that the hepatobiliary department can be expanded to 200 beds by the end of the year.”
According to its official website, the hospital has 172 beds and conducted 3,260 surgeries in 2013.
The department’s former academic leader, Academician Huang Zhiqiang, was one of the founders of biliary surgery in China. Dong Jiahong, the department’s director from 2006 to 2013, used to be the president of the People’s Liberation Army’s Southwestern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital. His portfolio includes Vice President of International Hepatopancreatobiliary Association China Branch, a member of the Ministry of the Health Human Organ Transplant Expert Committee, a standing committee member of the China Organ Transplant Society, and a doctoral advisor at several universities, including the Third Military Medical University. His research has accumulated up to 40 million RMB of funding from the National 863 Plan—National Key Technology Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China; Ministry of Health industry fund, and National Natural Sciences Foundation funding for key subjects.32
Lu Shichun, the current director of the hepatobiliary surgery department and an advisor for doctoral students and post-doctorates, received his PhD in abdominal surgery and organ transplantation from the University of Freiburg in Germany. He formerly served as the director of the hepatobiliary surgery department and liver transplant centre at Beijing You’an Hospital affiliated with Capital Medical University. He was also the director of the Sino-US Liver Transplant Liaison Centre. In this position, he led over 700 liver transplants. He now sits on the Chinese Medical Association (CMA)’s Organ Transplant Division Liver Transplant Group, the CMA’s Surgery Division Liver Transplant Group, and the standing committee of the Chinese Medical Doctor Association’s Organ Transplant Group.
The Urology Department started allogeneic kidney transplants in 1977 and claims to have been leading the country in kidney transplants, with a high reputation in the field. This department has 140 beds and 63 medical personnel, including 14 with senior professional titles and 5 doctoral and master’s advisors.33
The web page of this department shows that it performed its first autologous kidney transplant in 1974 and has carried out over 2,000 allogeneic renal transplants since 1977. However, per an article entitled “Progress of China’s clinical kidney allograft” by Director Yu Lixin of Guangzhou Nanfang Hospital Organ Transplant Centre, as early as 2000, the number of kidney transplants completed at this hospital had already reached 1,180.34 It is unlikely that this huge hospital that “has always been leading the country on liver and kidney transplantation technologies” performs only 50 kidney transplants each year.
People’s Liberation Army No. 309 Hospital (People’s Liberation Army General Staff Department General Hospital)
The People’s Liberation Army No. 309 Hospital and the No. 304 Hospital were clinical divisions of the aforementioned No. 301 General Hospital (PLA General Hospital) between May 2004 and August 2009.36
The People’s Liberation Army No. 309 Hospital, which established its organ transplant centre in 2002, is a leader in kidney transplants. It has hosted the data centre for the Chinese Scientific Registry of Kidney Transplantation (CSRKT) Management Committee since 2009. 37 It conducted its first kidney transplant in 1988. The number of kidney transplants performed here ranked No.1 in the country for three consecutive years, from 2007 to 2009. 38
Shi Bingyi, director of the National Kidney Transplantation Study Group, is credited with solving a number of technical issues in kidney transplantation. The centre under his direction has led 20 major research projects, some of which have been part of national-level Five Year Plans, received over 30 million yuan in funding, hosted national-scale organ transplant conferences, lodged national and international transplant-related patents, and received a number of awards. Shi is also chief editor of nine organ transplant books, and set key industry standards. He has trained 51 doctoral and master’s students, while the centre has trained at least 120 who went on to play key roles in other transplant facilities. 39 40
Shi Bingyi’s team did much work on immune response and combating rejection—research that requires many clinical trials of actual transplants.41
Organ Transplantation Team
The centre has 231 medical and research personnel, including 53 with doctoral and master’s degrees, 31 senior professionals, 17 PhD and master’s advisors, and 28 post-doctoral fellows, doctoral and Master’s students. 42The team at the centre once completed 12 kidney transplants overnight. 43 In February 2012, a Xinhua Net report revealed that the team had recently performed 13 transplants in one night. 44
According to statistics from the Ho Leung Ho Lee Foundation, Shi Bingyi had completed at least 2,130 kidney transplants,46 380 liver transplants, and many heart, lung, pancreas, small intestine, and multi-organ transplants by 2011, making the centre one of the institutions in China that offers the greatest variety of transplants.
Director Qian Yeyong of the transplant surgery department had also completed over 2,000 kidney transplants and many multi-organ transplants by 2013.47 Cai Ming completed about 1,000 kidney transplants, 100 liver transplants, and several hundred organ procurement surgeries.48
Annual Transplant Capacity
In 2010, the People’s Liberation Army No. 309 Hospital’s transplant centre had 316 beds and claimed to lead in annual capacity and bed utilization rate among similar departments in the military.49 In 2012, this organ transplant centre had its own building and expanded to 393 beds. 50 However, its current website shows only 330 beds with the same number of medical and research personnel. It is unlikely for the centre to reduce its bed count, since Shi Bingyi indicated in September 2013 that his institute had five to six thousand patients waiting for transplants each year. 51
A kidney transplant normally requires fewer than three weeks of hospitalization; they usually require one or two weeks in China (refer to Chapter 3 for details). For example, West China Hospital of Sichuan University requires about 20 days of hospitalization.52 Based on 316 beds, 20 days of hospitalization time and 100% utilization rate, the number of transplants in this centre per year would be 5,767. If we count 393 beds, 20 days of hospitalization time and 100% utilization rate, the number of transplants per year would reach 7,172. On Nov.17, 2010, the Centre’s website showed that its transplant volume “ranked first in the country for the last three years,”53 in which case the centre would have performed no fewer than 5,000 transplants annually.
Nanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command
Nanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command, (also known as Jinling Hospital of the Medical School of Nanjing University54) had the earliest Military Nephrology Research Institute (the “Mayo Clinic of China”) and the first transplant center in China.55 56 It was the first institution in the national health care system that was approved to set up a postdoctoral research station in 2000.57 Its People’s Liberation Army Kidney Diseases Research Centre was designated as “the priority among priorities” in 2000 by the Chinese Communist Party Central Military Commission.58
It assembled leading kidney specialists, including Li Leishi, the pioneer of kidney medicine in China and the first kidney specialist to be appointed to the Chinese Academy of Engineering.59 The team had two Academy members and currently has seven professors, eight associate professors, five doctoral advisors, and fourteen master’s advisers. It has graduated more than 150 post-doctoral, doctoral, and master’s students since 1980s. It has established sister relationships with the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Brown University in the U.S.
A Model for Organ Transplantation for the People’s Liberation Army
Li Leishi was the founder of this kidney research centre, the leader of its field in the People’s Liberation Army.60 In 2007, the Chinese Communist Party issued a “decision to learn from Li Leishi.”61 The document stated that he combined Chinese and Western medicine, enabled China’s diagnosis and treatment of kidney disease to quickly reach international standards, and trained numerous top students. Li was named a “Master of Medicine.”62
In 1993, this research centre established China’s first organ transplant centre. Li Leishi was trained in internal medicine, but he sent students to kidney transplant hospitals overseas and went on to direct China’s first kidney transplant surgeries.
Initially performing dozens of transplants per year in the early 1990s, the centre grew into one of the largest kidney transplant centres in China,63 claiming that it had conducted over 1,000 kidney transplants by 2004.64 The Communist Party made Li Leishi a “model” for others to emulate. The first and second editions of The Chinese Renal Transplant Manual by Li Leishi have become the working guide for the kidney transplant industry in mainland China.65 66
Liu Zhihong Carries On Li Leishi’s Legacy
Liu Zhihong is the hospital’s current vice president, director of its Military Nephrology Research Institute, and president of the Medical School of Nanjing University.67 68 As Li Leishi’s protégé, she published more than 50 papers with him, 69 70many of them on kidney transplantation. Liu has held various leadership positions at this hospital over the years. After Li’s death, she became director of its People’s Liberation Army Institute of Nephrology. 71
According to a publication co-authored in 2008 by Liu Zhihong, “From January 1995 to December 2004, 1,000 patients had undergone cadaveric renal transplants” at this hospital. 72 Interestingly, the warm and cold ischemia times were limited to 10 minutes and 24 hours, respectively. All transplants were ABO blood-type-compatible, and donor age ranged between 18 and 50 years old. 73 Among these 1,000 transplants, 653 were performed between April 1997 and August 2003. 74
In 2011, Liu Zhihong co-authored a paper in the Open Journal of Organ Transplant Surgery reporting a study with 93 renal transplant recipients prospectively enrolled at her hospital from June 2002 to December 2005 who had received conversion-to-SRL-based immunosuppressive therapy. 75 The paper claims explicitly, “no prisoners or organs from prisoners were used in the collection of data for this study.” In these years, nearly no voluntary organ donations of deceased or living donors existed; even a pilot project for voluntary organ donation in Jiangsu Province that was started in 2010 attained only 11 voluntary donations in its first two years.76 Therefore, this claim is likely deceptive.
Liu Zhihong is a Councilor of the International Society of Nephrology (ISN), a board member of KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes), Adjunct Professor of Medicine at Brown University, associate chief editor of AJKD, and international Advisory Board Member of Nature Review Nephrology, and possibly other international bodies. 77
During the term of the most recent Five-Year Plan (2011 to 2015), this institute has presided over and completed a number of major initiatives under the National “863 Program,” National Natural Science Foundation projects, and designated military medical study and research projects. It has published more than 1,000 medical works and study papers, including 180 in Science Citation Index. Two volumes of China Nephrology, with a total of 3.7 million words, are specified in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2006-2010) as national key books. This institute has won over 70 national, provincial, and military awards. 78
The archived website of this research centre boasts: Led by fundamental studies and research, clinical technologies at this institute have made great progress. Kidney transplantation has come to epitomize an institute where kidney disease expertise, blood purification, transplant, and fundamental research are organically integrated into one. The institute’s clinical treatment centre has 210 beds; the average length of stay is 9 days; there are over 8,000 admissions each year, and the institute provides outpatient kidney transplant clinic aftercare service 7,216 times per year. 79
Volume at a Research Institute
Li Leishi once said, “Because we are a research institute, we don’t do too many surgeries.”80 This statement appears to be accurate, at least in comparison to the other 40+ military transplant centres that concentrate more on operations. Yet, during an “Interview with Academician Li Leishi” on “China Military Online,” 81 Li told the story of disciplining three doctors after a medical accident in 2001. One of them was a chief surgeon, and they had been performing “hundreds of kidney transplants a year.” In 2008, when Li was 82 years old, he said “In the past, I myself used to do 120 kidney transplants per year. Now I only do 70 cases.”82
The institution had close to 30 experts before 2001, amongst whom eleven chief surgeons and six associate chief surgeons carried out kidney transplants.83 If the three doctors Li mentioned carried out hundreds of kidney transplants a year, the other fourteen surgeons each year would have conducted well over a thousand collectively.
Fuzhou General Hospital also belongs to the Nanjing Military Command. It expanded upon its transplantation of major organs (kidney, liver, and pancreas) to eleven types of transplants, including stem cells, corneas, and multi-organ transplants. Its cumulative number of kidney transplants ranks first in the country, and its annual transplant volume ranked among the top three for six consecutive years.84
On February 27, 2011, its urology surgery department’s website showed that it had seven chief and associate chief surgeons, one post-doctorate, and two Master’s students.85 The department director Tan Jianming was previously also part-time director of the Urology and Transplantation Department at Shanghai Jiaotong University’s First People’s Hospital and its Shanghai Organ Transplant Centre. He had personally performed over 4,200 kidney transplants by 2014.86
Liver transplant surgery became a routine procedure. On February 18, 2014, sixteen doctors of the Hepatology Centre at Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command simultaneously carried out five liver transplants within seventeen hours.87 This centre claimed that it had performed “the first, most, and best liver transplants in Fujian Province.”
Construction began on the new ward complex in 2011, which is scheduled to be put into use at the end of 2016. With a total area of 154,900 square meters and 1,680 beds, the ward complex is the largest in Fujian Province.
Nanjing General Hospital’s claim of 1,000 kidney transplants in 2004 was not, in the Chinese transplant landscape, an unusual achievement. Many hospitals had already performed over 1,000 kidney transplants long before that year. If the Hospital really was one of the largest transplant centres in China as it claimed, its numbers must have been far greater than 1,000.
Xinqiao Hospital, affiliated with the Third Military Medical University in Chongqing, recorded on page 157 of its qualification document, “History of Renal Diseases Research Centre, Department of Urology in Xinqiao Hospital,” that it had “conducted 2,590 kidney transplants by 2002 … The Centre once carried out 24 kidney transplants in one day.88
Southwest Hospital, its sister hospital, claims to be one of the largest Hepatobiliary Surgery departments both domestically and overseas. Beginning with its first liver transplant in 1999, it was designated as a key experiment of the Centre of People’s Liberation Army Liver Transplantation by 2001. 89 In 2004, the newly-formed Southwest Hospital of Hepatobiliary Surgery established the International Cooperative Liver Transplant Centre with the University of Pittsburgh Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute.
In 2004, the Centre’s director Dong Jiahong claimed that the facility could conduct six liver transplants simultaneously.90 By the end of 2004, the facility had expanded to 168 beds. 91 It accommodated 3,000 hepatopancreatobiliary patients from home and abroad, and conducted 2,400 liver and gallbladder transplants annually. 92 By 2011, it had increased to 200 beds.93 Its kidney department possessed the leading technology in kidney transplants in southwestern China. In 2010, it had 64 standard beds and 22 dialysis beds.94 In 2001, the department of ophthalmology at this hospital established the first People’s Liberation Army eye bank which met national standards and began carrying out corneal transplants.95
In addition, according to a report in the Medical Journal of the Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces in June 2004, 96as early as the year 2000, Beijing Friendship Hospital and Guangzhou Nanfang Hospital had already conducted more than 2,000 kidney transplants. The First Clinical Hospital of Sun Yat-sen, the People’s Liberation Army General Hospital, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, the Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, and others all had carried out more than 1,000 kidney transplants each.
Eastern Hepatobiliary Hospital Affiliated with the Second Military Medical University
The Eastern Hepatobiliary Hospital, affiliated with the Second Military Medical University, is a People’s Liberation Army Hepatobiliary Surgery Centre and Research Institute and considered a top priority in this field of development. According to its website, in 2015, it had 742 beds before it moved to the Pudong New District.98 Most of its surgical departments can perform liver transplants, including the liver transplant department itself 99, two special treatment departments (designed for foreign patients) 100, and at least half of its six liver surgery departments. 101 Over the past 20 years, it has administered more than 6 million liver disease treatments and conducted more than 300,000 surgeries.102
Since 1978, it has trained 22 post-doctorates, 112 doctoral graduates, and 223 graduate students with master’s degrees. It also trains international, undergraduate, professional, and vocational students. Over the years, it has trained more than 1,000 visiting scholars from various regions.103 It has won more than 100 awards at national, provincial and ministerial levels, such as the National High Scientific Achievement Award, the National Science and Technology Conference Award, the National Scientific Improvement Award, and the National Natural Science Foundation Award. 104 It is currently conducting research in 150 projects, with total funding of 130 million RMB. 105
Wu Mengchao, a member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and China’s “Father of Hepatobiliary Surgery,” served as the chief consultant of the People’s Liberation Army Organ Transplant Committee. In 2005, Wu won the nation’s highest science and technology award for his solution for major technical issues associated with liver transplant rejection. Former Communist Party leader Jiang Zemin met with Wu five times and personally proclaimed Wu an Exemplary Medical Expert. As of 2010, Wu had presided over 14,000 liver surgeries, including 9,300 hepatectomies.106 The remaining 4,000+ surgeries remain unidentified and are likely to be liver transplants.
In 2009, the Shanghai municipal government cooperated with the People’s Liberation Army General Logistics Department to develop the Second Military Medical University. Its development strategy was to move its affiliated Changzheng Hospital eastward to the Pudong District, and to move its affiliated Eastern Hepatobiliary Hospital westward to Jiading. On October 18, 2015, the Eastern Hepatobiliary Hospital, located in Anting in Jiading District, Shanghai, started operations.109
This new 3A comprehensive hospital emphasizes hepatobiliary surgical treatments. The hospital covers a construction area of 200,000 square meters and contains 1,500 beds. It is one of the largest hospitals constructed in one phase. The hospital is currently a national top-priority field of development, a national-level continuing education base, a People’s Liberation Army Hepatobiliary Surgery Centre, a People’s Liberation Army Hepatobiliary Surgery Research Institute, a top-priority People’s Liberation Army development project, a major research subject in Shanghai’s medical industry, and a top-priority clinical medical centre for the city of Shanghai.110
Headed by Academician Wu Mengchao, the hospital’s staff includes 95 personnel with senior professional titles, a member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, a member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, 26 doctoral advisors, 51 master’s advisors, and 30 leading figures in various fields from Changhai Hospital and Changzheng Hospital. The department has 30 operating rooms with air purification, including 6 hundred-level laminar flow operating rooms and a digitally integrated operating room.
The National Liver Cancer Science Centre located next to the hospital is a national-level research centre for liver cancer, which was founded under the leadership of Academicians Wu Mengchao and Wang Hongyang, a leading figure in China’s precision medical treatment.
Shanghai Changzheng Hospital Affiliated with the Second Military Medical University
Changzheng Hospital’s organ transplantation centre was approved to establish the People’s Liberation Army’s first organ transplant research institute in December 2003. It has since developed into the PLA’s highest-ranking institution for organ transplantation that combines medical treatment, education, and research. The research institute officially opened on May 16, 2004 and started conducting kidney, liver, heart, combined liver-kidney, combined pancreas-kidney, and other types of transplants. It claims to lead the country in the total number of transplants performed.111
In 1978, the hospital became one of the first in China to start conducting kidney transplants. It is also among hospitals that have performed the most kidney transplants, yet it claims to have performed only 4,500 to date.112 This figure is exceeded by just two of its doctors. Zhu Youhua, who is considered a leader in the People’s Liberation Army on kidney transplantation, had successfully completed 3,680 kidney transplants as of 2010.113 Li Shenqin has also conducted more than 1,000 transplants.
Zhu Youhua’s team was the first in China to develop a preservation solution for kidney and other organs, and this has now been applied clinically for two decades. This research put China among the world’s pioneering countries in this field.114 The organ preservation solution is being used in 98% of Chinese hospitals.115
The hospital started conducting liver transplants in 1996. According to academic papers published by doctors at this hospital, within the three years leading up to April 2006, “our department treated 120 patients with serious hepatitis using emergency liver transplants.” The shortest wait time was 4 hours between hospitalization and surgery.116 Between April 22 and April 30, 2005, the hospital conducted 16 liver transplants and 15 kidney transplants.117
Since 1991, when the Eighth Five-Year Plan started, the hospital has undertaken 349 scientific research projects at the national, military, and provincial levels, including many projects under the National 973 Program and the National 863 Program. Its research funding totals 110 million RMB. Over the years, it has made 279 research achievements, including eight second-class National Scientific Improvement Awards, 14 first-class provincial and ministerial awards, 35 patents, and 212 published Science Citation Index papers.118
In 2015, the hospital invested 2.9 billion RMB in a new development project in Caolu, Pudong District, with a plan to build a new branch in Pudong with 2,000 beds. The project is expected to be completed within 3 years.119
This hospital worked overtime to conduct a large number of transplants. In a phone call made by a reporter of Sound of Hope Radio, 121 a doctor at the hospital said “We have several shifts working 24 hours a day. We have four teams that can do [transplants].” When asked about the source of donor organs, the doctor said, “We [use] a unified national source. This, how do we say this…only doctors know.”
Xijing Hospital Affiliated with the Fourth Military Medical University
Xijing Hospital, with 3,218 beds, is considered one of China’s top five hospitals in terms of its comprehensive capabilities. It has won numerous awards, grants, and citations.122
This hospital is accredited for all organ transplant types that are conducted in China and has numerous records identifying itself as the first or only institution able to do certain procedures, including the first reconstituted bone xenograft, first partial living-donor liver transplant, first partial living-donor intestine transplant, and China’s first assistive living-donor liver transplant between adults with non-matching blood types. 123
Established in 2000, Xijing Hospital Organ Transplant Center has become the largest organ transplant center in Northwestern China. It specializes in transplantations of the liver, kidney, heart, lung, small intestine, pancreas, and combined organ transplants, as well as the related clinical and basic researches. In 2005 it became the Military Organ Transplant Center with the approval of PLA Department of General Logistics, and then became the Military Organ Transplant Research Institute in 2012. It claims to lead the country in transplantations of liver, kidney and heart. 124
With Professor Dou Kefeng, a well-known expert on hepatobiliary-pancreatic-spleen surgery and liver transplants, as the director of the Organ Transplant Research Institute, and Professor Tao Kaishan as the director of the Organ Transplant Center, the transplant center has a professional team of surgeons, ICU doctors, anesthesiologists, pathologists, and nurses. The center has a total of 110 beds, including 15 ICU beds equipped with the most advanced automatic disinfection laminar flow system in China and negative pressure rooms, and 95 advanced transplant beds. 125
The Research Institute’s online introduction states that it conducted China’s first partial living-donor liver transplant in 1997. The patient survived for 13 years, the longest-surviving living liver transplant recipient. The Institute later conducted China’s first auxiliary orthotopic living-donor partial liver transplant, the first partial liver transplant between adults with different blood types, China’s first high-altitude piggyback liver transplant, Asia’s first combined liver-heart-kidney transplant, Asian’s first and the world’s fourth combined liver-pancreas-kidney transplant, the world’s second and China’s first face transplant, and other operations, such as heart and combined heart-lung transplants. 126
The Research Institute has long-term partnerships and regular collaboration with internationally acclaimed organ transplant centers, including the Thomas E. Starzl Organ Transplant Center at the University of Pittsburgh in the U.S., the Organ Transplant Department of Kyoto University in Japan, the Bismuth Liver Center in France, and the Das Deutsche Herzzentrum (Germany Heart Center) in Berlin.
In recent years, the center has undertaken 37 important projects, including key scientific projects under the nation’s “Eleventh Fifth-Year Plan”, three projects under the National “863 Program”, one key project and 16 general projects under National Natural Science Foundation, and two key breakthrough projects under the People ’s Liberation Army’s “Eleventh Fifth-Year Plan.” It has total research funding of 26.5 million RMB. The center has published 126 SCI papers and 593 articles in domestic journals. It has won a multitude of national, provincial, and military scientific development awards.127
The Hepatobiliary, Splenic and Pancreatic Surgery Department of Xijing Hospital is an important location for the study of the subject in Shaanxi Province. It also serves as a People’s Liberation Army Organ Transplant Centre. According to a Xinhua report in 2010, published with the collaboration of the People’s Liberation Army, the department had 120 hospital beds and performed more than 200 operations per month. Its inpatient department treats more than 2,800 patients per year, with over 80% of operations being major surgeries. 129
The department has conducted nearly all types of liver transplants: traditional, piggyback, from living-donor to split liver to heterotopic liver transplants in the spleen fossa. It conducted China’s first living-donor liver transplant, Asia’s first combined heart-liver-kidney transplant, the world’s first heterotopic liver transplant in the spleen fossa, the world’s first dual split heterotopic liver transplant with one supplied liver, Asia’s longest-surviving combined liver-kidney-spleen transplant, the living-donor liver transplant on the youngest recipient, and the liver transplant at the highest elevation.130
The director of this department, Dou Kefeng, successfully conducted China’s first living-donor liver transplant in 1997. Dou currently serves as the vice director of the Chinese Medical Association (CMA)’s Surgery Division, vice director of the CMA’s People’s Liberation Army Organ Transplant Division, and holds a range of other professional roles. These positions have led him to preside over major national research projects connected with the 863 Plan and a variety of other important research programs under civilian and military auspices. Total funding for his current research projects exceeds 20 million RMB. 131
The hospital’s urology department claims to be the largest and most comprehensive in northwestern China. Its official website says it has 80 beds, performs 50,000 outpatient services per year, and conducts about 2,000 operations per year, 70% of which are large or medium-scale operations. In 1978, the department conducted the first allograft kidney transplant in northwestern China. It claims to lead the country in survival ratios with its kidney transplant patients and the transplanted kidneys. Combined multiple-organ transplantation is one of its specialties. In January 2005, it conducted the first combined liver-kidney-spleen transplant, which became the sixth case in the world. However, its official website states that it conducts only 40 to 60 kidney transplants per year since it completed the first allograft kidney transplant in northwestern China in 1978.132
The extent of its pioneering surgeries, however, would indicate that there is far more activity going on.
The cardiovascular surgery department of Xijing Hospital is a nationally prioritized discipline and a post-doctoral station. It maintains frequent academic exchanges with some of the world’s best cardiovascular hospitals in the U.S., Germany, France, United Kingdom, Australia, Japan, and Mexico, employing 12 internationally- renowned experts as guest professors and providing clinical internships to international students. 133
The department has 3 hospital inpatient sections with 180 beds, an ICU section with 30 beds, 6 dedicated operating rooms, and a cardiovascular research lab of 2,000 square meters equipped with the advanced equipment and a large team. Heart transplantation has become routine surgery at this hospital, its website says. The department conducts close to 3,000 operations annually, 65% of which are complex operations on serious diseases.
The department twice completed three consecutive heart transplants within one day, one instance of which was attributed to vice director Professor Wang Hongbing, who holds the national record for that particular feat. Professor Cai Zhenjie, director of the Armed Police General Hospital Cardiovascular Disease Research Institute and long-time director of the Fourth Military Medical University Cardiovascular Surgery Research Institute, is the other record holder as of September 2003.134
Hospital Qualifications and Facts
First Affiliated Hospital of People’s Liberation Army General Hospital
(People’s Liberation Army No. 304 Hospital)
National level renal transplant centre
This is the first affiliated hospital of the People’s Liberation Army General Hospital. The Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery is its key department with a strong technical force of many well-known specialists and professors. Currently it has 3 Master’s degree advisors, 2 postdoctoral fellows, 5 staff with PhDs and 4 with Master’s degrees. It has 60 inpatient beds, admits more than 1,700 inpatients and conducts more than 1200 surgeries per year. 135
The current director is concurrent professor Jiang Kai, deputy director of the Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery at the People’s Liberation Army General Hospital. Jiang was under the tutelage of a well-known hepatobiliary surgery specialist in China, named Huang Zhiqiang, a member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. Jiang studied liver transplantation at Queen Mary Hospital of the University of Hong Kong under professor S.T. Fan. Jiang was responsible for a number of major programs of the Ministry of Science and Technology, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and other military special programs.
The Department of Urologic Surgery has over 30 medical staff, including 1 chief surgeon/professor, 7 associate chief surgeons; 7 staff with PhDs and 4 staff with Master’s degrees. In recent years the department has developed its business rapidly and has had a certain influence in the Beijing region and national wide.136
Director of this department, renal transplant specialist Ye Linyang has been working in the field for 28 years. He has taught dozens of junior doctors and helped some other institutions to carry out kidney transplants. He has trained a number of core organ transplant personnel.137
Air Force General Hospital
National level renal transplant centre
This is the clinical teaching hospital for more than 10 universities, such as the Second Military Medical University, the Third Military Medical University, the Fourth Military Medical University, etc. It has 2 leading scientists who lead the People’s Liberation Army general medical technology, 1 Air Force chief expert, 13 Air Force level experts, 76 high-level scientific and technological personnel, 18 experts receive special allowances from the State Council. It is a national medical training base, has 125 Master and doctoral advisors, 34 doctorate or Master joint authorization. In 2015, it had 17 post-doctoral stations, over 600 graduate students, interns and visiting physicians. It had undertaken more than 110 research programs for the state, the army and the City of Beijing by 2014. 138
It has nearly 300 deputy chief physicians or above, and 400 professionals with Master’s or Ph. D. degrees. This hospital has over 1000 registered beds.
This hospital has been doing clinical research and practice in liver, kidney, pancreas-kidney, cornea, bone marrow, and stem cell transplantation.
It started kidney transplants in 1986, and has many associated departments related to kidney transplantation, which has guaranteed its seamless development. The hospital offers a special “green channel” (wait-free service) for renal transplant patients.
Kidney transplantation is the important featured specialty of its Urologic Surgery Department. It can carry out 5 kidney transplantation operations simultaneously.139 This department has 7 professionals with senior titles, 6 with doctoral degrees and 3 with Master’s degrees. It has 70 beds.140
The hospital conducted the military’s first combined pancreas-renal transplantation in 1999, and it was also the first hospital in the Beijing area to carry out a liver transplant. 141
The director of its Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Zhang Hongyi, is a doctorial advisor. He engaged in liver transplantation research in 1989, and obtained special national liver transplant funding. He studied at the University of Tokyo as a visiting scholar in 2000, participating in live liver transplant clinical work. He has published more than 60 papers in domestic and foreign core journals, and gained many Science and Technology Progress Awards of the military and from the Ministry of Health. 142
Its hematology department has carried out half-matching bone marrow transplants since 1999, and claims to remain at a leading level both in China and abroad. 143
Armed Police General Hospital
National level liver and renal transplant centre
The Armed Police General Hospital, formerly the Central Guards Regiment Health Centre, is a large, modern, comprehensive 3A hospital providing medical care, health care, education, research, and rescue services. The hospital has 1,380 beds. Its staff includes 13 doctoral advisors and 100 Master’s advisors. It is a national-class postdoctoral research station and a training base for medical students and postgraduates.144
Its Liver Transplant Institute is claimed to be Beijing’s largest liver transplant centre. It was jointly founded by the hospital and the Tianjing Oriental Organ Transplant Centre in late 2001, with liver transplant specialist Shen Zhongyang as the director. It set up a highly-skilled organ transplant team with rich clinical experience in performing liver and kidney surgery, organ transplantation medicine, and organ transplant care. Shen established a standard procedure for liver transplantation that has made it a routine clinical practice in China. Shen’s teams in Tianjing and Beijing both set, and maintained a record of carrying out the most transplants in China. 145
This hospital’s website claims that the volume of liver transplants ranked second place nationwide from 2003 to early 2008. During this period, Shen helped 47 hospitals in 16 provinces start their own liver transplantation services. 146
Zang Yunjin joined the Liver Transplant Institute in January 2005 and served as deputy director. From January 2005 to January 2008, he also instructed many hospitals in Hebei, Henan, and Shandong province to carry out liver transplants. 147
Chen Xinguo began to specialize in liver transplant clinical work in 2002. Chen participated in nearly 2,000 liver transplant surgeries in 13 years and has independently completed over 600 liver transplants. Chen pioneered several types of transplants in China and has completed difficult transplant surgeries, including combined liver-kidney and split liver transplants. He also assisted over 10 institutes inside and outside Beijing to carry out liver transplants. Chen was responsible for major initiatives of two state projects—The 863 Program and The 973 Program, two provincial projects, and two projects for Chinese People’s Armed Police Force.148
In 2005, Liu Hang from the Oriental Organ Transplant Centre formed a renal transplant team at this institute. By July 2010, the number of kidney transplants performed by the team had ranked first in the Beijing-Tianjin area.149 Liu also trained over 10 junior surgeons in liver and kidney procurement.
Niu Yujian has been working in the transplant field for nearly 20 years, and founded the organ transplant drop-in centre. The centre treats more than 30,000 organ transplant recipients annually, including liver, kidney, lung, combined liver-kidney and pancreas-renal transplant recipients.150
The General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region
National level kidney, heart and lung transplant centre
This is one of the largest military hospitals in China. The hospital’s official website and its domestic internet have hardly any information about the scale of organ transplants.
Its kidney transplant centre is well known in China. This department’s featured specialties include allograft kidney transplantation. Currently, it has 11 surgeons, including 7 with senior professional titles, 5 with doctoral degrees and 2 with Master’s degrees.151
Currently its official website shows: “Since it successfully carried out the first case of an allograft kidney transplant in August 1978, the hospital has completed more than 1700 cases of kidney transplant.” “It has 36 inpatient beds.” This less than 100 average annual transplant volume obviously does not match its status of “one of the most famous transplant centres in the country.”
Liu Long, the director of its urologic surgery department, specializes in kidney transplantation. Liu is a committee member of the Chinese Organ Transplantation Society and the Kidney Transplantation Group of the Chinese Urological Association. He is also the deputy director of the People’s Liberation Army Organ Transplant Professional Committee.
The website of its hepatobiliary surgery department shows that it has 11 surgeons, including 1 chief and 7 deputy chief surgeons. Among them are 1 postdoctoral fellow, 4 doctorates and 3 Master’s degree holders. The only message about liver transplantation on this web page states that Zhou Wenping, director of this department, studied Liver Transplant in Sweden’s Hudding Hospital from 1996 to 1997. He successfully implemented the first liver transplant in the Shenyang Military Region in October 2002.152
The hospital’s ophthalmology department is renowned in the People’s Liberation Army, especially for its specialty of cornea transplantation. The hospital claims to have the largest eye bank in northeastern China as well as in the entire military. This eye bank has abundant donor sources. The quantity of cornea transplants performed is at the forefront among major hospitals in the northeast. It is also known as the only hospital in the Shenyang region capable of readily providing supplies to meet the demand of cornea transplantation patients.152
Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University
National level liver, kidney, pancreas and small intestines transplant centre
This is the first affiliated hospital of the Southern Medical University (formerly the First Military Medical University). As the earliest medical centre to serve foreigners, Nanfang Hospital has admitted more than 110,000 patients from over 90 countries and regions. The Chinese Communist Party Central Military Commission named it “Exemplary Medical Division [Serving] Overseas Chinese.” It ranks 16th in the latest ranking for China’s best hospitals (Fudan edition). The hospital has 2,225 beds, more than 600 senior professionals and technical personnel, 102 doctoral advisors, and 148 Master’s advisors. 154
The Department of Organ Transplantation has over 30 medical staff members, including 2 professors, 6 associate professors and associate chief surgeons, and 4 attending surgeons. The majority of the professionals have PhDs. Three of them were trained as post-doctoral fellows at the Organ Transplant Centre of the University of Pittsburgh, the Organ Transplant Centre of Northwestern University, and the Organ Transplant Centre of University of Cincinnati, respectively. 155
The head of the kidney transplant centre, Professor Yu Lixin, a PhD advisor, is a distinguished expert for the Bureau of Health Care for Central Officials, head of the national kidney transplant professional group, and chairman of the Guangdong Organ Transplantation Society. He has achieved an advanced level internationally in research on kidney, liver, pancreas, and abdominal multi-organ transplants.156 In collaboration with colleagues, Yu has completed over 3,800 surgical cases of kidney transplants. He has published over 200 papers as the first author, and trained one hundred graduate students so far. 157
In a paper published in 2004, he stated that as early as November 2001, the hospital had conducted 2,123 kidney transplants. The hospital consistently ranks second in the nation for the volume of kidney transplants performed.158
The research conducted by this Department of Kidney Transplantation has reached an internationally advanced level. In addition, the research in the field of liver transplants, combined pancreas-kidney and liver-kidney transplants has been leading nationally. Since 1978, the quantity and quality of kidney transplants are among the national top list, ranking second to top in China and top in Guangdong Province. 159
Its Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery is one of largest of three liver transplant centres in southern China. It carried out relevant basic and clinical research early, and is one of the institutions carrying out the largest volume of liver transplants in Guangdong Province. The centre is state-authorized to offer Doctorate Degree. In recent years, it has been responsible for more than 10 programs from the National Natural Science Foundation, the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, and the Key Technologies R & D Program of Guangdong Province, while supported by one million RMB of funding. 160
Professor Zhou Jie, the director of the Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, a PhD advisor, has especially deep knowledge in the subject of liver transplantation. Deputy Director Yang Dinghua, a PhD advisor, has worked in the area of clinical application and research on hepatobiliary surgery and liver transplants for over 20 years.161
The hospital has trained a large number of doctoral and Master’s students in its kidney transplantation program. These students began with no knowledge of kidney transplantation but became relatively skilled kidney transplant specialists after finishing their internships.162
No. 117 Hospital of Nanjing Military Region
National level kidney transplant centre
This is the largest comprehensive military general hospital in Zhejiang Province that combines medical treatment, education, research and health care. It serves as a teaching hospital for Zhejiang University, Second Military Medical University, Jiangsu University, Anhui Medical University, Wenzhou Medical University, and Medical College of Hangzhou Normal University.163 It has over 1000 beds. 164
Its large kidney disease centre provides internal medicine and surgical therapy, dialysis treatment, and kidney transplant for kidney diseases. The centre currently has 83 beds. It’s one of three medical institutions in Zhejiang Province permitted to perform kidney transplantation operations.165 However one can hardly find any information related to its organ transplant volume on the website.
Xu Longgen is the chief surgeon in the kidney transplant team. He is the deputy director of the Organ Transplantation Association of the Nanjing Military Region, and a standing committee member of Zhejiang Organ Transplantation Association. He has worked in this area for almost 30 years. However, the only transplant volume data on the website shows that Xu has given guidance in carrying out over 600 cases of kidney transplants.166
Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University
National level kidney transplant centre
This is the second affiliated hospital of the Southern Medical University and the School of Clinical Medicine. It has more than 400 senior medical staff, with over 90% holding Master’s degrees in the medical field. The hospital has a capacity of 2,200 beds. 167
Organ transplantation is the hospital’s featured specialty. It was among the earliest institutions with accredited doctoral programs in organ transplantation. Its organ transplant centre is one of China’s major transplant centres, and has achieved an internationally advanced level in cadaveric renal transplantation, relative-donor kidney transplantation, liver and combined pancreas-kidney transplantation. Its kidney transplantation enjoys widespread repute both in China and abroad. 168
The centre is broken into three sections: an organ transplant ward, blood purification facilities, and a transplant immunity research centre (including tissue typing). Its website shows the transplant ward has 42 expandable beds, 30 hotel style single rooms, and 10 ICU beds. All its general wards have a separate bathroom, color TV, refrigerator, and telephone. 169
There are 37 members in the department. It has 8 professors and associate professors, 2 associate chief technicians, and 4 lecturers, including 6 PhDs, with Master’s degrees, two who has studied abroad, and 4 doctoral and Master’s advisors.
According to a website archive in 2013, the centre had already performed over 3,100 kidney transplants. After three years, the number of total kidney transplants shown on the website didn’t increase, but was reduced to around 2000. This transplant centre received various national and provincial research funding of over 3.7 million yuan as part of the tenth five-year plan. They have published over 70 academic papers in the past 3 years, 13 are included as part of the Science Citation Index, one of the article has SCI impact factor of 36.6. It has developed large number of doctorate, master’s and fellows over the years. 170
Zhao Ming, director of the organ transplant department and a member of the National Organ Transplant Committee, has very rich experience in kidney, pancreas, combined pancreas-kidney, liver, and islet cell transplantation.171 He is responsible for a number of major national, military, and Guangdong province research projects, and has published over 20 papers in major journals and participated in the writing of two books.
Lin Minzhuan used to be the deputy director at the hospital (he is now deputy director of organ transplant department at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College). When he was on staff he personally conducted 2,600 kidney transplants, dozens of liver transplants, and combined pancreas-kidney transplants, according to the hospital’s website. He has directed or worked for a number of hospitals in organ transplants, and is vice chairman of the Organ Transplantation Group of the Guangzhou Committee of the Medical Society, and a standing committee member of the Organ Transplantation Group of the Guangdong Provincial Committee.172
The hospital does not have a liver transplant permit, but it performed liver transplants. Its hepatobiliary surgery department website says that it began liver transplants in 2001, and that since then its technology has matured. It completed the first Rh-negative rare blood type, and the first “no-blood transfusion” liver transplant surgery in mainland China. The longest patient survival after kidney transplant exceeded 14 years. 173
No. 180 Hospital of Nanjing Military Region
National level liver transplant centre
The hospital’s liver transplant centre has 4 chief surgeons, 3 deputy chief surgeons, 1 PhD, and 10 staff members with Master’s degrees. The hospital hosts Master’s degree training units for many well-known medical universities, including Southern Medical University, Medical College of Nanchang University, Fujian Medical University, etc.
In September 2002, the centre successfully performed the first liver transplantation in southern Fujian Province. It holds 4 “national first and only” records in liver transplantation technology. It has 126 beds.174
Zhang Chenghua, director of the liver transplant centre, has a good reputation and is influential among his peers. 175 He has expertise in maintaining the function of organs, liver and kidney transplantation.176
Its Ophthalmic Department is the Ophthalmology Centre of Nanjing Military. It has spearheaded keratoplasty in Fujian Province, and established the Quanzhou eye bank. It routinely carries out keratoplasty and amniotic membrane transplants. 177 In June 2010, it was officially named the No. 180 Ophthalmic Hospital. It has 180 beds, over 10 staff members with senior professional titles, and 22 with Master’s degrees and above.178
Daping Hospital of Third Military Medical University
National level kidney transplant centre
This hospital has over 2,000 professional technical staff, including over 200 of senior rank, nearly 200 PhD and Master’s advisors, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, and 4 principal scientists of the state “973” project. All of its clinical disciplines and first level disciplines in biomedical engineering offer PhD and graduate degree programs with clinical post-doctoral research stations. It trains over 1,800 students from various disciplines and accepts over 500 post-graduate physicians annually.
It was one of the first hospitals in China to carry out heart, liver, lung, kidney, and other major organ transplants. It performed the first pediatric heart transplant in China, and its lung transplant survival time ranks second in China.179
Its Department of Urologic Surgery was founded in 1965 as one of China’s earliest urologic in-patient wards. It has distinct advantages and features in renal transplantation; its academic and technological strength are advanced in southwestern China and even nationally. Its academic disciplines also exert important influence in the country. Its team includes 11 senior professionals, 7 intermediate professionals, 6 post-doctoral fellows, and 11 PhDs. It has more than 150 beds. 180
This department has 5 PhD and 2 Master’s advisors. It recruits 8 to 10 PhD and graduate students each year. In total, it has trained over 100 medical PhD and Master’s students and several hundred post-graduate physicians for the military and the region. It currently undertakes over 20 projects, including those from the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Ministry of Health Research Funds, and the Ministry of Education’s Starting Foundation for Talent Returning from Overseas. In recent years, it has won 13 military, provincial, and ministry-level awards and obtained over 30 national patents. It has published over 40 SCI research papers overseas and over 200 articles in domestic journals.
The hospital’s annual gross revenue was 36 million RMB in the late 1990s, when transplant operations had just begun. In 2009, its revenue exceeded 900 million RMB, a 25 fold increase.181
The hospital has undertaken over 660 major and key research projects, including the state “973” and “863” programs, as well as those from the National Natural Science Foundation. It has won over 150 second prize awards or above at the national, military, provincial, and ministerial levels. In China’s twelfth five-year plan, it was awarded more than 400 national patents. In 2014, it earned 10 million RMB from its scientific and technological achievements. In just the past 5 years, it has published over 650 high-quality articles in the SCI and EI journals and the three top journals, Cell, Nature and Science.
No. 153 Hospital of Jinan Military Region
National level kidney transplant centre
This hospital was founded through the merger of the People’s Liberation Army No. 153 Hospital and the People’s Liberation Army No. 460 Hospital (former People’s Liberation Army Air Force Zhengzhou Hospital)182. It is the teaching base for dozens of military universities, including the Fourth Military Medical University, People’s Liberation Army Medical College, Bethune Medical University, Zhengzhou Medical University, etc. It has trained a large number of experts for both military and civilian hospitals. It has over 1,800 beds, 5 post-doctoral fellows, over 30 staff with PhD degrees, over 120 staff with Master’s degrees, over 130 staff with senior professional titles, and over 150 with intermediate professional titles. 183
Its Urologic Surgery Department pioneered kidney transplant surgery in Henan Province in the 1980s. Kidney transplantation has become the hospital’s specialty and is domestically “state of the art” The department has 8 senior technical staff, 2 staff members with PhDs, and 3 staff members with Master’s degrees. It has 80 beds. 184
According to media reports, this hospital had completed about 800 cases of kidney transplants as early as in September 2000. It actively solicited business in Southeast Asia. 184
On September 26, 2000, the Overseas Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan column of People’s Daily reported this type of story: Lu Fang, a 53-year-old private school teacher in Taipei, learned from the media that the People’s Liberation Army 460 Hospital had successfully conducted about 800 kidney transplants. Lu Fang arrived the hospital in Zhengzhou on September 3. After eight days, the transplant experts spent more than three hours to implement a kidney transplant for Lu Fang. Since the disease situation was complex, this hospital specifically prepared two kidney “donors” for her transplant surgery.
According to a doctor’s thesis from the Urologic Surgery Department of the People’s Liberation Army No. 460 Hospital, by 2005, the hospital had carried out at least 1,217 kidney transplants. 186 The department began liver transplants in 2003.
www.china-kidney.com was the official website of the Central China People’s Liberation Army Renal Transplant Collaboration, which was formerly the People’s Liberation Army 460 Hospital Urology Surgery. The contents of this website included an online booking transplant form, a transplant expert’s quiz, a video on a live kidney transplant surgery, and an organ transplant matching software available for download. (The site can no longer be accessed.)187
PLA No. 452 Hospital
(Air Force Hospital of Chengdu Military Command)
National level kidney transplant centre
According to a Xinhua report in 2009, the People’s Liberation Army 452 (Chengdu Air Force) hospital, spearheaded by the development of kidney transplantation, leaped from a “township-level scale” to the equivalent of a large hospital within several years. It claims that it has performed the most kidney transplants in Sichuan Province.188
In 2000, the hospital had 89 vacancies for doctors, and its facilities and equipment remained at the same level as they were in the early 1990s. Additionally, the hospital owed external debts of over 6 million RMB. However as of 2008, it had increased its in-patient-bed numbers from 210 to more than 1,000; the value of its medical equipment increased from 30 million to 120 million RMB, and the hospital’s income increased from 20 million in 2000 to 260 million RMB in 2008.189
At present, the hospital has more than 1,500 beds, 78 senior professionals, 195 intermediate professionals, 26 staff with PhDs, 95 with Master’s degrees, and a large number of post-doctoral fellows. The hospital’s kidney transplant capabilities are well-known both in southwestern China and nationwide.189
On April 28, 2006, a reporter from an oversea media conducted an investigation into this hospital under the guise of a relative of a patient looking for organs. Yahong Xu, the director of the urologic surgery department, said that after mid-May 2006, there would be a number of kidneys available for transplant, and also that there were some voluntary donors, and that organs would be provided by young, healthy, Falun Gong practitioners. Xu himself had conducted more than 500 transplants, or more than 100 per year over the previous two or three years.191
After this was publicly exposed, the hospital deleted pages containing transplant data from its official site. Xu’s personal web page claimed that he had a high reputation in the field of organ transplantation in southwestern China and within the entire military, but shows he has only carried out 287 kidney transplants during his nearly 20 years of experience in renal transplantation.192
During the same investigation, Honghui Li, the director of the kidney transplant centre at Tsinghua University Yuquan Hospital (Second Hospital of Tsinghua University) in Beijing, said that, due to the recent lack of donors in Beijing, he had been assigned to Chengdu, Sichuan Province a couple of months ago, where there were more kidney sources in renal transplantation.193
Shaanxi Armed Police Corps Hospital
National level kidney transplant centre
This hospital claims to be among the top in the nation in the field of kidney and heart transplantation. Its patients come from nearly 20 provinces and cities in China, as well as regions including Hong Kong, Taiwan, and overseas.194
The hospital’s Wanke Heart Centre has a first-class surgical team that consists of many of China’s renowned experts and scholars who have studied overseas. The centre claims to have carried out the most heart transplants in China.195
Senior medical specialists in liver transplantation and hepatobiliary surgery have been hired to work part time or as consultants from the People’s Liberation Army General Hospital, the Armed Police General Hospital, etc. Meanwhile, it has recruited college students from more than 30 prestigious universities, greatly improving the quality and structure of the medical team.196
Kidney transplantation is one of its fields of expertise. Zhao Xueyi, vice president and academic discipline leader, has conducted a large number of kidney transplant research projects and studies, and applied them to clinical practice. Zhao has also set three national records.
The hospital performed three transplants simultaneously in the morning of June 7, 2005, with more than 30 medical staff on the front lines. Professor Liu Zhenwen, a renowned liver transplant expert, served as the chief surgeon of liver transplants. Professor Zhao Xueyi, the director for the kidney transplant centre, was the chief surgeon for kidney transplants.197
General Hospital of Jinan Military Command
National level liver, kidney transplant centre
This hospital has 2,360 beds, 390 staff with graduate degrees and above, including 177 PhDs and post-doctoral fellows, and 213 staff with master’s degrees. Its specialties include kidney, liver, cornea and bone marrow transplants.198
In 1987, the hospital established its Urologic Surgery Department, which was approved to be the Urologic Surgery Centre of Jinan Military Command. In 2005, it was approved to serve as a kidney transplant centre and dialysis centre for the military by the People’s Liberation Army General Logistics Department. Since 2003, it has carried out various liver, combined liver-kidney, and other types of transplants.199 Its transplant volume ranks among the top ten in China and the top five in the military.200
Many members of its transplant surgery department have studied at well-known liver transplant centres, including Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, the Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital in Shanghai, and the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University.
Director Zhen Zhong of the hepatobiliary surgery department studied under academician Wu Mengchao at the Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital in Shanghai. He also studied pancreatic surgery under Professor Hu Xiangui at Changhai Hospital in Shanghai.201
On December 1, 2008, Qilu Evening News reported that Director Li Xiangtie was leading the urologic surgery team with top-notch surgeons/physicians. The team was capable of performing 6 kidney transplants simultaneously. It set a national record of performing 16 kidney transplants within 24 hours. Its annual transplant volume has ranked among the nation’s top 10 for 10 consecutive years.202
The Qilu Evening News reported on July 28, 2003 that this hospital charges 30,000 to 40,000 RMB for a kidney transplant and 20,000 to 40,000 RMB per year for immunosuppressive drugs thereafter. At the time, it had performed more than 1,300 kidney transplants.203
The hospital’s website states that its urologic surgery department has completed 1,500 kidney transplants since 1978.204 However, according to the Qilu Evening News in 2008, the department once performed 16 kidney transplants in 24 hours. In addition, transplantation.org.cn reported in 2012 that director Zhang Aimin, claimed that the hospital had performed more than 2,500 kidney transplants between 1978 and 2012.205 The total now showing on the hospital’s website in 2016 is 1,000 fewer than Zhang’s figure in 2012.
Since 2003, its hepatobiliary surgery centre has carried out the first liver transplant in the Jinan Military Region and the first combined liver-kidney transplant in the province.206
Its Ophthalmology Centre established a cornea transplant centre and operates the province’s first eye bank.207
General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
National level liver, kidney transplant centre
This hospital has the largest urologic surgery department in southern China and among the southern military command. It began to conduct kidney transplants in 1981. Its staff includes 4 master’s and PhD advisors, one General-level specialist, 8 decorated experts, 7 post-doctoral fellows and staff with PhDs, and 8 staff with master’s degrees. It is noted as having first-class specialized equipment.208
The department has led and participated in over 20 research projects funded by the National Natural Science Foundation, the Ministry of Health, and the Guangdong Province Science Committee. It has received 6 national patents and edited nearly 20 monographs. It has published more than 300 papers domestically (more than 10 in SCI journals).
The hospital’s liver transplant centre has a strong and versatile team that is among the best in the province.209 It has carried out clinical research on liver transplants since the 1980s. In recent years, it has completed allogeneic liver, allogeneic piggyback liver, secondary liver, and liver-kidney transplants. It also conducted liver transplants for the elderly (the oldest patient was 78, being the oldest liver transplant recipient in the world).
Professor Huo Feng is skilled in liver transplantation. He studied under academician Wu Mengchao of the Chinese Academy of Science.210
Wang Shaoping, who oversees transplants, is a relatively influential liver transplant specialist in the country and a standing committee member of the Guangzhou Military Command Organ Transplantation Society. He is a contributing editor of the national core Journal of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery and has published more than 20 papers. He has led two research projects funded by the Guangdong Science Foundation and received two military science and technology progress awards.211
“The high success rate, fewer complications, fast sourcing of donor livers, high quality of donor livers, and lower cost of surgery are the advantages of liver transplantation in our department.” Its liver transplant operations are at the forefront in Guangdong Province in terms of surgery volume.212
In the morning of April 21, 2006, the director of its urologic surgery department, Zhu (male with a Hakka accent) told a WOIPFG investigator assuming the identity of a transplant patient over the phone, “Come as quickly as possible. There were 5 transplants last night and 6 more transplants scheduled for tonight. There are some scheduled for next week as well.”213
Its ophthalmology department conducts cornea transplants.
No. 181 Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
National level liver and kidney transplant centre
This is a training base for graduate students of Southern Medical University, the Third Military Medical University in Chongqing, the Second Military Medical University in Shanghai, and other schools. It has a number of People’s Liberation Army medical centres, clinical bases, research institutes, and key specialties under the Guangzhou Military Command. The hospital has over 200 specialists and professors with associate senior titles or above, and over 200 staff with PhD and graduate degrees in medicine. It has more than 1,500 beds.214
It is known to have strong organ transplant capabilities. It serves as the organ transplant centre for Guangzhou Military Command and is the director unit of the academic commission of organ transplantation under the Guangzhou Military Command. It also hosts the organ transplantation branch of the Guangxi Medical Association. It conducted its first kidney transplant in 1986 and the first pancreas-kidney transplant in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces in 2000.
A People’s Liberation Army Kidney Transplant and Dialysis Centre was established in its nephrology department. Its kidney transplantation capabilities are claimed to be at an advanced level in the People’s Liberation Army and at a leading level in the Guangzhou Military Command and the Guangxi region. Its staff includes 2 PhD advisors, 4 master’s advisors, 5 chief surgeons, 3 associate chief surgeons, and 4 attending physicians. It has 150 beds.215
The centre performed 8 transplant surgeries on December 30, 2012 alone, including heart, lung, kidney, liver, cornea, and islet cell transplants. Its organ transplant technology is known to be at a leading standard in the nation.216 In March 2016, the hospital was recruiting two organ transplant liaisons.217
Sui Weiguo, the centre’s director, adopted various blood purification methods to remove antibodies in highly sensitive kidney transplant patients. This has significantly improved the transplant success rate. He is the chairman of the Guangzhou Military Command Transplantation Professional Committee, chairman of the Guangxi Medical Association Transplantation Subcommittee, and a board member of the People’s Liberation Army Organ Transplantation Association.218
The centre’s archived website shows that its bed and medical personnel count has not been updated since 2007. It still claims to perform over 150 kidney transplants per year since 2000. Based on the figure of 150 beds, each bed would in that case be used by only one patient every year. For such a small number of reported transplants, there would be no need for more than ten beds and one chief surgeon, let alone a whole building.
The hospital is not qualified to conduct heart transplants, and its website does not mention the subject. However, Sui Weiguo and other transplantation experts published a paper about acute rejection of heart transplants, based on a study of a group of 157 of his heart transplant patients. Therefore, Sui Weiguo, the director of the kidney transplant centre, has performed heart transplants as well.219
Moreover, Pan Yuchen from People’s Liberation Army No. 181 Hospital and other experts from the cardiothoracic surgery department of the People’s Hospital of Guangxi, conducted experiments and clinical research in heart transplantation using a partially continuous beating technique. The technique is advanced internationally and has been applied in other hospitals extensively.220
The hepatobiliary surgery department’s archived website shows that it has had 50 beds since 2011 and performed over 30 liver transplants in total. However, the number was deleted in 2013.221 The equivalent annual volume of transplants would not meet even the Ministry of Health’s minimum requirement for transplant certification.
In the late 1990s, this hospital and the People’s Liberation Army General Hospital in Beijing began sharing medical resources and set up remote online consultations. In early 2005, it spent 250,000 RMB to build a remote medical network through military satellites, connecting over 200 military hospitals and more than 1,000 experts. This remote treatment model provides patients with a platform for accessing high-end medical resources.222
No. 303 Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
National level kidney transplant centre
The hospital has more than 1,200 professional staff, including 112 with senior titles and 208 PhDs, master’s degree holders, and post-doctoral fellows. Its organ transplantation department is a specialized centre of the Guangzhou Military Command.223
The Organ Transplant Centre of the hospital was established in May 2004。The first liver-kidney combined transplant was carried out in 2005. 224 In 2010, it established a Transplantation Research Institute and Key Laboratory Training Base that integrates clinical care, education, and research. It has over 20 post-doctoral fellows, PhDs, and Master’s.225
Its 10-story organ transplantation building became operational in 2006.226 It performs kidney, liver, heart, lung, cornea, and multi-organ transplants.
Sun Xuyong, president of the hospital’s Transplantation Research Institute, director of the Guangxi Transplantation Key Laboratory, and director of the Organ Transplant Centre of Guangzhou Military Command, studied under Professor Yu Lixin. Sun founded the Organ Transplant Centre at No. 303 Hospital in May 2004 and founded the hospital’s Transplantation Research Institute in June 2010. His research in kidney transplantation for high-risk uremia patients and multi-organ transplantation is at a leading level in China.227
Though the hospital is qualified for only kidney transplants, it has also carried out liver, lung, and cornea transplants. According to a Guangxi News report on December 14, 2012, more than 60 doctors carried out 6 transplant surgeries in 6 operating rooms simultaneously at No. 303 Hospital on that day. These included liver, lung, pancreas-kidney, and kidney transplants, as well as two cornea transplants. The surgeries continued until 1:00 am and ultimately achieved success.228
Dr. Sun Xuyong stated that the six organs were procured from the same donor, but did not explain the source of the donor. Lan Liugen, deputy director of the surgery division, indicated that this procedure at the hospital had reached an internationally advanced level, and that only transplant hospitals in the United States, Germany, Japan, and other developed countries can procure multiple organs from the same donor simultaneously. At the time, only two hospitals in China had this capability; the other was the Tongji Organ Transplant Research Institute of the Huazhong University of Science and Technology.229
Its organ transplantation department has published 23 academic papers in recent years (12 in core journals), including a series of clinical research on kidney transplants for elderly patients that had won a second-prize People’s Liberation Army medical achievement award.230
This hospital’s Eye Centre is a key discipline for the Guangzhou Military Command and the hospital itself. It is an ophthalmology education base for the Third Military Medical University, Southern Medical University, and other universities. It was one of the earliest institutions in China to carry out cornea transplants. Its surgical volume and technology are at the forefront in Guangxi Province.231
Chengdu Military General Hospital
National level kidney transplant centre
Chengdu Military General Hospital serves as a base for kidney-transplant-related medical treatment, research, and education in Southwestern China. It serves as a teaching hospital for the Third Military Medical University, Southwest Jiaotong University College of Medicine, and others. It has 2,500 beds, 11 post-doctoral fellows, 119 staff members with PhDs, 186 with Master’s degrees, 153 professionals with senior titles, and 345 with intermediate titles.232
Its urologic surgery department is one of the main departments conducting organ transplants. Since 1979, the department has continuously carried out kidney transplants for the past several decades now, reaching an advanced level in China. It has 11 surgeons and physicians, including 3 professors and chief surgeons, 4 associate professors/associate chief surgeons, 4 attending surgeons, 5 staff members with PhDs, and 2 with Master’s degrees. In addition to kidney transplants, the department also carries out liver and bone marrow transplants. The department has 50 inpatient beds.233 234
Its hepatobiliary surgery department has performed liver transplants extensively. The department has 2 professors, 3 associate professors, and 3 attending surgeons, all of whom hold PhD degrees and two of them were trained overseas. This department has 58 beds.235
Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military
National level liver, kidney, pancreas and small intestine transplant centre
This large, comprehensive military hospital located in the mid-southern region of China began to carry out clinical kidney and liver transplantation in the late 1970s. It was one of the pioneering institutions to conduct organ transplants in China.
Its urologic surgery department is now the centre of kidney transplantation in the Guangzhou Military Command.236 It has 126 open beds and a professional team consisting mainly of PhDs and Master’s degree holders.237
The hospital website claims its Urology Surgery Department has carried out more than 1,500 kidney transplants, more than 130 liver transplants and 11 combined liver and kidney transplants.238
However, just one surgeon—Tang Ligong, the chief surgeon of the department—is listed on the website as having carried out over 1,200 kidneys and more than 100 liver transplants.239 Thus, if the number of transplants attributed to Tang was accurate, it would mean that the many other surgeons working full time at the hospital had only performed 300 kidney transplants over more than a decade.
The same problem arises with the data as of June 2009, when the website says that Tang Ligong had carried out 1,100 kidney transplants. Based on these numbers, he only carried out around 100 transplants in the next 7 years. All this is suggestive of far greater transplant numbers than stated, and a deliberate attempt to obscure, distort, and low-ball the actual numbers.
Incidentally, Tang Ligong was caught in a telephone call, published in 2008, talking to an individual he took to be the family member of a patient. He said “It does not matter if donors are Falun or not. If it is needed, we use Falun Gong [practitioners]”240
The Second Affiliated Hospital of Hubei Medical University and Wuhan General Hospital coordinate over the use of source organs from Falun Gong practitioners according to WOIPFG’s investigation.241
14 Seven Groups of Data Demonstrate the Leap Achieved by the Chinese Military Medical System During the Past 30 Years
Source: Xinhua News Agency December 17, 2008
15 WOIPFG Releases List of 7371 Medical Personnel from 765 Non-Military Medical Institutions Suspected of Harvesting Organs from Living Falun Gong Practitioners
WOIPFG Releases List of 2098 Medical Personnel in 100 People’s Liberation Army and Armed Police Hospitals Suspected of Live Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners
16 Introduction to the PLA General Hospital
17 Introduction to the PLA General Hospital
18 Introduction to the PLA General Hospital Urology Department
19 “High-End Medical Organizations – People’s Liberation Army No. 301 Hospital International Medical Centre.”
Source: Sina Blog (Top Medical Network).
20 “Investigation Leads: People’s Liberation Army 201 Hospital Participating in Live Organ Harvesting.”
Minghui.org. August 25, 2007.
21 “Investigation Leads: Frequent Transplant Surgeries at People’s Liberation Army General Hospital in Beijing.”
Source: Minghui.org. February 6, 2014.
22 “The Truth Behind Li Qihua’s Renunciation in People’s Daily.” Minghui.org.
23 Matas, David; Kilgour, David. “BLOODY HARVEST – Revised Report into Allegations of Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong
Practitioners in China.” January 31, 2007.
24 Brief Introduction of the Organ Transplantation Centre of the No. 309 Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army 2010-11-17
25 Brilliant History of Hepatobiliary Surgery at the PLA General Hospital, Xinhua Net, July 4, 2007
26 Hepatobiliary Surgery – Doctor Introduction – Dong Jiahong. Beijing Tsinghua Changgung Hospital.
27 Department of Kidney Transplantation at Yiyang People’s Hospital haodf.com
28 China Reforms Transplant Practices in Bid to Join International Community
The AJT Report 20 DEC 2007
29 “The Hepatobiliary Department’s Battle Team.” Xinhua Net. July 10, 2007
肝胆外科的战斗团队， 新华网 2007年07月10日
30 Introduction to the PLA General Hospital Hepatobiliary Surgery
31 “The Hepatobiliary Department’s Battle Team.” Xinhua Net. July 10, 2007
肝胆外科的战斗团队， 新华网 2007年07月10日
32 Introduction to the PLA General Hospital Hepatobiliary Surgery
33 Introduction to the PLA General Hospital Urology Department
34 Progress of China’s Clinical Kidney Allografts
Medical Journal of the Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces Vol. 15, No. 06, June 2004
Author: Yu Lixin, Organ Transplant Centre of Nanfang Hospital Affiliated with First Military Medical University
(now Southern Medical University)
我国临床同种肾脏移植进展 《武警医学》2004年6月15卷6期, 作者：广州南方医院器官移植中心主任于立新
36 The PLA General Hospital
38 Brief Introduction of the Organ Transplantation Centre of the No. 309 Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army
Refer to the archived link:
39 Shi Yibing – Ho Leung Ho Lee Foundation
40 Brief Introduction of the Organ Transplantation Center of the No. 309 Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army
41 Shi Yibing – Ho Leung Ho Lee Foundation
42 Brief Introduction of the Organ Transplantation Center of the No. 309 Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army
43 Brief Introduction of the Second Affiliated Hospital to General Hospital (No. 309 Hospital) of the People’s Liberation Army
Good Doctors Online May 7, 2008
解放军总医院第二附属医院（原309医院）简介 好大夫在线 2008-05-07
44 Exclusive interview with Shi Bingyi – the director of Organ Transplantation Center of No. 309 Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army: Organ Transplant needs to be innovative Source: Xinhua Military – Xinhua Net February 06, 2012
独家专访309医院器官移植中心主任石炳毅：器官移植应不断创新 2012年02月06日 来源： 新华网
45 (no footnote)
46 Shi Yibing – Ho Leung Ho Lee Foundation
47 The Chinese Kidney Transplantation Datacentre Becomes the World’s Second Largest Renal Transplantation Database
49 Brief Introduction of the Organ Transplantation Centre of the No. 309 Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army
50 Entering the Well-Known Specialty Center of the People’s Liberation Army: The Organ Transplantation Center of the No. 309
Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army Xinhua Military – Xinhua Net February 28, 2012
51 “The Road of Organ Transplantation in China.” Dooland.com. Source: Oriental Outlook. September 27, 2013.
52 The Third Comprehensive Ward Improves Its Working Process and Shortens the Average Length of Hospitalization of
Kidney Transplant Patients West China Hospital, Sichuan University 2013-06-28
第三综合病房改进工作流程，缩短肾移植患者平均住院日 四川大学华西医院 2013-06-28
53 Brief Introduction of the Organ Transplantation Centre of the No. 309 Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army
56 People’s Liberation Army’s Research Center for Kidney Diseases
57 The postdoctoral research station at the General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command
58 People’s Liberation Army’s Research Centre for Kidney Diseases
59 People’s Liberation Army’s Research Centre for Kidney Diseases
60 200-2 Nanjing Military Command General Hospital Research Centre for Kidney Diseases Introduction Good Doctor Online
61 Decision to Learn from Comrades Li Jieshou and Li Leishi China Military Online March 16, 2007
63 Brothers Academicians – Interview of Nanjing Military Command General Hospital
Vice Presidents Li Jieshou and Li Leishi
Source: Xinhua News Agency 2007-06-14
64 Breakthrough of One Thousand Kidney Transplant Performed at General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command
Source: Sina News December 6, 2004
65 Chinese Renal Transplant Handbook ” Published in Shanghai Filling the Gaps in Guiding Clinical Practice in China
China Medical Tribune Author: LiYuanyang April 7, 2005
《中国肾移植手册》在沪首发指导临床实践填补国内空白 来源：中国医学论坛报 作者：李远洋2005-04-07
66 China Published the Second Edition of Kidney Transplant Handbook October 9, 2009
67 Liu Zhihong, Nanjing Military Command General Hospital
68 Academician Zhihong Became Dean of Medical School of Nanjing University
69 BiomedExperts Zhi-Hong Liu
70 Li LS, Liu ZH. kidney transplant – PubMed – NCBI Search result :
72 Recurrent or de novo IgA nephropathy with crescent formation after renal transplantation
73 Special Malignancy Pattern in Chinese Renal Transplantation Recipients: A Single Centre Experience and Literature Review
77 AKI & CRRT Conference Information
78 People’s Liberation Army’s Research Centre for Kidney Diseases
79 People’s Liberation Army’s Research Center for Kidney Diseases
80 Organ Donation After Death is Theoretically Exist, but Hard to Do in Reality Sohu Health 2008-11-27
黎磊石：死亡后器官捐献理论上存在 现实中难做到 搜狐健康 2008-11-27
82 Organ Donation After Death is Theoretically Exist, but Hard to Do in Reality Sohu Health 2008-11-27
黎磊石：死亡后器官捐献理论上存在 现实中难做到 Sohu Health 2008-11-27
83 WOIPFG Releases List of 2098 Medical Personnel in 100 PLA and Armed Police Hospitals
Suspected of Live Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners
84 Brief Introduction of the Urinary Transplant Program at Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command
Dated: April 1, 2012
85 Division of Urology at Fuzhou General Hospital Good Doctor Online
86 Tan Jianming’s Advanced Accomplishments People’s Daily
87 Completing 5 Liver Transplants in 17 Hours Without Sleep or Rest Transplantation China,
Source: Southeast Express March 10, 2014 Author: Shuping Huang
“17小时不眠不休完成5台肝移植手术” 日期：2014-03-10 来源：东南快报 作者：黄淑平
88 A Brief History of the Urology Surgery Department of the PLA Kidney Disease Centre, p.157
89 The Liver Transplantation Centre at Southwest Hospital The World of Liver and Gallbladder
90 A ‘Panacea’ for Treating End-Stage Liver Disease”
Hbver.com, Source: Health News December 30, 2004
“对付终末期肝病这里有‘金刚钻’” 文章来源：健康报 《战胜乙肝网》更新时间：2004-12-30
91 A ‘Panacea’ for Treating End-Stage Liver Disease”
Hbver.com, Source: Health News December 30, 2004
“对付终末期肝病这里有‘金刚钻’” 文章来源：健康报 《战胜乙肝网》更新时间：2004-12-30
93 Chinese Journal of Digestive Surgery Chinese Baike Interactive Encyclopedia
94 Brief Introduction of the Renal Division of the Third Military Medical University Affiliated Southwest Hospital
96 The Progress of Clinical Renal Homotransplantation in China
Source: Medical Journal of the Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces,
Dated: June 2004, 15 (6) Author: Yu Lixin , Southern Medical University Organ Transplantation Centre
我国临床同种肾脏移植进展《武警医学》杂志2004年6月15卷6期 第一军医大南方医院器官移植中心 于立新
97 Shanghai Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital- Anting Campus
98 Introduction to Dongfang Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital dated 2015
99 Organ Transplant Department at the Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital
100 Special Treatment Department at The Third Hospital Affiliated with the Second Military Medical College
特需诊疗一科 – 科室导览 – 第二军医大学第三附属医院
101 Overview of departments at the Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, dated 2015
肝外一科 – 东方肝胆外科医院-科室导航 2015年
102 The Third Hospital Affiliated with the Second Military Medical College (Dongfang Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital),
Q&A about the new branch, dated February 2016
第二军医大学第三附属医院（东方肝胆外科医院）- 新院问答 2016年2月
103 Introduction to Dongfang Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, dated 2015
医院概况 – 上海东方肝胆外科医院 2015年
104 The Third Hospital Affiliated with the Second Military Medical College (Dongfang Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital),
introduction to the new Anting branch, dated February 2016
105 Introduction to Dongfang Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, dated 2015
医院概况- 上海东方肝胆外科医院 2015年
106 Wu Meng Chao, a person whom can be entrusted life to
Source: News Network of the Chinese Communist Party – People’s Daily, dated August 27, 2012
吴孟超：一个可以托付生命的人 （来源：中国共产党新闻网——人民网） 2012年08月27日
107 Shanghai Dongfang Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Anting Campus
108 The Third Hospital Affiliated with the Second Military Medical College (Dongfang Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital)
Anting branch started trial running, dated October 17, 2015
109 The Third Hospital Affiliated with the Second Military Medical College (Dongfang Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital)
Anting branch started trial running, dated October 17, 2015
110 The Third Hospital Affiliated with the Second Military Medical College (Dongfang Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital),
introduction to the new Anting branch, dated February 2016
111 Shanghai Changzheng Hospital Organ Transplant Institute
112 Shanghai Changzheng Hospital Organ Transplant Institute
113 Zhu Youhua of Changzheng Hospital, a fighter against kidney diseases, by Ren Quan and Dong Yuqing at Wen Hui Po
长征医院朱有华：修行艺术的肾斗士》 2010年9月11日 《文汇报》 任荃 董悦青
114 Introduction to Zhu Youhua of Shanghai Changzheng Hospital
115 Introduction to Shanghai Changzheng Hospital
116 Prognostic Effects and Treatments of Severe Hepatitis Cases
Source: Journal of Clinical Surgery Volume 14, Issue 6, June 2006 Fu Zhiren and Ma Jun
重型肝炎急诊肝移植的预后影响因素及处理 《 临床外科杂志》 2006年6月第14卷6期 傅志仁, 马钧
117 Investigation report on organ transplants in Shanghai Minghui.org
119 Changzheng Hospital Pudong New Branch held the ground-breaking ceremony
121 Recording of the doctors: There were a large number of live organ sources Doctors worked over night to conduct organ transplants Epoch Times / Source: Sound of Hope
医生录音: 5.1前大量鲜活供体 加班移植
122 Introduction to Xijing Hospital, dated April 7, 2012, sources: military.people.com.cn
西京医院简介 2012年04月07日 来源：人民网-军事频道
123 Introduction to Xijing Hospital, dated April 7, 2012, sources: military.people.com.cn
西京医院简介 2012年04月07日 来源：人民网-军事频道
124 Organ Transplant Center at Xijing Hospital
125 Organ Transplant Center at Xijing Hospital
126 Organ Transplant Center at Xijing Hospital
127 Organ Transplant Center at Xijing Hospital
128 Introduction to Xijing Hospital Hepatobiliary, Splenic and Pancreatic Surgery Department
129 Stories of Professor Dou Kefeng, director of Xijing Hospital Affiliated with the Fourth Military Medical College
Hepatobiliary Surgery, source: Xinhua Net, dated June 10, 2010
记四医大西京医院肝胆外科主任窦科峰教授 新华网-新华军事 来源：健康报 2010年06月10日
130 Introduction to Xijing Hospital Hepatobiliary, Splenic and Pancreatic Surgery Department
131 Dou Kefeng: Open and Sincere, published on Scientific Digest, by Hou Jie, on March 18, 2014
窦科峰：披肝沥胆献真情 《科技文摘报》 新闻作者：侯洁 发布时间：2014-03-18
133 Introduction to Xijing Hospital Cardiovascular Department
135 Introduction to the Hepatobiliary Surgery department People Liberation Army No. 304 Hospital
解放军304医院 – 肝胆外科
136 Introduction to the Urologic surgery department People Liberation Army No. 304 Hospital
解放军304医院 – 泌尿外科
144 Brief Introduction of the Armed Police General Hospital
145 Feature department of the Armed Police General Hospital – Liver Transplantation Research Centre
news.xinhuanet.com January 22, 2008 (original article from the official web site of the hospital)
146 Feature department of the Armed Police General Hospital – Liver Transplantation Research Centre
news.xinhuanet.com January 22, 2008 (original article from the official web site of the hospital)
147 Feature department of the Armed Police General Hospital – Liver Transplantation Research Centre
news.xinhuanet.com January 22, 2008 (original article from the official web site of the hospital)
149 Armed Police General Hospital – Expert – Liu, Hang
150 Armed Police General Hospital – Expert Team – Niu, Yujian
151 Introduction to The Department of Urologic Surgery of General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region
152 Introduction to The Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery of General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region – Zhou Wenping
153 Introduction to The Department of Ophthalmology of General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region
154 Introduction to Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University
156 Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University – Department of Kidney Transplantation – Yu Lixin
157 Yu Lixin: Bearish worldly glory, only care about the patients Nov 14, 2014 Author: Nanfang Hospital
于立新：看淡世间荣华 只为病人情浓 作者：南方医院 2014-11-14
158 The Progress of Clinical Renal Homotransplantation in China Medical Journal of the Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces,
June 2004, 15 (6)Yu Lixin , Southern Medical University Organ Transplantation Centre
398 我国临床同种肾脏移植进展 《武警医学》杂志2004年6月15卷6期
159 Introduction to the kidney transplant department at Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University
160 The hepatobiliary surgery department at Southern Medical University Organ Transplantation Centre
161 Introduction to the hepatobiliary surgery department at Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University
162 My Experience of Guiding Postgraduates in Practicing During Kidney Transplant Clinical Work
Chinese Journal of Medicine November 2003, Volume 3, Issue 11 Fu Shaojie, Yu Lixin
在肾移植临床工作中指导研究生实习的体会 《中华医药杂志》2003年11月第3卷第11期 付绍杰 于立新
164 Introduction to the Nephrology at Nanjing Military Command No. 117 Hospital
165 Department of Nephrology at Nanjing Military Command No. 117 Hospital
209 南京军区第117医院肾病科 来源：120健康网
166 Xu Longgen, Department of Kidney Transplantation at Nanjing Military Command No. 117 Hospital
167 Introduction to Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University
168 The Organ Transplant Centre at Zhujiang Hospital
169 Organ Transplant Centre of Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University
170 Organ Transplant Centre of Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University
171 Zhao Ming, Organ Transplant Centre of Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University
172 Lin Minzhuan Source: Physician assistant
173 Expert – Second Department of Hepatobiliary – ZhuJiang Hospital of Southern Medical University
174 Brief Introduction to the Department of General Surgery at The 180th Hospital of PLA
175 The 180th Hospital of PLA – Department of General Surgery – Zhang, Chenghua
233A-南京军区第180医院教授,主任医师 – 张诚华
178 Brief Introduction to the Ophthalmology Hospital of The 180th Hospital of PLA
179 Brief Introduction to Daping Hospital Affiliated with Third Military Medical University
180 The Urologic Surgery Department at Daping Hospital Affiliated with of Third Military Medical University
181 Changes of Daping Hospital During 30 years: Annual Income Increased from A Few Million to 900 Million
《从年收入百万到9个亿 看大坪医院30年变迁》 来源：《寻医问药网》
184 The Urologic Surgery Department of Jinan Military Region 153 Hospital
济南军区第153医院泌尿外科 – 问大夫网站
185 PLA 460 Hospital successfully implement a kidney transplant for a Taiwanese
Source: People’s Daily, 12th Edition (Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan Overseas) 2000-09-26
解放军第460医院成功为一台胞实施肾移植手术 来源：人民日报 第12版(港澳台侨) 2000-09-26
186 “Diagnostic Analysis of Concurrent Urinary System Tumors After Kidney Transplant (5 Reports Attached)”,
Source: China Journal of Modern Medicine, 2007, Vol. 17 Issue 05, p.620-622,
Dated: May 1, 2007, Authors: Zheng, Hixia; Feng Hecheng; Wang, Yuheng
作者：郑海霞, 冯合成, 王玉恒
187 Chinese Military Kidney Transplantation Network in Central China
http://www.china-kidney.com/ (The web site cannot be accessed now)
188 “Relying on the market to protect the battlefield,” said Zhang Cong from The PLA No. 452 Hospital
依托市场 保障“战场”—记解放军452医院院长张聪 2009-01-12
189 “Relying on the market to protect the battlefield,” said Zhang Cong from The PLA No. 452 Hospital
190 Introduction of The PLA No. 452 Hospital – haodf.com
191 Recording: Military hospital said “use kidneys for transplant from Falun Gong practitioners”
source: minghui.org May 2nd, 2006
192 Introduction to Xu Yahong of the Urologic Surgery Department of The PLA No. 452 Hospital
解放军452医院 泌尿外科 – 许亚宏
193 Recording: Military hospital said “use kidneys for transplant from Falun Gong practitioners”
source: minghui.org May 2nd, 2006
196 Documentary on Shanxi Armed Police Corps General Hospital Enhancing Quality of Medical Services
2005年09月27日 山西新闻网, 山西日报记者：屈宏太, 张义力, 尚慧辉
197 Three transplant operations performed simultaneously three patients gained new lives
199 The Department of Transplantation at Jinan Military General Hospital
200 The Department of Urologic Surgery at Jinan Military General Hospital
201 JIntroduction to the director of Hepatobiliary Surgery department at Jinan Military General Hospital
202 Jinan Military General Hospital, Qilu Evening News, Dec 1, 2008
203 The continuation of wonderfulness of life through organ transplant
器官移植 延续生命的精彩 2003-7-28 文章来源：大众网－齐鲁晚报
204 The Department of Urologic Surgery at Jinan Military General Hospital
205 Organ transplantation is the renewal of life and health management help “Second Life”
器官移植为生命续约 健康管理助力“第二生命” 2012-06-13
206 The Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery at Jinan Military General Hospital – Good Doctors Online
207 The Ophthalmology Department at Jinan Military General Hospital – Good Doctors Online
208The Urologic Surgery Department of Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
泌尿外科 – 广州军区广州总医院（陆总）
209 Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery at Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
210 Huo Feng, Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery at Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
211 Wang Shaoping, Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery at Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
212 Department Image: To cure late-stage liver disease via liver transplant Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery at Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
科室形象： 肝脏移植治疗终末期肝病 –广州军区广州总医院肝胆外科
213 Organ Harvesting Atrocities against Falun Gong — Investigation Leads from China’s Guangzhou City
– A Comprehensive Report. Minghui.org. April 4, 2012
调查线索：广州中共系统活摘法轮功学员器官《明慧网》January 8, 2011
214 Brief Introduction to the People’s Liberation Army No. 181 Hospital
215 People’s Liberation Army No. 181 Hospital – People’s Liberation Army Kidney Transplantation and Dialysis Centre
The original site is shutdown, refer to the archived page: https://web.archive.org/web/20141211001949/http://www.gl181.com/szk/
216 People’s Liberation Army No. 181 Hospital Completes 8 Organ Transplants in One Day
217 Wanhang Health Care professionals – www.job120.com
218 The known doctors and hospitals in PLA (Source: Xinhua Net)
219 Acute Rejection after Heart Transplant. Source: Journal of Transplant Medicine, Volume 3, No.1, February, 2008
移植心脏急性排斥反应 《移植医学杂志》 2008年2月 第3卷第1期
220 he Project of Experimental and Clinical Application Research of Heart Transplantation Reached the International Advanced Level
221 The Hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery Department at the PLA No. 181 Hospital
222 Introduction to People’s Liberation Army No. 181 Hospital
223 No. 303 Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
224 Introduction to the Department of Organ Transplantation at No. 303 Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
225 The Appearance of Master’s Advisors at Guangxi Medical University
226 Introduction to the Department of Organ Transplantation at No. 303 Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
227 The Appearance of master’s Advisors at Guangxi Medical University
228 Six Organs from One Donor Renews Six Lives; Such Transplant Surgeries Uncommon Nationwide
229 Six Organs from One Donor Renews Six Lives; Such Transplant Surgeries Uncommon Nationwide
230 Introduction to the Department of Organ Transplantation at No. 303 Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
231 People’s Liberation Army No.303 Hospital – Ophthalmic Centre
232 Brief Introduction to Chengdu Military General Hospital
233 Brief Introduction to Chengdu Military General Hospital
235 The PLA General Surgery Centre (Hepatology Ward) – ChengDu Military General Hospital
236 Introduction to the Department of Urologic Surgery at Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military,
Source: Good Doctors Online
237 Introduction to the Department of Urologic Surgery at Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military,
Source: Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military
238 Introduction to the Department of Urologic Surgery at Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military,
Source: Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military
239 Introduction to the Department of Urologic Surgery at Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military,
Source: Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military
240 Investigation Report on the Role of Chinese Military and Armed Police Hospitals in Forced Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners,
Source: World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong (WOIPFG),
关于中共军队, 武警医院系统 涉嫌参与活体摘取法轮功学员器官的调查报告，来源：《追查国际》，
241 Collection of Evidence of Live Organ Harvesting from Falun Gong Practitioners by the Chinese Communist Party,
Source: World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong (WOIPFG),
Dated: Revised on March 2, 2015