Chapter Six: Other Types of Transplant Centres
Unapproved Transplant Hospitals
Before the Ministry of Health implemented its new permit system in 2007, the total transplant volume of many medium and small transplant institutions comprised 80% of the total in China. The large transplant centres made up the other 20%. Some of these smaller-scale institutions had significant transplant volumes.
Despite not having been granted approval by the Ministry of Health under the new system, many of these facilities have not halted their transplant activities. Compared to the large hospitals, these smaller institutions have more flexibility to obtain living organ sources through various channels. In addition, several dozen unapproved military and armed police hospitals face no restrictions and are performing organ transplants as usual, because they control abundant supplies of living organ sources.
405 large-scale non-approved hospitals (mostly 3A-classified)
The majority of 405 institutions in this category Class 3 Grade A hospitals. They have been involved in organ transplants but did not receive permits from the Ministry of Health in 2007. This category includes 56 military and armed police transplant hospitals and 349 civilian transplant hospitals. 1327This category also includes some district, township, and even lower-level hospitals that have high transplant volumes.
Hunan Provincial People’s Hospital
On April 28, 2006, Hunan Provincial People’s Hospital made an announcement in several local newspapers, including the Xiaoxiang Morning News, that the hospital was offering 10 liver and 10 kidney transplants free-of-charge. 1328 The story provoked questions about the source of these organs. The newspaper later modified its story to say that the “living kidney donors were from patients’ relatives.”
The hospital’s hepatobiliary surgery department claims to be one of China’s pioneers in hepatobiliary disease treatment.1329 Established in 1983, it has grown to 268 beds and nearly 200 medical personnel. It integrates medical practice, teaching and research and serves as a national base for continuing medical education. This hospital was founded in 2000 and formally established a postdoctoral mobile station in 2008. In 2009, it established collaborative centres for hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery with the U.S. and France. In 2010, the hospital released information indicating that it had over 10,000 outpatient visits and 6,000 inpatients annually.
Although not approved by the Ministry of Health for transplants, Hunan Provincial People’s Hospital’s organ transplant centre completed the first orthotopic liver transplant (the most common type of liver transplant) in Hunan Province.1330 It also maintains a provincial record for the longest survival time after liver transplantation. The hospital currently performs a variety of routine liver and kidney transplant surgeries. In 2005, it introduced liver transplants for patients with advanced cirrhosis.
Both the former and current vice president of the hospital, Professor Li Zhuori and Jiangbo are experts in liver and kidney transplantation.
Yunnan Kidney Disease Hospital
Yunnan Kunming Kidney Disease Hospital claims to be a first-class hospital specializing in kidney and liver transplantation in Yunnan province with approximately 100 beds, all in standard and deluxe rooms.1332 The hospital has attracted “patients from over ten countries and regions, including Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan, Australia, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam.”1333
As one of the Top 100 Private Hospitals in China with over 110 staff members,1334 the hospital has both national-level technical experts and a professional nursing team. Xia Huisheng, an organ transplant pioneer, was an honorary president of this hospital. The well-known transplant expert Gao Wei formerly served as its president in charge of technology. Gao was a professor at Zhujiang Hospital affiliated with Southern Medical University, formerly the First Military Medical University.1335 Gao is listed as one of five doctors/authors of a research paper that includes 1,537 kidney transplants.1336
The hospital later hired Guan Delin, former vice president of the First Affiliated Hospital of Tsinghua University, director of its Urology Centre and deputy director of the Beijing Organ Transplant Centre, as honorary president. His student, Li Guobin, acts as the vice president and director of kidney transplant department.1337 Guan Delin’s personal webpage states that he had experience in over 2,700 kidney transplants and dozens of combined transplants.1338
Dongguan (Humen) Taiping People’s Hospital
Although this township hospital1339 was not included in the list of approved transplant centres issued by the Ministry of Health in 2007, it had performed over 3,000 kidney transplants as of 2007.1340 In the first three months of 2006, this hospital performed over 300 kidney transplants.1341
The Taiping People’s Hospital hired Professor Gao Wei, originally from Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University as its director. Gao was a State Council expert who earned a special allowance. He was on the editorial board of the journal Organ Transplantation in China and a member of the China Dialysis Transplantation Society. He also served part-time as the vice president of the Yunnan Kidney Disease Hospital. In exchange for helping several hospitals in Kunming to develop their kidney transplant centres and providing them with specialty support, the Taiping hospital obtained many living organ sources from Kunming.1342
Most of the other doctors at the People’s Hospital were also professors retired from Zhujiang Hospital, affiliated hospital of the First Military Medical University. Among this group, Li Jie had participated in more than 4,000 kidney transplants and over 50 liver transplants, and presided over at least 500 kidney transplant as of 2010.1343
The hospital actively recruited patients from Southeast Asia. On January 9, 2004, Min Sheng Daily News reported, “Transplant tourist groups from Taiwan ‘land’ [in Dongguan] every month. Taiping People’s Hospital in Dongguan City in Guangdong Province is one of the receiving hospitals, which is well-known for kidney transplants.” The report stated that the hospital had “performed kidney transplants for 425 patients from more than 10 countries and regions, such as Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, Vietnam, Hong Kong and Taiwan.” 1344
Below is the experience of a 52-year-old Singaporean businessman who received his kidney transplant there in February 2004: 1345
“In late February 2004, by the arrangements of my friend and a local nephropathy authority, my blood tests report was sent to Taiping Hospital by fax on February 28. Four days later, I was notified that they had found a matching kidney source, which could be transplanted immediately.”
“On March 1, it took me two hours and a half to reach the Taiping Hospital. Its kidney transplant department was located on 2nd, 3rd and 4th floors. The ward was a large suite, with a living room and kitchenette. On March 5, two days after I arrived, I received the transplant surgery performed by Professor Gaowei. I had stayed in Intensive Care Unit ward for five days, and I moved to the normal ward on the sixth day. Color TV, video player … the ward had everything that I expected, just like a four to five-star hotel. Four restaurants arranged by the hospital would deliver the meals I ordered to my ward. Since there was a business centre, it was easy for me to receive and send emails, faxes and phone calls. Everything was very convenient.”
Xi’an High-Tech District Hospital
Xi’an High-Tech District Hospital is a joint venture with a British hospital management company. Its organ transplant centre was established in 2003. Although this Class 3 Grade B hospital has not been approved by the Ministry of Health for transplants, its chief expert is Shi Bingyi, an expert from Beijing’s People’s Liberation Army No. 309 Hospital. This Xi’an hospital has also attracted a large number of patients from foreign countries.
In the first two years after its establishment, it had already performed more than 500 kidney transplants. The Centre’s deputy director, Fan Yuhui, said that the hospital had a large organ donor pool to enable quick matching. It ensured short times for transplants, the main reason it attracted many overseas transplant brokers.1346
The hospital claimed that during its startup phase, “No matter how hot or cold the weather, 4 to 5 people squeezed into a run-down van to extract organs from donors,” and “7 to 8 transplants were performed over a period of one day and night.”1348
Guangzhou Economic and Technology Development Zone Hospital
This Guangzhou hospital is a Class 2 facility in the Guangzhou economic development zone. As of September, 2006, its former deputy director of organ transplant, Lin Minzhuan had personally performed over 2,000 kidney transplants. 1350 Professor Lin holds a PhD in medicine and advises master’s students. He was formerly the director of Zhujiang Hospital Organ Transplantation and Blood Purification Centre of the First Military Medical University, the former of Southern Medical University. 1351
Our analysis of hospitals indicates that, before the Ministry of Health released “Interim Regulations on the Management of Human Organ Transplant Clinical Applications,” the total volume of organ transplants conducted by a huge number of small and medium-sized transplant centres was not less than that of the large transplant centres. Once live organ harvesting became the norm, then, as long as an institution could procure organs, it would seize every opportunity to make money, regardless of approval by the authorities. In particular, the military and armed police hospitals felt unrestricted by the regulations and have continued to perform transplant operations even after 2007. Some small facilities were able to sustain their operations by building good relationships with military hospitals, large transplant centres, well-known experts, and the judicial system.
161 medium-scale and “alternative” Transplant Centres
This category of 161 medium-scale transplant institutions includes 55 Class 3 Grade B hospitals and 106 Class 2 hospitals, as well as a few smaller ones that also conduct organ transplants. The medium-sized hospitals’ transplant centres usually perform more kidney transplants, which have lower technical requirements than liver transplants.
Many unqualified specialist hospitals, including those of Chinese medicine, maternity, forensics, occupational diseases, and other unrelated disciplines have tried to find ways to cash in on organ transplants despite not having the expertise or facilities to do so.
Kunming Forensic Hospital
Kunming Forensic Hospital was the first designated forensic hospital in Yunnan Province.1352 It was also one of the earliest research and development facilities to research “deaths induced by drug injection.” 1353 This hospital also has a kidney transplant centre. In cooperation with Taiping People’s Hospital in Dongguan City, between 2001 and 2008, it completed thousands of solid organ tissue typing operations1354 and 1,537 kidney transplants.1355
In December 2006, Gao Yuan Magazine reported that a college student who needed a kidney transplant had received an invitation on May 18, 2006 for a free kidney transplant from this hospital. On May 29, the Hospital president Wang Jun welcomed this student in person, and chief surgeon Gao Wei performed the transplant.1356
The hospital’s website stated, “Nephrology is the first pillar of this forensic hospital. It mainly performs kidney transplants. Due to abundant kidney sources, it performs the majority of organ transplant surgeries in the province of Yunnan.”1357
Gongyi City Chinese Medicine Hospital
Gongyi City Chinese Medicine Hospital is located in Gongyi County of Zhengzhou City, Henan Province. Established in 1982, it was formerly a small hospital specializing in developing medical technology based on traditional Chinese herbal medicine.1358 It is now a Class 2 hospital.
It established a kidney transplant centre in 2001 that could carry out 8 kidney transplants in one day. By 2006, Li Hongdao, director of the urology centre, had performed over 500 kidney transplants.1359 On average, he conducted over 80 transplants per year from 2001 to 2006.
Weifang Ren De Hospital
Weifang Ren De hospital is located in Weifang City’s High-Tech Industry Development Zone in Shandong Province. It is a private hospital originally staffed by just over 20 people in 1995. Its official website has been removed. However, an archived hospital webpage dated December 23, 2007 states that Weifang Ren De Hospital is a blood purification and kidney transplant-based urology hospital, ranking among the top in Shandong province in the field of kidney transplants.1360 It has engaged in specialty collaboration with the Affiliated Hospital of Capital Medical University in Beijing and took the lead in HLA typing in Shandong province. In the five years between 1999 and 2004, the hospital completed thousands of tissue matches for organ transplants.1361
The hospital’s president, Liu Zongjian, previously worked in the Weifang People’s Hospital’s urology department. Liu left to establish Ren De Hospital in 1995. The hospital brought in advanced management experience from the University of Pittsburgh Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute in the U.S. As of 2007, it had performed kidney transplants for nearly 10 years.1362
Li Dayue joined Ren De Hospital in 2001 as director of surgery. He performed over 300 kidney transplant surgeries in three years.1363 He then moved to Qidu Hospital, a maternity and child care hospital located in Zibo City, 1364 where he was again in charge of an organ transplantation and blood purification centre.
Around the 2006 Chinese New Year, Ren De Hospital charged 65,000 RMB for transplant surgery, including 30,000 RMB for the kidney source. The fee for the kidney source later rose to 50,000 RMB.1365 The physicians claimed that all of the donors they used were young and healthy.
Dr. Cui said, “Don’t underestimate this small hospital. We dedicate ourselves to specializing in this [organ transplantation]. I believe we have the largest source of kidneys in Shandong Province and perform the most [transplants]. We obtain our kidneys from sources throughout the country. The kidneys leave the [donor’s] body in less than 24 hours. The quality is absolutely assured. Our hospital president obtains the [kidneys] himself and performs the surgeries personally.”
Cornea Transplant Centres
We observed across the transplant hospitals surveyed that the hospitals performed a wide variety of transplants: kidney, liver, heart, lung, spleen, adrenal glands, pancreas, combined liver-kidney, combined pancreas-kidney, heart-lung, heart-kidney, small intestine, liver-pancreas-duodenum, pancreas-duodenum-kidney, liver-pancreas, liver-small intestine, pancreas-kidney, parathyroid, thyroid-parathyroid-thymus, abdominal organ cluster, all 7 abdominal organs, and eight large full abdominal organs. The list includes 23 kinds of single-organ and multi-organ transplants, including cornea, bone marrow, testicular, bone, skin (including facial), hair, larynx, and many other types of tissue transplants.
Compared to large organ transplants, cornea transplants have less technical requirements, much lower costs, and huge market demand. Many medical institutions are performing large volumes of cornea transplants. In addition to large hospitals’ ophthalmology departments and many eye hospitals, occupational diseases hospitals, traditional Chinese medicine hospitals, and others also took part in cornea transplants in large volumes. We list a few examples below.
Zhongshan Ophthalmic Centre
Chen Jiaqi, director of the Zhongshan University Ophthalmic Centre, founder of the China Eye Bank, and director of the Eye Bank of Guangdong Province, said in an interview with People’s Daily on June 7, 20121366 that according to his estimation, China needs to perform at least 300,000 to 400,000 cornea transplants each year to meet the needs of patients. However, “of the 20 eye banks nationwide, almost all are empty,” because there are no national guidelines on centralized cornea donation, restrictions on their use, or reception of gifts from foreign eye banks.
The hospital’s website stated that the hospital had performed more than 40,000 cornea transplants and ocular surgeries. 1367 Its total number of surgeries and volume per year ranked first in the country.
Ophthalmic Hospital Affiliated with the First Hospital of Harbin Medical University
This hospital was one of the earliest in the field of cornea transplantation. It claims to be among the most advanced in the country and the leader in the province. It hosts the Heilongjiang Provincial Eye Bank. The hospital currently has more than 180 professional and technical personnel, including more than 90 doctors and 94 nurses and technicians, among whom 51 have senior titles, 56 have intermediate titles, 39 have doctoral degrees, and 42 have master’s degrees. The hospital has 229 beds, treats 190,000 patients, and conducts more than 10,000 surgeries each year.1368
The dean of the Eye Hospital is Professor Liu Ping. He also serves as the director of the Eye Bank of Heilongjiang Province and director of the Key Laboratory of Eye Centre of the Harbin Medical University. He led the formation of the eye bank and developed multiple technological innovations in cornea transplantation and preservation, which put the hospital in a leading position in this field domestically. 1369
The Eye Bank was established in 1999 but received only one donation in the five years after it opened. Liu Ping said, “We have to find alternative sources of corneas to use for our transplants.”
In recent years, Liu has received funds for three projects under the National Natural Science Foundation—one under the national Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2006-2010), one under the Department of International Cooperation, and eight provincial research projects. He has also published six books and more than 200 papers in core journals at home and abroad, including 30 Science Citation Index papers.
Weifang Medical College Hospital Eye Centre: 9,000 Cornea Transplants Since 1991
According to the Centre’s website,1370 the hospital established China’s first formal eye bank in 1979 and had carried out nearly 10,000 cornea transplant surgeries by April 2014. The hospital thanked the relevant government departments in actively supporting, cooperating, and broadening the sources of cornea donors. According to the doctors’ paper, between July 1984 and December 1990, the hospital had only 898 cases (1,139 eyes) of outpatient registration appointments for cornea transplantation.1371 Thus, the other 9,000 or so transplants were carried out in or after 1991.
Shandong Weifang Eye Hospital: Thousands of Cornea Transplants Since 1999
This hospital’s website claimed to have a formal eye bank approved by the Health Department of Shandong Province in 2007.1372 Since it performed its first cornea transplant in 1999, it has carried out thousands of cornea transplants. The Centre has a number of experts, including Zhang Shaobin, who has independently completed a few thousand cornea transplants of various types.1373 The hospital’s website also states that its eye bank provides patients with ample cornea sources.
Shandong Eye Institute: Over 10,000 Cornea Transplants by One Doctor
This facility carries out a large number of cornea transplants. Multiple media reported that the director of the institute, Zhang Lixin, had performed over 10,000 cornea transplants by April 2008.1374
In June 2006, a patient`s family member wrote to the Minghui.org website,1375 “I have a relative who was referred to the Shandong Eye Institute by the Third People’s Hospital of Dalian. The cornea transplant surgery was performed on the third day of admission. There are many young doctors working in that hospital for patients from all over the country. Beds are rarely vacant, and doctors are very busy. They need to do more than a dozen transplants every day.”
General Hospital of Shenyang Military Command Claimed Largest Eye Bank in Northeast
The General Hospital of Shenyang Military Command is one of the largest military hospitals in China. Not only are its kidney and liver transplant centres well-known in China, but the hospital is also well-known for its ophthalmology department, which has the largest eye bank in the People’s Liberation Army and in northeastern China.1376 This hospital leads the northeastern region in cornea transplant volume. It is known as the only hospital in the region with readily available corneas for transplant patients at any given time.
No. 463 Hospital of Shenyang Military Command Biggest in Northeast
No. 463 Hospital is the location of the Liaoning Province Red Cross Eye Bank. It claims to be the biggest cornea transplant centre in the northeastern region and have the richest source of highest-quality corneas. At least six of its doctors are involved in cornea transplants.1377
First Hospital of China Medical University in Shenyang
The First Hospital of China Medical University, located in Shenyang, Liaoning Province, also performs cornea transplants on a large scale.
Its ophthalmology centre spreads over 4,000 square meters. It has six standardized operating rooms and 62 beds. Its outpatient capacity reaches over 60,000 per year. The hospital performs over 2,500 surgeries annually. It has 59 professional and technical personnel, including 15 with senior titles, 10 with intermediate titles, and 17 residents.1378
Its former director of the cornea centre, Hong Jing, was also the director of the Eye Bank of China Medical University from 2002 to March 2006. She joined the centre as a master’s student in 19901379 and started to perform cornea transplants in 1996. In 10 years, she conducted over 1,140 cornea transplant of various types.1380 The centre’s website claimed that it performed 2,000 cornea transplants between 1996 and 2012, a number incommensurate with the hospital’s other figures.
Sujiatun Thrombosis Hospital: One Doctor Extracted 2,000 Corneas in Two Years
A woman using the pseudonym Annie in 2006 stated that her ex-husband worked at this hospital as a surgeon and, between October 2001 and October 2003, removed 2,000 corneas from living Falun Gong practitioners.1381 This hospital is 30 kilometers away from the General Hospital of Shenyang Military Command.
Non-Transplant-Related Specialty Hospitals Also Performing Cornea Transplants
Even hospitals of non-transplant-related specialties, such as occupational diseases hospitals and traditional Chinese medicine hospitals, are performing cornea transplants. For example, a doctoral thesis from the Henan Provincial Occupational Diseases Hospital claimed that, between 2003 and 2007, the cornea donors they used were young adults who had suffered sudden deaths.1382 Between 2000 and 2001, the cornea donors used by the Jiangsu Province Jintan City Chinese Medicine Hospital were also young adults who had suffered sudden deaths; cornea procurement was completed within two hours.1383
In general, the scale of cornea transplantation in mainland China is at least that of liver and kidney transplants.
1327 WOIPFG Releases List of 7371 Medical Personnel from 765 Non-Military Medical Institutions Suspected of Harvesting Organs from Living Falun Gong Practitioners
WOIPFG Releases List of 2098 Medical Personnel in 100 People’s Libertion Armyand Armed Police Hospitals Suspected of Live Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners
1328 Offer 20 organ transplants for free
Source: Sina Net Apr 28, 2006
1329 Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Hunan Provincial People’s Hospital
1330 Hunan Provincial People’s Hospital – Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery Fruitful, Renowned Nationwide
湖南省人民医院- 肝胆外科 硕果累累 享誉国内
1331 YunNan Kidney Disease Hospital
Source: people.cn Health channel May 21, 2014
云南肾脏病医院 来源：人民网-健康卫生频道 2014年05月21日
1333 YunNan Kidney Disease Hospital—a branch of the Yunnan Province Organ Transplant Centre
1334 YunNan Kidney Disease Hospital
1335 YunNan Kidney Disease Hospital — a branch of the Yunnan Province Organ Transplant Centre
1336 Clinical Studies in Highly Sensitized Recipients with Renal Transplantation
Source: Laboratory Medicine and Clinic Vol 5, No. 07, 2008, p.396-398
Authors: Shuai Li, Guo Cuihua, Yuan Xiaopeng, Gao Wei
《检验医学与临床》 2008年5卷07期 396-398页（英文期刊名LABORATORY MEDICINE AND CLINIC）
高度致敏受者行肾移植术的临床研究 作者：帅莉, 郭翠华, 袁小鹏, 高伟
1339 Introduction to Guangdong Dongguan City Taiping People’s Hospital
1340 Dongguan People’s Hospital is eligible for qualifications of pilot organ transplants sun0769.com July 21, 2011
东莞市人民医院获器官移植试点资质 来源：阳光东坑 2011-07-21
1341 Urgent! Letters from Readers Pouring in to Uncover Mainland Chinese Hospitals Busy with Silencing Witnesses
Source: renminbao.com April 17, 2006
十万紧急！读者纷纷来信揭露大陆医院忙灭口（图） 《人民报》 2006年4月17日
1342 Investigative leads: The renal transplant hospitals that actively attract customers in the Southeast Asian September 12, 2008
调查线索：在东南亚活跃招揽客户的大陆肾移植医院 明慧网 2008年9月12日
1343 Introduction of Li Jie of Guangdong Dongguan City Taiping People’s Hospital
1344 Guangdong Dongguan City Taiping People’s Hospital Performed 40 Transplant in one Month – Medical fax
Source: People Net May 18, 2001
廣東東莞太平人民醫院一個月做腎移植手朮40例-医学传真 来源：人民网 2001年05月18日
1345 Diary Notes of a Patient from Singapore after his Surgery at the Humen Taiping Hospital, Guangdong Province –
Investigation into Organ Harvesting: Kidney Transplant Hospitals Actively Recruiting Customers in Southeast Asia, and Other Leads September 21, 2008
1346 Birds-eye view of Xi’an High-Tech District Hospital
1350 Lin Minzhuan – Organ Transplant Department at Guangzhou Economic and Technology Development Zone Hospital
1351 Lin Minzhuan – Organ Transplant Department at the 3rd Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University
Source: Physician Assistant
1353 Lethal Injection: 12 Years Still and Change
Source: emagazine: People’s Public Security Sep 15, 2009 Zhou Qiong
注射死刑：12年的静止与变化 电子版 《人民公安》 2009年09月15日 周 琼
1354 Expert Profile: Shuai Li Forensic Science Identification Centre at Kunming Forensic Hospital
1355 Clinical Studies in Highly Sensitized Recipients with Renal Transplantation
Source: Laboratory Medicine and Clinic Vol 5, No. 07, 2008, p.396-398 Shuai Li, Guo Cuihua, Yuan Xiaopeng, Gao Wei
《检验医学与临床》 2008年5卷07期 396-398页（英文期刊名LABORATORY MEDICINE AND CLINIC）
“高度致敏受者行肾移植术的临床研究”作者：帅莉, 郭翠华, 袁小鹏, 高伟
1356 Friendship – A Paved Road of Life
Plateau Magazine December 6, 2006 Na Wencui
1357 Introduction to Kunming Forensic Hospital
1358 Gongyi City Chinese Medicine Hospital Interactive Encyclopedia
1359 Li Hongdao – Expert at West Hebei Renal Transplant Centre
《中国豫西肾病肾移植中心》 “专家介绍– 李宏道”
1360 Introduction of Weifang Rende Hospital
1361 The application of HLA tissue matching in PRA-positive recipients of renal transplantation
ACTA ACADEMIAE MEDICINAE WEIFANG 2004 Vol.26 Edition 06 page.437-438 2004
Authors: Song Botao, Liu Zhongjian, Wang Chunyan from Weifang Rende Hospital
“HLA组织配型在PRA阳性受者肾移植中的应用” 《潍坊医学院学报》2004年26卷06期 437-438页
宋波涛, 刘宗健, 王春彦(潍坊仁德医院,山东,潍坊,261041)
1362 Weifang Rende Hospital Expert Liu Zhongjian
1365 Investigation Lead: The Privately-owned Rende Hospital in Weifang City in Shandong Province
Has Performed Many Kidney Transplants Minghui.org August 29, 2006
1366 Cornea Donations Severely Inadequate
Source: People’s Daily June 7, 2012
2012年06月07日《 人民日报 》《角膜捐献严重不足》
1368 Introduction to the Cornea Hospital affiliated to the Harbin Medical University
1369 Introduction to Liuping, the dean of the Cornea Hospital affiliated to the Harbin Medical University
1370 Introduction to the Department of Cornea Treatment at the Weifang Medical School Affiliated Hospital
1371 Thesis Title: Statistical Analysis of 898 Cases of Reserved Keratoplasty
China National Knowledge Network Yang Lianzhou; Li Guiren; Wang Jie
论文题目：预约角膜移植手术898例统计分析 《中国知网》 杨连洲； 李贵仁； 王杰；
1372 Introduction to the Cornea Treatment Centre at Weifang Eye Hospital
1373 Expert in the Cornea Treatment Centre at Weifang Eye Hospital Zhang Shaobin
1374 Two Scientists in Shangdong Won One Million Award Respectively Xinhua Net April 23, 2008 Wang Haiying
山东两位科学家分别获得100万元奖励 作者：王海鹰 来源：新华网 发布时间：2008-4-23
1375 Investigation Lead: No. 3 People’s Hospital in Dalian City Introduces a Patient to Shandong Province Eye Institute
That is Busy with Cornea Transplants Minghui.org June 26, 2006
调查线索：大连第三人民医院引介, 山东眼科研究所忙于做眼角膜移植 《明慧网》
1376 Introduction to the Specialty of Cornea Transplant of the General Hospital of Shenyang Military
1377 People’s Liberation Army No. 463 Hospital LASIK Treatment Centre and Liaoning Province Red Cross Eye Bank
Established at People’s Liberation Army No. 463 Hospital
1378 Ophthalmology centre of The First Hospital of China Medical University
1379 Hong Jing Baidu Encyclopedia
1380 Hong Jing, Prof. at the China Medical University Baidu Encyclopedia
1381 A confession in Bloody Harvest
1382 Thesis Topic: Infectious Keratitis Following Keratoplasty
Source: CHINESE JOURNAL OF OCULAR TRAUMA AND OCCUPATIONAL EYE DISEASE
2008 Vol. 30, Edition 05 page 367-370 Liu Jinxing, Chen Yahoo, Lu Meehan
论文题目：感染性角膜炎的角膜移植术 《眼外伤职业眼病杂志》2008年30卷05期 367-370页
刘金星, 陈玉浩, 吕梅红(河南省职业病医院眼科,河南,郑州,450052)；
1383 Thesis Topic: 52 Penetrating Keratoplasty Clinical Reports
Source: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL OPHTHALMOLOGY Vol. 10 Edition 05 page 466-467 June 24, 1905 Zhou Yijun
论文题目：穿透性角膜移植术52例临床报告 《临床眼科杂志》2002年10卷05期 466-467页