AN UPDATE TO ‘BLOODY HARVEST’ & ‘THE SLAUGHTER’

Chapter Seven: Volume Indicators

One can tell that an elephant is huge not just by looking at its body parts. There are many other indicators – from the size of its footprints, to the amount of food it eats, to the amount of underbrush it crushes.

Similarly with the Chinese transplant industry, its mammoth size, far larger than the official figure of 10,000 a year, can be detected not just by looking cumulatively at the many individual hospitals engaged in transplants, but also by looking at a wide variety of other indicators of volume. This chapter does that.

1. Professional Statements

He Xiaoshun, a member of the Expert Committee of the Human Organ Donation Commission and vice president of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, stated to the Southern Weekly in March 2010, “The year 2000 was a watershed for the organ transplant industry in China…the number of liver transplants in 2000 reached 10 times that of 1999; in 2005, the number tripled further [since 2000].”1384

China officially acknowledged 118 liver transplants in 1999. According to He Xiaoshun, the number in 2000 was 10 times higher; by 2005, the annual number had tripled to 5,192. However, this was just the beginning of the rapid growth, when liver and kidney transplants became a routine operation throughout the country.

On May 11, 2011, Wu Mengchao, president of the Affiliated Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital of the Second Military Medical University and “father of hepatobiliary surgery in China,”1385 claimed in an interview with Sina that, “in terms of liver transplants, our quantity has been the largest in the world. The quality and result are also good. We have caught up with international standards.” 1386 About 6,000 liver transplants are performed in the U.S. each year.1387 As set out elsewhere in this report, Tianjin’s Oriental Organ Transplant Center’s annual volume alone surpassed the annual number of liver transplants in the U.S.

In January 2015, Huang Jiefu told CCTV, “I would like to quote the words of the World Health Organization that China has undertaken such a path in six to seven years whereas other developed countries building up their organ donation and transplant framework took dozens of years.”1388

2. Media Reports

In the previous chapters we cited a number of Chinese media reports as sources of evidence about transplant volumes in individual hospitals. These media reports are significant beyond the information contained in them.

Outside China, in countries with a free media, information in the media is not much different from information found elsewhere.  What is relevant is the information which is contained in the media.

In China, it is not like that, because everything in the media escapes either censorship or self censorship.  A media story in China is not just the information contained in it.  It is also a statement that the Party wants this published, or has allowed it to be published or that the author and medium both think that the Party would not mind its being published.

What is true of the media is also, in one sense, true of hospital websites and research publications.  Nothing gets posted or published without the approval or implied consent of the Party.  Nonetheless, the media are subject to especial Party scrutiny.

The Government of China General Administration of Press and Publication (GAPP) focusses specifically on the print news media and books. The State Administration of Radio, Film and Television (SARFT) focuses on radio, TV, film and internet broadcasts.  When something comes out in the media, the fact that it has survived this scrutiny means something.

The media stories about organ transplant volumes are a bit like the phone call admissions.  The medium which reports the story, like the person being called, is oblivious to what in fact is being admitted.

The media stories are snippets of information about high transplant volumes.  They are, in effect, mindless admissions or concessions by the Party/State that the volume of transplants is a lot higher than the official Party line of 10,000 a year.  We reproduce below some of these media stories.

Sina

In November 2011, Sina Global News reported that Wuhan, a major city in central China, is said to be China’s largest organ transplant centre. Among its hospitals, Tongji Hospital of Huazhong University of Science & Technology is the most well-known; it’s also one of China’s first and most authoritative hospitals for living kidney transplants. It conducts thousands of kidney transplants each year and has China’s largest pool of kidney recipients. 1389

Asia Times

Figure 7.1: Screenshot of Asia Times webpage dated April 2006

 

On April 4, 2006, Asia Times published a report entitled “Japanese flock to China for organ transplants.” The report states that Mr. Suzuki, chairman of the Japan Transplant Recipients Organization, discovered that a hospital in a major city in China conducted 2,000 organ transplants last year [2005] alone. Among the recipients, 30 to 40 were Japanese, and 200 were Korean. 1390

China Economic Weekly

In September 2013, Zhu Jiye, director of the Organ Transplant Institute of Peking University and the Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery of Peking University People’s Hospital told China Economic Weekly that “most of our nation’s organ transplants come from executed prisoners. Our hospital conducted 4,000 liver and kidney transplant operations within a particular year, and all of the organs are from prisoners sentenced to death.”1391

Zhu Jiye, director of the Organ Transplant Institute of Peking University and Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery of Peking University People’s Hospital, told China Economic Weekly that “most of our nation’s organ transplants come from executed prisoners. Our hospital conducted 4,000 liver and kidney transplant operations within a particular year, and all of the organs are from prisoners sentenced to death.”

Figure 7.2: Screenshot of a reprinted article posted in September 2013 on people.com, which hosts China Economic Weekly

Radio Free Asia (RFA)

On August 18, 2014, Radio Free Asia quoted Ms. Lin, a vice president of a large company who attended the 2014 World Transplant Congress, said, “I talked to a liver transplant expert from mainland China and was told that his hospital had conducted 100 liver transplants within 3 months. This hospital wasn’t even in a big city. Assuming there’re 50 such transplant centres, there’d be 18,000 liver transplants in a year.” 1392

China Times

According to a report by China Times on May 1, 2006, two large Taiwan companies invested in the construction of Xiamen Changgeng Hospital, which was scheduled to become operational by the end of that year (2006). This hospital would focus on organ transplants. A Taiwanese businessman told the media that a Class 3 hospital in Zhangzhou, a city neighboring Xiamen, in Fujian Province, conducted at least 3,000 kidney transplants annually. 1393 At least a quarter of the kidney recipients were from Taiwan. Calculating by the market price of $1 to 2 million NTD (New Taiwan Dollar) per kidney transplant, Changgeng Hospital would have a promising future by focusing on organ transplants.

First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University: “Tens of Thousands” of Transplants

On celebrating the 100 Anniversaries of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, a report was posted on the news website of Xinkuai Paper . 1394 It revealed that tens of thousands of patients had accepted liver or kidney transplants at its organ transplant center.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University News When talking about the glorious history of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, we have to mention its organ transplant center, where tens of thousands patients have accepted liver or kidney

Figure 7.3: Snapshot of the news of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University

3. Hospital Reports on Volume

Over the past decade, the Chinese authorities have not released the annual volume of each hospital and only claimed that 10,000 to 20,000 organ transplants are performed each year. In addition, it has actively removed data previously published on individual hospital websites. However, even from the data scattered on the websites, it is obvious that this number would be easily surpassed by just a few hospitals and individuals.

One should keep in mind that many of these published figures are likely deflated, as hospitals attempt to cover up the true volume of transplants being performed (see section IV: Cover-Up).

Case Study: An Unlikely Surgeon at a Prolific Research Institute

Nanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command has the earliest Military Nephrology Research Institute that is often seen as the “Mayo Clinic of China”. It was prioritized by the Central Military Commission1395 and was the first transplant center in China.1396

Li Leishi, a member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and an internist by training, became the director of the hospital’s transplant center. In 2008, when he was 82 years old and had cancer surgery, he said, “In the past, I myself used to do 120 kidney transplants per year. Now I only do 70 cases.”1397

Li also said, “Because we are a research institute, we don’t do too many surgeries.”1398 This statement appears to be accurate, at least in comparison to the other 40+ military transplant centers that concentrate more on operations. Yet, during an “Interview with Academician Li Leishi” on China Military Online,1399 Li told a story of disciplining three doctors after a medical accident in 2001. One of them was a chief surgeon, and they had been performing “hundreds of kidney transplants a year.”1400

The institution had close to 30 specialists before 2001. Eleven chief surgeons and six associate chief surgeons carried out kidney transplants.1401 If the three doctors Li mentioned had been performing hundreds of kidney transplants a year, then the seventeen chief and associate chief surgeons would collectively have conducted well over thousands each year. In that case, how many transplants has the hospital performed in the past 15+ years?

Li Leishi was not the oldest of China’s active transplant doctors. Academician Wu Mengchao, China’s Father of Hepatobiliary Surgery and president of the Eastern Hepatobiliary Hospital affiliated with the Second Military Medical University, averaged 200 surgeries per year even at age 89. As of 2010, Wu had presided over 14,000 liver surgeries, including 9,300 hepatectomies,1402 the remaining 4,000+ surgeries remain unidentified and are likely to be liver transplants.

Case Study: A More Operation-Oriented Hospital

The People’s Liberation Army Organ Transplant Center at No. 309 Hospital once completed 12 kidney transplants overnight.1403 We list several well-known transplant doctors:

  • Shi Bingyi had completed at least 2,130 kidney transplants, 380 liver transplants, and many heart, lung, pancreas, small intestine, and multi-organ transplants by 2011.1404
  • Director Qian Yeyong of the transplant surgery department had also performed over 2,000 kidney transplants and many multi-organ transplants by 2013.1405
  • Cai Ming has completed about 1,000 kidney transplants, 100 liver transplants, and several hundred organ procurement surgeries.1406

This transplant center has 231 medical and research personnel. It had 316 beds in 2010 and 393 beds in 2012, 1407 though its website now says 330 beds. Its bed utilization reportedly leads that of similar military organizations. Even without taking into account deflation of published transplant volumes, its total number of transplants performed is staggering.

Other Notable Institutions and Individuals

Tan Jianming, vice president of Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command, has led more than 4,200 kidney transplants as of 2014. Tan was previously also part-time director of the Urology and Transplantation Department at Shanghai Jiaotong University’s First People’s Hospital and its Shanghai Organ Transplant Center.1408

Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, affiliated with the Second Military Medical University, hosts two prolific doctors: Zhu Youhua, who is considered a leader in the People’s Liberation Army on kidney transplantation, had completed 3,680 kidney transplants by 2010.1409

Fu Yaowen, the founder of the First Hospital of Jilin University’s kidney transplantation program and blood purification center, had completed 3,000 kidney transplants as of April 2009. 1410

The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University has 8 chief and associate chief transplant surgeons (including two focusing on liver transplants), including Professor Zheng Keli, who has led more than 3,000 kidney transplants.1411

In a paper published in 2004, Yu Lixin, the director of the transplant department at Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University, stated that the hospital had conducted 2,123 kidney transplants as of November 2001. The hospital consistently ranks second in the nation for the volume of kidney transplants performed.1412

One particularly prolific institution is Xinqiao Hospital, affiliated with the Third Military Medical University. Its Renal Diseases Research Center claimed that it had “conducted 2,590 kidney transplants by 2002 … and once performed 24 kidney transplants in one day.”1413

According to an introduction published by sohu.com on Aug 3, 2005, Guan Delin at Beijing Huaxin Hospital (First Affiliated Hospital of Tsinghua University) had experience in “over 2,700 kidney transplants, over 40 kidney transplants from relative donors, and close to 20 combined kidney-pancreas transplants.”1414

The Guangdong No.2 Provincial People’s Hospital’s organ transplant department was established in 1999. Its director Liu Dong had personally participated in more than 2,000 kidney and liver transplant surgeries as of 2015.1415

Deputy director Wu Jiaqing stated that, prior to August 3, 2006, the department had “more than 10 organ transplant surgeries every day,” and that “around August 2006, patients from 8-9 countries came to the hospital for organ transplants, including from Singapore, Cambodia, and France.”1416

The Navy General Hospital in Beijing “has helped thousands of end-stage liver cancer patients gain a second life through liver transplantation.”1417

Professor Wang Hongwei, director of the kidney transplant department at the Second Hospital of Shandong University, has participated in nearly 2,000 kidney transplants over the course of 20 years. He led his team once completed 10 kidney transplants in one day.1418 Deputy director Tian Chuan participated in nearly 1,000 kidney transplants.

At Ruikang Hospital in Guangxi, Gu Xinwei, director of the transplant department, participated in 2,000 kidney transplants, over 200 liver transplants, and over 20 liver-kidney and multi-visceral transplants. 1419 Lin Minzhuan, chief surgeon and guest professor at the hospital, has personally participated in close to 2,000 kidney transplants in 19 years. 1420

The web page of He Xiaozhou, the president of the First People’s Hospital of Changzhou, claims that he had personally led the department in conducting more than 1,700 kidney transplants.1421

Some hospitals evidently had access to abundant organ sources. For example, the People’s Liberation Army No. 458 Hospital (The Air Force Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command) had abundant cornea supplies that could not only provide for itself but also enable it to supply other hospitals. On May 15, 2011, the director of the ophthalmology department, Jing Lianxi, visited Purei Eye Hospital in Shanghai and promised to provide Purei with a stable supply of high-quality cornea transplant material.1422

4. An Endless Supply of Organs

a) Multiple Transplants for the Same Patient

We have seen many instances in which multiple donor organs were procured for the same patient, either due to organ rejection or as spares. These cases include even third and fourth transplants and eight spare organs procured for the same patient.

In 2006, a chief surgeon named Wang Guangce published a study analyzing 50 kidney re-transplant cases at the First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 1423 Among the 50 cases, 46 were second transplants, 3 were third transplants, and one was a fourth transplant for the same patient. Five of the cases were orthotopic re-transplants within 10 days of the original transplant, and the duration between transplants and re-transplants ranged between 2 hours and 8 years. This indicates that, in 5 such cases, a second kidney was found and transplanted within 10 days. In at least one case, another kidney was found within 2 hours. Some transplants took the lives of 3-4 people.

In mainland China, it is not unusual to perform several transplant attempts for the same patient if the initial attempt is not successful. Every year, there are numerous cases where two, three, or even four transplant operations are performed for the same patient.

For example, Shen Zhongyang at the Tianjin Orient Transplant Center performed two separate liver transplants for the ­­movie star Fu Biao. Surgeon Zhu Tongyu at Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University performed kidney transplantation for the fourth time for the same patient.

Shen Zhongyang stated that among its patients, the number of cases for his center to conduct secondary transplants for patients accounted for 10% to 20% of the total amount, due to improper handling or operation.1424

In April 2006, Huang Jiefu announced publicly at the National Liver Transplantation Symposium, “Due to donor quality issues, mishandling during surgery, or other reasons, the number of secondary liver transplants increased in China. Strengthening and standardizing management of organ transplantation has become a top priority.”1425

Eight Kidneys for One Patient

Tan Jianming, vice president of the Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command, was reported to have completed more than 4,200 kidney transplants as of 2014.1426 Among his patients was a 35-year old male at Shanghai General Hospital in September 2003. In two weeks, Tan was able to acquire 4 kidneys and blood samples, but none of them matched (the authors speculate that the donors’ locations made it impractical to perform cross-matching before excising the donor kidneys). Later, in March 2004, Tan managed to obtain 4 more kidneys in a row for the same patient, the last of which matched successfully. Thus, 8 “donor” kidneys were excised for just one patient. On one occasion, a doctor showed the patient a 20+ page list of available donors and reassured him that many on the list would be suitable for him, and that he would receive a kidney if he continued to wait.1427

Two Spare Liver Donors Prepared for Demonstration

According to the Chinese Nurse magazine, on September 28, 2005, Huang Jiefu, then-Deputy Minister of Health, accompanied Luo Gan, Secretary of the central Political and Legal Affairs Committee (Political and Legal Affairs Committee) and member of the CCP Central Committee, to attend the 50th anniversary celebration for the establishment of the Xinjiang Autonomous Region.

There, Huang Jiefu performed a liver transplant for a local Communist Party official, at The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University.1428 He first planned to conduct an allogeneic transplant, for which a donor liver had been made available. Upon inspecting the patient’s body cavity, Huang found that an autologous transplant would be suitable. Nevertheless, he procured two spare livers for his demonstration–one from the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, and another from the Liver Treatment Center of Chongqing Southwest Hospital, which is affiliated with the Third Military Medical University.

Within a few hours, each hospital had managed to find a donor with the “same blood type and genetic loci.” The next evening, those spare livers from both Chongqing and Guangzhou arrived in Xinjiang. Huang began the operation at 7 p.m. the next day and proceeded until the following morning at 10 a.m. After 24 hours of observation, Huang announced that the operation was successful and that the two spare livers were no longer needed. Because cold ischemia time for livers is limited to 15 hours,1429 the ‘spare livers’ could only have been two living people waiting to be harvested; more than 60 hours had passed between procurement of the livers and the completion of the autologous transplant.

b) Multiple Transplants Conducted Simultaneously

On March 14, 2006 Guangzhou Daily reported: Recently, in the operation room of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, the reporter witnessed 5 liver and 6 kidney transplants being conducted simultaneously… At its height, this center performed 19 kidney transplants in one day. The record set for 6 liver transplants and one multi organ transplant in one day.1430

Xinqiao Hospital, affiliated with the Third Military Medical University in Chongqing, once carried out 24 kidney transplants in one day, and conducted 2,590 kidney transplants by 2002.1431

On December 1, 2008, Qilu Evening News reported that the General Hospital of Jinan Military Command was capable of performing 6 kidney transplants simultaneously. It set a national record of performing 16 kidney transplants within 24 hours. Its annual transplant volume has ranked among the nation’s top 10 for 10 consecutive years.1432

The Liver Transplant Center at West China Hospital has five full sets of imported liver transplant equipment, allowing five liver transplant operations to be performed simultaneously.1433 The Center once performed seven liver transplants in one day, setting a national record.1434

On February 18, 2014, sixteen doctors of the Hepatology Center at Fuzhou General Hospital of the Nanjing Military Command simultaneously carried out ted five liver transplants within seventeen hours.1435 This center claimed that it had performed “the first, most, and best liver transplants in Fujian Province.”

According to the website of Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, on May 26, 2005 it completed one liver, 6 kidney, and 8 cornea transplants.1436 On September 3, 2005, it performed 7 heart, liver, and kidney transplants.1437 On April 28, 2006, the organ transplant center conducted 17 transplants in one day, including 7 advanced-stage uremic patients simultaneously. On the same day, it also completed two liver transplants and 8 cornea transplants. 1438

As early as in 2006, the president of Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Huang Zufa, said in an interview, “Our hospital once performed 2 liver and 5 kidney transplants at the same time. We already have the ability to do 6 or 7 transplant surgeries at the same time.”1439

The organ transplant center at the First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University once completed 7 transplants in one day, including 3 orthotopic liver and 4 kidney transplants.1440

No. 474 Hospital of Lanzhou Military Command established its Organ Transplantation Blood Purification Center, which can carry out 12 kidney transplants at once.1441

On January 17, 2006, Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command simultaneously carried out three liver transplants. 1442 On February 18, 2014, sixteen doctors completed five liver transplants within seventeen hours. 1443

No. 181 Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command performed 8 transplant surgeries on December 30, 2012 alone, including heart, lung, kidney, liver, cornea, and islet cell transplants.1444

Beijing Chaoyang Hospital reportedly conducted 21 transplant surgeries within one day around 2000-2001.1445

The founder of the transplant center at the Second People’s Hospital of Shanxi, Wu Xiaotong, often spends 12 hours a day performing transplant surgeries, one after another. In August 2006, the center recorded over 100 patients waiting for transplants at any given time. On August 15 alone, the center conducted 11 kidney transplants.1446

At Wuxi People’s Hospital, Chen Jingyu, “the No. 1 Lung Transplant Surgeon in China,” often completed four or five lung transplants a day.1447

The Cardiovascular Surgery Department and Organ Transplant Center at Union Hospital of Huazhong University of Science and Technology set a national record of completing four heart transplants simultaneously on the same day.1448

At Shenzhen Sun Yat-sen Cardiovascular Hospital on September 30, 2003, chief surgeon Ji Shangyi and Yang Jian’an completed two heart transplants in six hours, taking turns as lead surgeon.1449

“Come as quickly as possible. There were 5 transplants last night and 6 more transplants scheduled for tonight. There are some scheduled for next week as well,” said the director of the urologic surgery department at the General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command in the morning of April 21, 2006. This was in response to a WOIPFG investigator assuming the identity of a transplant patient inquiring about a kidney transplant over the phone.1450

c) Short Waiting Times for Organs

In countries with advanced healthcare capabilities and well-organized organ donation systems, patients usually wait many months or even years for a donor organ to become available.1451 Yet, in China, where organ donation is culturally taboo and there is no effective organ donation system as of yet, patients can find matching organs whenever needed, suggesting that there is a large number of readily available organ sources waiting to be matched to patients.

In November 2013, an article published in the Chinese state-affiliated Phoenix Weekly highlighted the growth of organ tourism to China within the past decade, and how organs are supplied on-demand and matched quickly, with no waiting time. The article also stated that the number of transplants performed in China exceeded that in the U.S.

“In the past decade, with the trend of ‘organ transplant tourism,’ many instances of unbelievably efficient transplant surgeries have appeared in the press. One doctor performed 246 liver transplants in one year. A patient received two kidney transplants within 48 hours…International medical experts have doubts about China’s huge organ sources: as a routine surgery, organ transplantation itself is not difficult; the difficult part is mainly matching and searching for organs. When the international community requires years of waiting to find a matching liver or kidney, why does the ‘searching miracle’ only happen frequently in China?” “International medical experts have analyzed the phenomena in mainland China’s organ transplant market. They think China must have an enormous underground human organ bank, or even a living donor organ bank, in which donors have their blood types tested and other related documents prepared ahead of time. When there is “demand” on the market, these living organ donors are sent to “hospitals” (slaughterhouses)…”

Figure 7.3: Snapshot of the news of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University

 

The first two paragraphs state:

“In the past decade, with the trend of ‘organ transplant tourism,’ many instances of unbelievably efficient transplant surgeries have appeared in the press. One doctor performed 246 liver transplants in one year. A patient received two kidney transplants within 48 hours…International medical experts have doubts about China’s huge organ sources: as a routine surgery, organ transplantation itself is not difficult; the difficult part is mainly matching and searching for organs. When the international community requires years of waiting to find a matching liver or kidney, why does the ‘searching miracle’ only happen frequently in China?”

“International medical experts have analyzed the phenomena in mainland China’s organ transplant market. They think China must have an enormous underground human organ bank, or even a living donor organ bank, in which donors have their blood types tested and other related documents prepared ahead of time. When there is “demand” on the market, these living organ donors are sent to “hospitals” (slaughterhouses)…”

The article has since been deleted from its original website,1452 but we have saved an archived version.

The abundance of organs available was also reflected on the website of Changhai Hospital affiliated with Second Military Medical University, which promoted its kidney transplantation as follows in 2008: 1453

  • Rapid recovery after surgery with high-quality kidneys
  • Short waiting time for transplantation due to an abundant supply of kidney sources
  • Low cost, with an average hospitalization fee of 50,000 RMB

This webpage is no longer accessible, though an archived version from 2008 exists. The hospital has deleted most pages under its organ transplant center and left only two expert profiles. Very little information remains.

Limiting Factors in Transplant Volume

In 2009, the median waiting time for kidney transplants was 3.6 years in the U.S.1454 In the U.K., the median wait for an adult kidney was 995 days during 2002-2006 and 1,191 days during 2005-2009.1455

Figure 7.5: A comparison of the waiting time for kidney (left) and liver (right) transplants in China (red) vs. the United States (blue)

Figure 7.6: The application form of liver transplant in Shanghai Changzheng Hospital

 

In China, it was common before March 2006 (when organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners was first reported internationally) that quite a few Chinese hospital websites offered to guarantee to find a living liver and kidney donor within two weeks. Some hospitals even claimed that they had ready donors available.

Shanghai Changzheng Hospital’s organ transplant department claimed on its application form for liver transplants in 2006 that the average waiting time for liver transplantation was one week,1456 and that the shortest waiting time was 4 hours.1457 Between 2003 and 2006, the hospital had performed 120 emergency liver transplants. Within the last 9 days of April 2005, this hospital completed 16 liver transplants and 15 kidney transplants.1458

Emergency liver transplants are performed on patients who require a transplant operation within 72 hours. Outside of China, finding donor organs for such emergency transplants is nearly impossible. According to the China Liver Transplant Registry’s 2006 Annual Report,1459 among the 8,486 liver transplants performed in 29 facilities in China, 4,331 were labeled as either emergency or elective. Emergency transplants comprised 1,150 (26.6%) of the labeled cases.

An academic paper published by Zheng Shusen, director of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, stated that the hospital had performed 46 emergency liver transplants between January 2000 and December 2004. All patients underwent transplants within 72 hours.1460

In the afternoon of February 14, 2014, Jiangxi Provincial People’s Hospital consecutively performed one liver and two kidney transplants. The liver transplant patient was transferred from another hospital in a hepatic coma for an emergency transplant. The surgery began immediately after this patient was transferred to this hospital, indicating that the hospital has readily available liver sources.

On September 4, 2012, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University performed a second heart transplant on the same patient, a rare surgery in the world and the second case in China. The donor heart matching and all other surgery preparation were completed in 4 days.1461

Hebei Daily reported that, on April 7, 2011, vice president Liu Su of the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University led his expert group to perform a heart transplant for 13-year-old Hua Jiale.1462 The hospital found a matching child donor for the patient in a week. The report made no mention of the child “donor.” This case cannot be explained by the sourcing of organs from executed prisoners.

The Shenyang Evening News reported on October 19, 2003 that on October 17, a woman in Shenyang, who had acute severe hepatitis and liver failure after consuming alcohol, received an emergency liver transplant at the organ transplant department of the First Hospital of China Medical University. The entire liver transplant process took six hours. This case shows the existence of ready donors waiting.1463

On January 28, 2002, People’s Liberation Army No. 281 Hospital of Beijing Military Command undertook seven cadaveric renal allografts. One patient experienced a renal arterial embolization seven days after surgery, on February 4, 2002. The next day, the patient was administered a “transplant nephrectomy and in situ re-transplantation.” In other words, the wait time for the second transplant, including organ sourcing and tissue matching, took only one day.1464

At one point, this hospital performed the most kidney transplants in the Beijing Military Command and in Hebei Province.1465 As of 2007, it has performed 6 to 9 simultaneous kidney transplants on 28 occasions.1466

Some other hospitals also guaranteed to provide a second source within a week as a backup. For example, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chinese Medical University, Institute of Transplantation, China International Transplantation Network Assistance Center said that if a fatty liver or other anomalies are found during removal of the source organ, the recipient’s surgery would be canceled. The Center would offer the patient priority in finding another organ and schedule the surgery within a week. 1467

An article from the New Culture newspaper in Changchun City published on March 4, 2006 reported that The Second Hospital of Jilin University was able to find a heart donor for a patient named Xie Baoshi within one day and performed the transplant surgery for him the next day. It took the first team of doctors just 1.5 hours to get the heart from the donor 100 km away. Another team waiting at the Jilin hospital successfully transplanted that heart into the recipient 1.5 hours later.1468

On May 30, 2014, Nanjing First Hospital performed two heart transplants simultaneously. According to a people.cn report on June 23, 2014, two patients surnamed Zhang and Li received notice at the same time on May 30 that donor hearts were available. The hospital’s vice president Chen Xin decided that the two heart transplant surgeries would proceed simultaneously. That afternoon, the two patients entered operating rooms at the same time. It took half an hour to transport the donor hearts to the First Hospital. After Chen Xin “installed” a new heart for the first patient, he immediately “installed” a different heart for the second patient. The whole process took over two hours.1469

In early September 2014, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University carried out liver transplants for two male patients on the same day, one of whom needed only one day to achieve a successful match. The patients’ family paid 600,000 RMB in cash, and the surgery was done the next day.1470

d) All types of transplants

Complete Types of Transplants Performed

Our survey of 165 hospitals from Chapters Two to Six showed that the vast majority of hospitals have expanded into multiple types of transplants beyond the ones for they have received permits from the Ministry of Health. Currently, the Ministry issues permits for six types of solid organ transplants (kidney, liver, heart, lung, pancreas, and small intestine); cell and tissue transplants do not require permits.

The most varied example is Peking University Third Hospital, which carried out transplants of heart, lung, cornea, stem cell, bone marrow, vascular grafts, and hair, besides organ transplants approved for liver, kidney, pancreas, and small intestine transplants—eleven types in total, not including multi-organ transplants.

Sun Yat-sen Hospital of Xiamen University is approved for only heart transplants, but it also performs nine other types of transplants: kidney, liver, pancreas, spleen, lung, heart-lung, small intestine, islet cell, cornea, and bone marrow.

Wuxi People’s Hospital is approved for only lung transplants but also carries out eight other types–kidney, liver, heart, pancreas, cornea, stem cell, bone marrow, and vascular grafts.

Below, we list the types of transplants that these hospitals have claimed to perform on their websites, in media reports, etc. These types do not include combined organ transplants.



Figure 7.7: Actual Transplant Types Performed in 164 Permitted Hospitals

 

Figure 7.8: Number of hospitals approved by the Ministry of Health to carry out multiple types of transplants

 

Figure 7.9: Number of hospitals carrying out multiple transplant types

e) Experience of Transplant Patients

The short waiting times, quality of organs, and low fees in China attracted transplant patients from all over the world.

Below are individual accounts of foreign patients who traveled to China solely to receive organ transplants. These cases all featured fast availability of organs (most within a month) upon contacting a broker, as well as short hospitalization times (1-2 weeks for kidney transplants and 2-3 weeks for liver transplants). The hospitals either did not state the sources of donor organs or, when asked, said they came from executed prisoners.

Japanese Businessman: “It Was So Fast I Was Scared”

When a native Japanese Hokamura Kenichiro’s kidneys failed, he waited over four years for a transplant before going online to check out rumors of organs for sale. 1471

He was astonished by just how easy it was. Ten days after contacting a Japanese broker in China in February, he was lying on an operating table in a Shanghai hospital receiving a new kidney. A doctor had only examined him that morning. “It was so fast I was scared,” he says.

The price was 6.8 million yen (about US$80,000). “It was cheap”, says Hokamura.

Hokamura is one of hundreds of well-off Japanese who have recently made the trip to China for kidney, liver or heart transplants, drawn by the availability of cheap, healthy organs and rapidly improving medical facilities along the east coast of the mainland. The so-called ‘transplant tourism’ trade is also attracting a growing number of Koreans, Americans and other nationals.

His broker has helped more than 100 Japanese make the trip to China for transplants since 2004, and the trade is growing.

Hokamura negotiated the deal through a Japanese broker in Shenyang that operates under the name of the China International Organ Transplant Center which maintains a professional website with detailed information about their services for donors in English, Japanese, Korean and Russian. The website, http://en.zoukiishoku.com/list/link.htm (accessed April 2, 2006) provides the following information on the sources of organs:

If you send your personal data to this center by e-mail or fax and accept the necessary body examination in Shenyang, China in order to assure a suitable donor, it may take only one month to receive a liver transplantation, the maximum waiting time being two months. As for the kidney transplantation, it may take one week to find a suitable donor, the maximum time being one month.” The source of the organs, however, is not specified.

This is a cover story of ‘Japanese Flock to China for Organ Transplants’ posted on The Asia-Pacific Journal on April 2, 2006.

Firsthand Accounts

Below, we give several firsthand accounts of international patients who travelled to mainland China for organ transplants.1472 (To protect the identities of organ recipients, their real names have been removed.)

Delegation of Nine Patients Receiving Transplants Together

In January 2001, Mr. L expressed a wish to go to China for an organ transplant and had his blood drawn. About four to five days later, Mr. L received a phone call from the clinic that a matching kidney had been located in China, and that he could start to prepare for his trip. Mr. L hesitated at first and wondered how a matching organ could be found so swiftly. After discussing with his family members, he decided to go anyway.

On February 1, 2001, Mr. L’s delegation of nine patients (5 male and 4 female) went together to Taiping Hospital of Dongyuan for organ transplants. After paying $130,000 HKD, Mr. L received a kidney transplant two days later, together with four other patients from southeast Asia. All 13 transplants (for the group of nine and the group of four) were finished within two days. Mr. L was hospitalized for seven days before returning home. Some patients were hospitalized for 14 days.

Mr. L did not know which doctor operated on him, and no one mentioned the source of the organ. Mr. L suggested that hospitals in mainland China were participating in organ trafficking.

Notes:

Mr. L: male, age 57, blood type O, chronic renal failure

Taiping People’s Hospital of Dongguan (in Humen District, Dongguan City, Guangdong Province) was not a military hospital. However, Wei Gao, the chief physician of the transplant department, was also a professor of and chief physician at the Zhujiang Research Institute of the First Military Medical University.1473 Some other responsible people of this transplant department were also from military hospitals. Military hospitals or doctors could easily obtain organs.

Patient Not Psychologically Prepared for Such a Quick Match

Ms. Rou. Z.: blood type B, age in her forties, from Asia.

Ms. Rou. Z. was diagnosed as with chronic renal insufficiency in May 2000. After undergoing kidney dialysis, Ms. Rou Z. was recommended to go to mainland China for a kidney transplant.

On May 11, 2001, the broker obtained her health record and was told to stay at home to wait for further notice.

Approximately two weeks later, Ms. Rou.Z. was notified that a matched organ source had been located and she could go to China for the transplant. Not psychologically prepared for a matching organ to be found so quickly, she passed on this opportunity. After two weeks, the broker called again, saying that another matching organ had been found. This time, Ms. Rou.Z agreed to travel to mainland China for the transplant, and an operation was scheduled in late June.

A group of seven patients went to China together for organ transplant. Each was asked to bring $200,000 HKD.

The broker received the patients at the airport on June 25, 2001 and took them on a two-hour bus ride to Humen, Dongguan City. They were admitted on the same day to the Taiping People’s Hospital in Dongyuan and given various exams.

On the same day (June 25, 2001), a hospital staff member collected $140,000 to $150,000 HKD from each patient. Simplistic receipts were handed out. Patients with blood type O and those above 60 years old had to pay an extra $20,000 HKD. The entire transplant center was headed by Professor Wei Gao, but Ms. Rou.Z. did not know who her surgeon was.

All seven recipients had their kidney transplants done the next day (June 26, 2001). Three operating rooms were used simultaneously. Spinal anesthesia was applied. Ms. Rou.Z. was sent into the operating room at approximately 8:00 p.m., and the operation was completed at midnight. Ms. Zhuang was told that she received a HLA 4 matched organ.

Other patients who received a transplant on the same day included an Indonesian, a French Chinese, and a local Chinese. Surgeon Xu Jiahua had told them earlier that as long as a patient had received kidney dialysis within the hospital for five years, the patient could get a free kidney transplant.

The seven patients stayed in the hospital for seven days and return home on July 3.

Ms. Rou.Z. has not been told who her surgeon and organ donor were. The broker told her that the organs came from executed prisoners.

Receiving a Kidney Transplant with Four Other Patients, Unknown Donor

Ms. R.Z.: blood type AB, age about 50, from Asia.

Ms. R.Z. was diagnosed with chronic renal insufficiency in 1986. By December 2004, her situation had deteriorated, and she developed renal failure and required dialysis.

In early December of 2004, she was given a suggestion to go to mainland China for a transplant and was introduced to a broker, who took Ms. R.Z.’s blood sample to mainland China on December 17, 2004.

Two days later, on December 19, Ms. R.Z. was notified that a matching organ had been found that and she could travel immediately to Guangzhou for the transplant.

As Ms. R.Z. had a bad cold at the time, she was only able to travel to Guangzhou with her husband and younger sister on December 24.

The Economic and Technical Development Hospital of Guangzhou was situated far away from the city and was very desolate. The transplant department was on the tenth floor and had 13 rooms with three beds each. Each inpatient could have their family members live in the room with them. The chief physician of the transplant department was Lin Minzhuan. There were at least ten other patients waiting for transplants or recovering from one. Ms. R.Z. saw patients from Taiwan, Malaysia, Indonesia, and other countries.

The cost of the operation was $27,000 USD (including hospitalization, food and transportation). The money was paid in cash to Lin Minzhuan’s younger brother (the chief administrator) right before the operation. No receipt was issued at the time the money was paid, but under the request of Ms. R.Z.’s husband, a simple note indicating the paid amount was issued.

Ms. R.Z. entered the operating room at 5:00 p.m. on December 30, 2004. The hospital staff had gone to fetch the kidney for her that morning. The operation lasted approximately four hours under spinal anesthesia. There were four other patients receiving kidney transplants on the same day. Ms. R.Z. does not know who her organ donor was. She was told by a doctor that she received a HLA 5 matched kidney.

In the next five days, she was hospitalized in an isolated care unit (the unit had six beds and monitored by staff 24 hours a day, with only one staff member at night). After that, she stayed in a regular room for seven days. She returned home after the stitches were removed on January 11, 2005.

Doctor Claims Criminals Executed with Two Injections

Mr. J.C., in his fifties, was diagnosed with acute renal failure in January 2005. He received a hepatitis B vaccine in March and met the antibody requirements in September. He was told then that he could receive an organ transplant in mainland China.

The patient received notification of an organ match on October 19, 2005. The patient attended a pre-trip seminar on October 20, 2005, where he and other patients were informed of the cost involved and told that their organs had all been matched, so there was no need to worry.

The group of eight patients arrived at the Guangdong Province Border Patrol Armed Police Central Hospital in Shenzhen on October 26 at 4:10 p.m. Professor Wei Gao gave a pre-surgery seminar that evening. The surgery fee of $150,000 HKD in cash was collected from each patient. Some patients asked how the condemned criminals were executed. Dr. Gao said they were not shot; rather, they were given two injections (one for anesthetic and one painkiller) before the organs were taken.

The patient paid $2,700 HKD for accommodation, $12,800 HKD for medicine, and 700 HKD for haemodialysis. The entire operation cost in mainland China was $169,019 HKD. According to the interviewee, the transplant hospitals in Mainland China do not issue receipts of payment for medical treatment; the hospital gives proof of medical treatment only when deemed absolutely necessary. They would provide the proof of the last two dialyses done before surgery, so that patients could apply for the public health insurance reimbursement after returning to Taiwan. All expenditures were paid in cash with Hong Kong Dollars through the handyman.

The total cost for the patient was about $29,000 USD, including “red envelope” money, airline ticket, etc. Mr. J.C. stayed in China for only 3 days.

Mr. J.C. entered the operating room at about 4:00 p.m. on October 28. The kidneys for transplant arrived at the hospital at about 2:10 p.m. the same day. The location where the organs were obtained must not have been far from the hospital. The nurses, riding in an ambulance and carrying cooler boxes, came back with eight kidneys.

Mr. J.C. was out of the operating room at about 8:30 p.m. Afterwards, the eight transplant patients were hospitalized in the Supervision Unit, where family members were not allowed to enter. The patient was discharged on November 4.

The doctors in the hospital were all military doctors.

The medical certificate was given in the name of the Auxing Group Junhui Company (translated by sound of name), and the type of hospitalization was registered as self-paid locals.

The patient said that the group before them was from Indonesia. One day after they left, a group from Singapore would come to the hospital for organ transplants.

Note: This transplant was done at Guangdong Province Border Patrol Armed Police Central Hospital. It was said only military hospitals or doctors working at the army hospitals could easily obtain organs.

Hubei: Finding a Kidney in One Month

Ms. T, in her fifties, from Asia, was diagnosed with chronic renal insufficiency in 2000 and started dialysis in July 2003.

She got in touch with a local organ broker in November 2005. She had a pre-transplant evaluation and immunological evaluation at a local hospital and sent the results to the broker in early December.

The broker asked Ms. T to prepare $26,000 USD in cash and told her that it usually took one week to find a matching organ. The broker also said it was also preferred that the patient go to mainland China to wait for a matched organ. However, Ms. T expressed that she would like to wait for a matched organ to be located before leaving for mainland China.

Ms. T was informed on January 4, 2006 that an organ source had been found and that her flight ticket was ready.

On January 6, 2006, the broker took Ms. T and another organ transplant patient and flew to Wuhan in Hubei Province. Ms. T was hospitalized at 2 p.m. on the same day at the Land Force General Hospital of Wuhan and received a blood test immediately. She was sent to an operating room at 5 p.m. and received spinal anesthesia. She was sent out of the operating room at about 8 p.m. The doctor in charge of her case was Tang Ligong.

There were three rooms for transplant patients, and each room had three patients; there were nine beds in total. She was told by a doctor that she received a HLA 3 matched organ.

She was discharged on January 19, 2006 and returned to Taiwan.

The Land Force General Hospital is a military hospital. The broker told Ms. T that the organ came from an executed prisoner (the same explanation generally given by hospitals in mainland China). It was said that military hospitals could easily obtain organs. No families were allowed to visit the transplant patients at this hospital.

f) Donors Seeking Recipients

Yunnan Kunming Kidney Disease Hospital is one of the Top 100 Private Hospitals in southwestern China and specializes in kidney and liver transplantation. It has approximately 100 beds1474 and has attracted patients from over ten countries and regions.1475

When answering a patient’s question online, this hospital referred to itself as “an organ transplant hospital which has donors seeking matched recipients.” It “guarantees to find a healthy kidney in the shortest possible time,” “provides the shortest possible cold and warm ischemia times,” and “in case of failure, will continue to perform transplants until one is successful.”1476

Case Study: Transporting a Living Donor to Tibet

On December 15, 2002, Xinhua News Agency reported that on December 14, Lhasa City People’s Hospital in Tibet performed the first successful orthotopic liver transplant in the Tibet Autonomous Region. This was the first such operation in the world to take place at an altitude of 3,700 metres. The surgery took place at 15:00 on the 13th. The four surgeons included Tang Jinhai, dean of Lhasa People’s Hospital, and Professor Yan Lvnan of West China Medical Center of Sichuan Medical University. The surgery lasted 14 hours. 1477

Dean Tang Jinhai said that the success of the operation sets an example for future medical research and practice in the plateau region, and puts an end to the part of Tibetan history that does not include major organ transplantation, and that it owes to the support of the Party. 1478

Tang Jinhai set out a significant detail of this operation. …. [Regarding] Lhasa being at an altitude of 3,600 meters: “In order to ensure the activity of the liver’s hepatocytes, the extraction of the liver from the donor must take place simultaneously with the removal of the bad liver from the receiver. If the aircraft carrying the donor could not fly from outside the region to Tibet on time due to bad weather (such situations in Tibet are quite common during the winter), the consequences would be disastrous.”

This report illustrates that a living “donor” was killed when his/her liver was excised at the same time as the recipient’s bad liver was removed. It also indicates that transplants are performed in every corner of China, no matter how remote.

The treatment results for kidney transplant in our hospital have reached an advanced international level. The transplant center has a high reputation at home and abroad. Besides the patients in China, patients from over 10 countries and regions, including Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan, Australia, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam, have come for kidney transplants. 1. Guarantees to every patient to find a healthy kidney in the shortest possible time; 3. Provides the shortest possible cold and warm ischemia times; 4. This is an organ transplant hospital that has donors seeking matched recipients. As long as the doctors agree, we are confident we can successfully perform kidney transplant surgeries; In case of failure, we will continue to perform transplants until one is successful, and will not charge for the repeat surgeries. Every organ used for transplant has strict health documentation, including referencing to kidney functioning and AIDS illness test...

Figure 7.10:  A question and answer section of the Yunnan Kidney Disease Hospital Introduction

5. Working at Full Capacity

On January 12, 2015, Huang Jiefu appeared on Phoenix Television and addressed the limiting factors of organ transplantation in China: “The first is an economic reason. A transplant surgery is very expensive, and not many citizens can afford the medical costs. The second is that, even though we have such well-qualified hospitals, there aren’t that many experienced and skilled doctors. Only the third is that there are not that many donor bodies; even though donor bodies are abundant right now, there aren’t that many hospitals and that many doctors that can [perform transplants].”1479

In October 2015, Huang Jiefu told Beijing Youth Daily that China had only 169 hospitals with permits to perform one or more types of transplants. He expressed a desire to increase the number of qualified transplant hospitals from 169 to 300 and train 400 to 500 young doctors.1480 A more recent Xinhua report published in China Daily on May 15, 2016 stated that, according to Huang Jiefu, “China will increase the number of hospitals conducting organ transplants to 300 in the next five years.”1481 This suggests that the current system-wide capacity far from meets demand.

Evidently, the availability of organs is not the main limitation. The continued expansion of existing transplant centers and plans to qualify so many new ones suggest that the number of transplant operations is constrained by medical facilities and personnel.

a) High Bed Utilization

We found a number of hospitals with bed utilization rates between 100% and 200%.

For example, the kidney transplant department at Zhengzhou No. 7 People’s Hospital posted an update on March 31, 2015 indicating that it has 46 approved beds, 70 or more patients at any given time, and a bed utilization rate that “exceeds 130%.”1482 The department has also reported, “Since the establishment of our specialist department, we have conducted more than 2,000 kidney transplants. We have conducted 130 kidney transplants from living relatives.”1483

At No. 474 Hospital of Lanzhou Military Command, the Organ Transplantation Blood Purification Center has 62 open beds and 12 intensive care beds dedicated to transplantation. The utilization rate of these beds exceeds 110%.1484

The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University has a kidney transplant center with 55 beds, 130 monthly admissions/discharges, and a 101% turnover rate.1485 In 2012, it performed over 1,170 renal transplants.1486

Despite having approval for only kidney transplants, the Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College has also performed liver, bone marrow, cornea, stem cell, and other types of transplants. In 2012, its urologic surgery department reportedly had 51 beds and maintained a level of 100 patients, resulting in a utilization rate of around 200%.1487 The department has since been expanded to 100 beds.1488

Photo: The new Surgery building at Guizhou Provincial People’s Hospital

The Tianjin Medical University General Hospital’s website showed in 2016 that its general surgery department had a subordinate organ transplant research institute, which conducts liver, small intestine, and other abdominal organ transplants. The department has 208 beds and averages a 115% utilization rate.1489 Its lung cancer surgery department contains the Tianjin Lung Transplant Center, which has 110 beds for its professional clinical team and admits an average of over 160 inpatients per month.1490 Its urologic surgery department began conducting kidney transplants, has 96 beds, and admits up to 150 inpatients per month.1491 Its ophthalmology center carries out cornea transplants, has 42 beds, and admits more than 100 inpatients each month on average.1492

On May 29, 2005, the hospital opened its new 16-story surgery building with 724 beds.1493 Its thoracic surgery department expanded from 24 beds to 54 beds and was the region’s first clinical department to perform heart transplants.1494

The Hepatobiliary Surgery Department at Guizhou Provincial People’s Hospital focuses development on liver transplantation as its key discipline. It can routinely carry out liver, pancreas, and other types of large-organ transplants.

The hospital completed its new surgical building in 2007 with 22 floors and modern 100 and 1000-level laminar flow operating rooms and ICU.1495 Since its Hepatobiliary Surgery Department moved into the new building, it has opened two hepatobiliary wards planned for 92 beds but in reality with 150 beds.1496

b) Waiting for beds

Despite the increased capacity of transplant centers, there is still a growing stream of patients waiting for transplants in the transplant hospitals, as one can see from the following examples. The high demand drives high bed utilization rates and number of transplants performed.

According to a report by the Sanxiang City News on November 10, 2012, there were over 1,000 people waiting for an organ transplant at the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University.1497

The director of the organ transplant center at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xue Wujun, stated that over 1,000 patients were waiting for organ transplants. This China News report was published on April 17, 2015. 1498

A people.cn report on January 20, 2011 stated, “In a ward in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, where Zheng Shusen is located, currently lies more than 50 patients who urgently need liver transplants … At the Tianjin First Center Hospital Orient Transplant Center, there are no fewer than a thousand late-stage liver disease patients registered on the waiting list for liver transplants…”1499

In an interview with Oriental Outlook in September 2013, Shi Bingyi, director of the No. 309 Hospital’s People’s Liberation Army Organ Transplant Research Institute, indicated that the institute had five to six thousand patients waiting for transplants each year. 1500

A report from October 2014 indicated that there were more than 400 patients waiting for kidney transplants at the Second Yinzhou Hospital.1501

c) Capacity Expansion

To meet the ever-increasing demand for transplants, most hospitals we analyzed have expanded their transplant wards and even constructed new buildings, often including VIP-style amenities to cater to transplant recipients from other countries. Reading through the individual hospitals for the first time, we felt as if we were observing a monstrous flywheel.

Case Study: Shanghai Renji Hospital’s Surgery Building Busy 24 Hours a Day

The Urology Department of Shanghai Renji Hospital established a new wing and renal transplant ward in Pudong in November 1999. It has expanded from its original 29 beds to 70 beds. Its new medical team and distribution system allowed its number of surgeries to increase by 300%.1502 Under the leadership of Professor Huang Yiran, the medium-sized department, with fewer than 70 beds, performs over 5,000 surgeries per year, with over 60% being large and extra-large operations. The average hospitalization time is five days.1503

“There are too many, too many patients! We have surgeries here overnight, nonstop for 24 hours a day,” Dr. Cheng Zheying told a Wenhui Daily reporter in March 2016.1504 Chen also said that the surgery building is the main battlefield for Renji Hospital’s surgeries. As many as 120 surgeries are performed here in a day. The most difficult and advanced surgeries, including robotic surgeries, are all performed here. Each operation lasts over four hours, so even with the over ten operating rooms all open, doctors have to operate until late at night. This does not include liver transplants, as liver sources coming from other areas are often brought back to the hospital late at night, so it is quite common to conduct surgeries until early morning.

“The operating room is like a secret garden in the hospital. We have no time to be in contact with the outside world. The lights are on 24 hours a day here. Seven or eight o’clock at night is the same as in the morning. One can’t tell day from night,” Chen Zheying said. Because of the long-term continuous operations, many of the medical personnel have developed lumbar diseases, cervical spondylosis, and varicose veins.

The outside world knows little about the fully loaded and even overloaded operations here. Director Huang Yiran of the Urology Department sighed while holding the monthly statistical data of various surgeries, “one-third of the operations should not have been done here.”

In 2005, Renji Hospital’s east surgical building was put into use. It has 1,000 beds.1505 The number of operating rooms has increased from 24 to 38.1506 Its Liver Transplant Center is located on the 14th and 15th floors of this new building. The 15th floor has a 10,000-class laminar flow isolation ward and liver transplant ICU.1507

The Liver Transplant Center has experienced phenomenal growth. It increased its bed count from the original 13 at the end of September 2004 to 23 beds less than 10 days later. It later increased to 90 beds in June 20071508 and 110 beds in 2014.1509 Its utilization rate and transplant volume also continued to hit new highs.

Director Xia Qiang of the Liver Transplant Center stated that the center has ranked first in Shanghai in annual liver transplant surgeries performed for eight consecutive years since 2007. It has also and has ranked first in the country for four consecutive years since 2011. Its pediatric liver transplant volume has ranked first in the world for three consecutive years since 2012.1510

More Wards and Beds

The 307th Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army claims to be one of Beijing’s largest renal transplant centers. With a high surgical success rate, its survival time after kidney transplant surgery has always been at a leading level domestically and attracts many specialists and transplant recipients from throughout the country.1511

In September 2005, the hospital moved to its new site in Fengtai District of Beijing, where its building area tripled and number of beds doubled. In May 2009, its new medical building officially opened and increased its bed count to 1,100. In September 2013, its emergency medical building was put into service, which increased its bed count by another 500.1512

In 2004, Dong Jiahong, the director of People’s Liberation Army Hepatobiliary Surgery Institute of Southwest Hospital affiliated with the Third Military Medical University, stated in 2006 that the department planned to expand to three wards, with 150 beds to accommodate “the needs of large-scale transplantation”, so that each year, the facility could admit 3,000 hepatobiliary and pancreatic patients domestically and abroad, and perform 2,400 liver transplants.1513 The number of beds at the center later increased to 200.1514

Photo: ICU ward and operating room in the new medical building at Navy General Hospital

Navy General Hospital’s archived web page shows that its hepatobiliary surgery department was the first in China to carry out liver transplants. The special edition of its introduction to liver transplantation states, “As liver transplantation has become the only effective treatment of end-stage liver cancer, the Navy General Hospital has helped thousands of end-stage liver cancer patients gain a second life through liver transplantation.”1515

The hospital’s new medical building entered use on December 16, 2009. The 70,000+ square meter building represented 400 million RMB of investment. It has 724 open beds, 18 operating rooms, and a special ward for international patients and VIPs. 1516

The People’s Liberation Army No. 458 Hospital (Air Force Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command)’s liver transplant center has 108 beds and can simultaneously carry out two liver transplants and one regular surgery. Patient rooms are well-equipped with amenities, including air conditioning, televisions, telephones, central gas, intercoms, refrigerators, and microwaves. The center also has five “presidential suites” with high-speed internet access.1517

Led by the development of kidney transplantation, the People’s Liberation Army 452 (Chengdu Air Force) hospital leaped from a “township-level scale” of 210 beds in 2002 to over 1,000 beds in 2009. It performed the most kidney transplants in Sichuan Province.1518

A Health News report in April 2005 stated that the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University had completed 800 liver transplants. Its transplant center has nearly 40 beds that are always full. The center performed 259 liver transplants in 2004; there was at least one transplant almost every weekday.1519 The center has five wards and focuses on liver, pancreas, small intestine, combined, and complicated transplants. It currently has 113 open beds.1520

New Buildings

Figure 7.10: The new surgical building at Wuhan Union Hospital

The new surgery building at Wuhan Union Hospital was under construction between August 8, 2002 and September 2006. It has 32 stories above ground and 2 underground. The integrated surgery ward building has 1,050 beds and 42 operating rooms. 1521 It can accommodate 200 surgeries per day, a volume equivalent to those of five medium and large-scale hospitals. 1522 It is the largest-scale surgery building in Asia, and its advanced facilities are second-to-none in Asia.

Its Urologic Surgery Department enjoys a high academic status in the country and has now become one of the largest kidney transplant centers in the region.1523 The Liver Transplant Center is a main component of its General Surgery Department, which has been designated a national key discipline, and liver transplantation has become a routine practice. Its heart transplantation and combined heart-lung transplantation are state of the art. The Cardiovascular Surgery Department once completed 4 heart transplants simultaneously and within 22 minutes,1524 and claimed to have completed the largest number of heart transplants in the country in 2014.1525

Peking University Third Hospital began to conduct clinical liver transplants in May 2000. In October 2001, its organ transplant center was formally established.1526 It worked with other hospitals affiliated with Peking University to establish the largest organ transplant center in China.1527  In December 2005, it moved into a new 470-bed surgery building, 1528 where its facilities have been improved fundamentally, which has brought greater development opportunities to the center.1529 Its quality and quantity of liver transplants ranks near the top in China. The transplant center’s director Zhu Jiye stated in an interview in 2013 that his hospital performed more than 4,000 kidney and liver transplants in one year.1530

In 2010, the People’s Liberation Army No. 309 Hospital’s transplant center had 316 beds, and claimed to lead in annual capacity and bed utilization rate among similar departments in the military.1531 As of 2012, this transplant center had its own building and had expanded to 393 beds. 1532

A report in 2004 showed that the transplant volume at Zhongshan Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University had been increasing at a rate of 50% per year.1533 The quantity and success rate of liver transplantation of its liver surgery department lead the country.1534 In February 2015, it moved into the new Shanghai Liver Cancer Medical Center building. It now has 230 beds, with its scale and medical capabilities among the world’s best.1535

Fujian Medical University Union Hospital leads the nation in the number of allogeneic heart transplants performed. Its pediatric heart transplantation and heart re-transplantation fill a gap in this field in China. Its technology in liver transplants, heart re-transplants, and bilateral lung transplants lead the nation.

Since its cardiac surgery department conducted the first orthotopic heart transplant in Fujian Province in 1995, it has successfully performed heart transplants for patients with advanced heart disease from more than 30 cities and regions of China. The department ranks among the best in allogeneic heart transplant, holds 16 “first in the country” titles, and serves as the base for heart transplantation in China.

The hospital’s dedicated heart surgery building entered operation in 2007. After moving to the new building, its cardiac surgery department expanded from 67 beds to 102 beds. It has 21 ICU beds, dedicated patient rooms for transplants with laminar-flow air purification systems, and an independent pediatric ward.1536 The hospital began construction on a new, integrated surgery building on January 1, 2005. The building was completed in September 20081537 and officially entered use in July 2009. The building has 13 stories above ground, 3 stories below ground, and 806 beds.1538

The Affiliated Hospital of the Medical College of Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces claims that it conducts the second highest number of kidney transplants annually in Tianjin,1539 and its transplant volume is at the forefront in the Beijing and Tianjin areas and among China’s top 20 major hospitals.1540 The hospital’s data showed that its bed utilization rate had reached 107.6%, with an average bed turnover rate of 35.8 times per year.1541

Yet, in 2003, the hospital ranked last among the 37 hospitals at the division level and above in the military and armed police forces. Because 149 patients and medical staff at the hospital were infected with SARS, its 34 departments were merged into two, and its bed count was reduced to 50. The hospital experienced a sharp financial downturn. With support from Zhang Gaoli, a Politburo Standing Committee member and former Tianjin Party Secretary, this military hospital was unexpectedly included in Tianjin’s Twelfth Five-Year Plan. It was gradually constructed into a modern medical complex with over 30,000 square meters of building area.1542

In 2011, the hospital launched another expansion project. The first phase was to build a 17-story inpatient building and corresponding medical technology building, which increased the hospital’s bed count by nearly 700. The second phase was to building an emergency building and a 19-story surgery building. After its completion, the hospital would have 2,700 beds in total. The third phase was to build another medical building, which would further increase the hospital’s bed count to 3,000.1543

Lanzhou General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Region successfully conducted China’s first kidney transplant in 1965.1544 The levels of medical treatment, scientific research and teaching in its urologic surgery department are at the forefront in both the province and in the country. Its People’s Liberation Army Blood Disease Center is the largest in northwestern China. It carried out the first bone marrow transplant in the country. Its scale, technology, and quality of transplantation are at the forefront in northwestern China.1545 The center has 150 beds, 15 ultra-clean wards for hematopoietic stem cell and bone marrow transplants, and 18 surgeons, 9 of whom are in senior positions and more than half hold master’s or PhD degrees.1546

In 2004, the hospital invested 120 million RMB to build a 20-story surgical care building with 900 beds–the largest in the city of Lanzhou. In 2008, the hospital invested 20 million RMB to renovate the ward for cadres according to modern medical standards. The hospital has 1,300 beds. Each year, it receives 37,000 inpatients, performs 126,000 surgeries, and earns 444 million RMB in revenue.1547

The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University (Guangzhou Overseas Chinese Hospital) established its kidney transplant department in 1997 and changed its name to the ‘Organ Transplant Center’ in 2003. It specializes in kidney, liver, pancreas, and other types of transplants. Its kidney transplantation leads the province. 1548 1549

On December 9, 2012, the hospital’s new 19-story, 1,300-bed ward building became operational, which contains its organ transplant center, urologic and cardiothoracic surgery departments, and the VIP ward. It has 20 laminar-flow operating rooms meeting international standards.1550 1551 Its VIP patient rooms mirror hotel standards and have various high-end medical facilities to satisfy the expectations of high-end patients from within China and other countries.1552

Yiyang Central Hospital became the first in the province to start performing kidney transplants in 2000.1553 In 2004, it established a kidney transplant center with independent wards. The center’s success rate of 99.6% is at an advanced level domestically. In 2009, it scored among the top ten in the CSRKT ranking.1554 Facing demand growing by the day, the hospital increased its investment in equipment and facilities and is currently constructing a new 25-story surgery building.1555

No. 303 Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command established its transplant center in 2004. 1556 Its 10-story organ transplantation building entered operation in 2006. 1557 In 2010, the hospital established a Transplantation Research Institute and Key Laboratory Training Base that integrates clinical care, education, and research.1558

In March 2006, the First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University formed a new division specializing in organ transplantation. It moved into the new No. 1 Inpatient Building with 90 beds. In 2010, the transplant division expanded to 140 beds.1559

The First Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University is this region’s only heart and lung transplant center.1560 In recent years, the hospital has carried out the first heart, liver, small intestine, kidney, cornea, stem cell, and other types of transplants in the region. Some of these types of transplants have become routine operations for the hospital.1561 The hospital’s new inpatient building entered use in 2005. It has 448 modern standard patient rooms, 1,332 beds, and laminar flow operating rooms and isolation wards.1562

New Campuses

In 2009, the Shanghai Municipal Government collaborated with the People’s Liberation Army General Logistics Department to develop the Second Military Medical University. Its development strategy was to move its affiliated Changzheng Hospital eastward to the Pudong District, and to move its affiliated Eastern Hepatobiliary Hospital westward to Jiading.

On October 18, 2015, the Eastern Hepatobiliary Hospital, located in Anting in Jiading District, Shanghai, started operations.1563 The hospital covers a construction area of 200,000 square meters and contains 1,500 beds.

In 2015, Changzheng Hospital invested 2.9 billion RMB in a new development project in Caolu, Pudong District, with a plan to build a new branch in Pudong with 2,000 beds. The project is expected to be completed within 3 years.1564

Rendering: Dongfang Hepatobiliary Hospital Anting New Campus (rendering) 1565

 

Rendering: Changzheng Hospital Pudong campus (rendering) 1566

Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command began construction on its new ward complex in 2011. The new complex began operations in 2015. Its north building has 19 stories and contains the surgery department and transplant center. With a total area of 154,900 square meters and 1,680 beds, the new complex is the largest in Fujian Province.1567 1568

Rendering: Fuzhou General Hospital’s new ward complex with 1,680 beds

d) Overworked Doctors and Nurses

We observed that a number of medical teams and individual doctors struggled to carry out the volume of transplants demanded of them. The scale can be seen in surgeons working overtime to procure organs and conduct transplants, as well as departments carrying out multiple transplants simultaneously. One hospital even resorted to training almost all of its general surgeons to conduct organ transplants.

Our survey of hospitals left us with the impression that the majority of hospitals and doctors have routinely been overloaded with transplant surgeries since 2000. Below are several examples:

Working Around the Clock

At the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, the director of the urological transplant department, Peng Longkai, has completed more than 2,000 kidney transplants.1569

One could observe the volume of transplants at this hospital from how busy its doctors were: “Transplant surgeons often have to work for over 20 consecutive hours performing surgeries. They will start another round of operations after they rest for three or four hours. The surgeons are still at the operating table, while the scrub nurses have changed several shifts. They often conduct a dozen operations over a period of 2 to 3 days. They once performed 9 kidney transplants in one day.” 1570

Increased Workload ‘A Major Test’

On April 10, 2008, head nurse Zhang Chunyan shared on Liaocheng People’s Hospital’s website, “Our cardiac surgery department’s nurses, while performing our duties during routine heart surgeries, are also responsible for postoperative for heart, liver, kidney, and lung transplants.”

“During transplants, because of special aspects of the donor organs, we often need to do heart, liver, and kidney transplants simultaneously. This increased our workload more than ten-fold. Every person is overloaded with work every day and put in multiple times the effort.” She included one example: “In October 2005, we performed heart, liver, and kidney transplants in one day. This was a major test for us.” The team first carried out the heart transplant, followed by kidney and then liver.

Kidney Supply Chain Overwhelmed

“If I’m not at the hospital, I’m at the kidney procurement place. If I’m not at the kidney procurement place, I’m on the way between the hospital and the kidney procurement place.” This was the portrayal of the busy lifestyle of the transplant team at Qilu Hospital of Shandong University. Members of the team were often unable to go home for one or two weeks at a time. On December 26, a report on its official website stated: 1571

“Due to the current international criticism of organ sourcing in China, the number of usable cadaveric donor kidneys has decreased significantly, causing an increase in uncertain factors and intense competition. However, due to the tireless efforts of Director Dong Laidong of the Organ Transplant Supply Department and Director Tian Jun of the Blood Purification Department, the number of cadaveric kidney transplants well surpassed that of last year, and the wait time for kidney transplants have not increased noticeably.”

Ten Years Without Rest

By the end of 2014, Shen Zhongyang, Director of Tianjin First Central Hospital’s Oriental Organ Transplant Center, had performed close to 10,000 liver transplants.1572 This hospital is the largest organ transplant center in Asia.

A media report stated, “As a leader, Shen Zhongyang pays a price that ordinary people cannot imagine. He has virtually no time for himself. In the past ten-plus years, he has basically gone from one thing to the next, day and night, he hasn’t had a single meal at regular times, and he’s often at the operating table until midnight or the following morning.”1573

Other transplant doctors also have not rested: “The hospital’s transplant surgery division’s doctors hurriedly shuttle between wards and operating rooms, with no time to greet one another. They kept saying, ‘These few days are crazy busy, with more than a dozen surgeries a day.’ Some doctors were even “rushing surgeries all night long [and] did not sleep at all.” Doctors complain that the off-season is only a month after the New Year; they are busy until the end of the year and normally don’t go home.”1574

“Under Shen Zhongyang’s guidance, each of his former young doctors has independently completed nearly 1,000 liver transplant surgeries.”1575

Dongfeng Company Hospital

This fervor in pushing transplant volume is not limited to national-level hospitals. We have found that transplantation has become a major business activity for municipal hospitals and subsidiary hospitals of state-owned enterprises, as exemplified by the case below:

The Dongfeng Company Hospital is operated by an automaker in Shiyan, a small industrial city in central China. In less than ten years, the explosive growth in this hospital’s transplantation activities “caused the local economy to prosper,” “elevated the city’s reputation,” and gradually replaced the Dongfeng vehicle as the new “business card of Shiyan.”1576

As early as in August 2000, it conducted 10 kidney transplants, one thyroid transplant, and 3 cornea transplants in the same day. The hospital also performs liver, cornea, in situ parathyroid, bone marrow, and other types of organ and tissue transplants. 1577

The hospital’s vice president Yuan Fangjun stated in 2009, “Kidney transplantation is now a routine surgery. Almost all surgeons at our hospital can independently complete kidney transplants.” 1578

According to the hospital’s website, it has 10 surgical departments and more than 100 surgeons. How many transplants is the hospital performing to necessitate training almost all of its surgeons in the procedure?

In addition, the hospital has a breast transplant department with more than 40 beds, 3 chief physicians, 2 associate chief physicians, 4 attending physicians, and 3 residents.1579 These doctors’ web pages are no longer accessible.

e) Continued Growth Since 2006

After the 2006 publicity surrounding live organ harvesting, the Party/Government indicated that transplant numbers had gradually decreased. Yet, that was not the case. There has been continued expansion of transplant hospitals after 2006.

New Ministry Approval System

The Government blamed the chaotic market for live organ harvesting. To “recertify and regulate” the market, the Ministry of Health started to issue permits to transplant centers, and hospitals without permits would no longer be allowed to continue conducting organ transplants after July 1, 2007.

In July 2007, more than 1,000 transplant hospitals in China applied for permits under this new system, including nominally unrelated hospitals of traditional Chinese medicine or occupational diseases.1580 Only 164 received permits.

This meant that the Government could monopolize and redistribute the organ market. As a result, large transplant centers faced less competition and achieved even greater development than before.

We observed that some institutions that did not receive permits either reduced their transplant volumes, stopped performing transplants, or operated under increased secrecy. Nevertheless, many that did not have permits but were able to obtain organs continued to operate.

In fact, the Ministry of Health had not really closed the door to hospitals that had not obtained approval for transplants in 2007; the Ministry later introduced pilot programs for donation after cardiac death, and these hospitals were encouraged to apply for approval after procuring five or ten transplants from donation after cardiac death. 1581

By January 2014, the approval list had been expanded to 169 hospitals.1582 Among the five newly added centers is the First Hospital of Foshan, which was limited to liver and kidney transplants from donors with no cardiac activity. Based on its website archived on November 1, 2012, before being approved,1583 it had launched not only kidney, liver, heart, lung, kidney-liver, and pancreas-kidney transplants but also living-donor liver transplants.

The website stated that within 24 hours on December 28, 2004, this hospital performed 5 kidney and 2 liver transplants.1584 On March 1, 2005, its entire transplant team cooperated to perform 2 liver and 6 kidney transplants within 8 hours, from eleven o’clock in the morning to seven in the evening.1585 On December 29, 2005, its transplant center completed 7 kidney transplants.1586

The hospital’s website has not published its transplant numbers after the publication of the Matas/Kilgour Report in 2006. However, its addition to the list of approved hospitals in 2013 indicates that it continued its transplant operations after 2011.

Similar situations occurred with the other four newly added transplant centers. We further found that at least 75 non-approved hospitals were issued permits for pilot runs of transplants from DCD starting in 2011 and continued to perform transplants.

Stable Growth

Party-controlled media claimed that organ transplants had been drawn down or stopped, that there were not as many organs available, and that transplant hospitals could hardly sustain themselves. The transplant hospitals also removed or tampered with related websites and information regarding the number of transplants performed, and either falsified or stopped updating their reported data.

Contrary to the message from the Government, we observed that the scale of organ transplantation in mainland China in general has not been declining; rather, it has entered a period of stable development.

The Chinese Government issued statements that the scale of organ transplantation has decreased since 2006. For example, on December 18, 2007, Southern Weekend published an article entitled “China calls for a halt to ‘organ transplant tourism.’”1587 The article stated that the largest organ transplant center in Asia, Tianjin Oriental Organ Transplant Center, saw a sudden drop in the number of transplants performed since 2007 due to a lack of donor availability. The article also stated that in the first half of the year, the center had only 15 liver transplants, all of which were from patients’ relatives.

Yet, it bears repeating that the Tianjin Oriental Organ Transplant Center opened a new transplant building in September 2006 with a capacity of 500 beds. Its number of transplant teams also increased from 7 to about 17.1588 Seven months earlier, a report in the February 2006 issue of the Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine in Intensive and Critical Care had set out, “The newly completed Oriental Transplant Center building has 700 beds…[and] currently has 310 medical professionals. The center plans to focus on liver and kidney transplants continuously and form an integrated transplant center which is the “best in Asia” and “world-famous.”1589

By 2013, the hospital’s overall bed utilization rate had increased to 131%.1590  Based on developmental needs, the hospital added 300 beds and adjusted the number allocated for several departments, including the organ transplant center.

The First Affiliated Hospital’s Liver Transplant Center of School of Medicine at Zhejiang University stated on their official website on February 28, 2011, “Our country`s liver transplantation business has entered a period of stable development. Under the leadership of academician Zheng Shusen, the liver transplant business at First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University is flourishing. It moved into a new building in 2007. Liver transplantation has become more systematic, professional, and large-scale.”1591

References

1384 The Maze of Organ Donation     infzm.com / Southern Weekend   March 26, 2010
http://news.163.com/10/0326/10/62MP5K0G00011SM9.html
https://archive.is/hsCZG
器官捐献迷     2010-03-26         来源: 南方周末

1385  Introduction to Academician Wu Mengchao:  Inherit and carry forward the spirit of teamwork and unity, work hard to build an innovative country        History Museum of Tongji University
http://gtjuh.tongji.edu.cn/person/intro/new_page_25.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20130408004834/http://gtjuh.tongji.edu.cn/person/intro/new_page_25.htm
《同济大学校史馆》吴孟超院士简介 继承和发扬同济精神,为建设创新型国家而努力奋斗!

1386 Founder of Liver Surgery Wu Mengchao Shares Liver Disease Prevention and Secret to Long Life
Sina Health   May 11, 2011      Reporter: Song Ruliang, etc.
http://health.sina.com.cn/d/2011-05-11/145222445449.shtml
https://web.archive.org/web/20120327035615/http://health.sina.com.cn/d/2011-05-11/145222445449.shtml
《新浪健康》肝脏外科创始人吴孟超分享肝病防治与长寿秘诀2011年05月11日

1387 Strategies and Consideration for Organ Transplantation and Brain Death Legislation in Mainland China
Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine,  2009 Vol. 9, Issue 4, p.400-407  Publisher: Rao Wei
http://www.cjebm.org.cn/Upload/PaperUpLoad/71bfb8e4-6680-41b6-af85-f9ca97e2cee5.pdf
https://web.archive.org/web/20160109154641/http://www.cjebm.org.cn/Upload/PaperUpLoad/71bfb8e4-6680-41b6-af85-f9ca97e2cee5.pdf
中国大陆“器官移植与脑死亡立法”的策略与思考,《中国循证医学杂志》 2009,9(4):400~407页

1388 Huang Jiefu:Stopping Use Organs From Death-Row Inmates     CCTV 2015-01-11
http://news.cntv.cn/2015/01/11/VIDE1420988398831635.shtml
(Video cannot be archived, have saved MHT file, need to be restored in web server)
CCTV 《面对面》黄洁夫:停用死囚器官. 2015/01/11

1389 A Kidney Harvesting Gang Runs Wild in Wuhan, Female University Student Killed and Dumped, Family Members of Victims Beaten While Appealing to College                   SINA Global News                           November 30, 2011
http://dailynews.sina.com/gb/news/int/kwongwah/20111130/01082957519.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160118161434/http://dailynews.sina.com/gb/news/int/kwongwah/20111130/01082957519.html
割肾党横行武汉 女大学生遇害弃尸 家属大学请愿被殴”    《新浪全球新闻》               2011年11月30日

1390 Japanese Flock to China for Organ Transplants   Asia Times – Greater China            April 4, 2006
By David McNeill and Clifford Coonan  (Republished with permission from Japan Focus)
http://atimes.com/atimes/China/HD04Ad01.html
http://www.japanfocus.org/-Clifford-Coonan/1818/article.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20060410070550/http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/HD04Ad01.html

1391 Sharing System Moves Chinese Organ Transplantation into the Public Welfare Era
China Economic Weekly, 2013, Issue 34                          Liu, Yanqing
http://paper.people.com.cn/zgjjzk/html/2013-09/06/content_1295101.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160116163206/http://paper.people.com.cn/zgjjzk/html/2013-09/06/content_1295101.htm
共享系统推动中国器官移植进入公益化时代          《中国经济周刊》2013年第34期  刘砚青

1392 China Claims It Would Crack Down on Illegal Organ Transplants,Source: Radio Free Asia,Dated: August 18, 2014
http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/yataibaodao/renquanfazhi/xql-08182014101222.html
https://archive.is/11fBJ
中国称将严打“非法器官移植”  《自由亚洲电台》  2014-08-18

1393 Formosa Plastics Group Invests 1.18 Billion RMB in Building ChangGeng Medical Park in Xiamen,
Organ Transplant Listed as One of Three Key Fields                    The Epoch Times
http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/6/5/3/n1306378.htm
台塑斥11.8亿厦门建医院器官移植列重点    《大纪元

1394 “100th Anniversary of First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.” XKB.com. October 9, 2010.
http://epaper.xkb.com.cn/view/576424
https://archive.is/jAWwN
中山一院今庆百岁华诞 来源:新快报 日期:2010-10-09

1395 People’s Liberation Army’s Research Centre for Kidney Diseases
http://www.njzy666.com/homepage/showinfo?infoid=5dd7efc6-292c-4a7b-91f8-586789b7c7a3
https://web.archive.org/web/20160131090815/http://www.njzy666.com/homepage/showinfo?infoid=5dd7efc6-292c-4a7b-91f8-586789b7c7a3
南京军区南京总医院全军肾脏病研究所

1396 Li Leishi – Baidu Encyclopedia  Baidu Encyclopedia
http://baike.baidu.com/view/98418.htm
https://archive.is/CFCG0
黎磊石 百度百科

1397 Organ Donation After Death is Theoretically Exist, but Hard to Do in Reality          Sohu Health               2008-11-27
http://health.sohu.com/20081127/n260870584.shtml
https://archive.is/NWzWL
黎磊石:死亡后器官捐献理论上存在 现实中难做到 Sohu Health 2008-11-27

1398 Organ Donation After Death is Theoretically Exist, but Hard to Do in Reality
Source:  Sohu Health              2008-11-27
http://health.sohu.com/20081127/n260870584.shtml
https://archive.is/NWzWL
201-4   黎磊石:死亡后器官捐献理论上存在 现实中难做到        搜狐健康     2008-11-27

1399 Li Leishi – Baidu Encyclopedia  Baidu Encyclopedia
http://baike.baidu.com/view/98418.htm
https://archive.is/CFCG0
黎磊石 百度百科

1400 Organ Donation After Death is Theoretically Exist, but Hard to Do in Reality
Source:  Sohu Health              2008-11-27
http://health.sohu.com/20081127/n260870584.shtml
https://archive.is/NWzWL
黎磊石:死亡后器官捐献理论上存在 现实中难做到 搜狐健康 2008-11-27

1401 WOIPFG Releases List of 2098 Medical Personnel in 100 People’s Liberation Army and Armed Police Hospitals Suspected of Live Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/45100#_Toc401944927
《追查国际发布中共军队和武警系统100家医院涉嫌活摘法轮功学员器官的2098名医务人员的追查名单》

1402 Wu Meng Chao, a person whom can be entrusted life to
Source: News Network of the Chinese Communist Party – People’s Daily, dated August 27, 2012
http://dangshi.people.com.cn/n/2012/0827/c85037-18843681-5.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160213215617/http://dangshi.people.com.cn/n/2012/0827/c85037-18843681-5.html
吴孟超:一个可以托付生命的人 (来源:中国共产党新闻网——人民网)  2012年08月27日

1403 Brief Introduction of the Second Affiliated Hospital to General Hospital (No. 309 Hospital) of the People’s Liberation Army
Good Doctors Online             May 7, 2008
http://309ent.haodf.com/zhuanjiaguandian/309ent_5317.htm
https://archive.is/NvKbX
解放军总医院第二附属医院(原309医院)简介 好大夫在线   2008-05-07

1404 Shi Yibing – Ho Leung Ho Lee Foundation
http://www.hlhl.org.cn/news/findnews/showsub.asp?id=1182
https://archive.is/biUsM
石柄毅-何梁何利基金

1405 The Chinese Kidney Transplantation Datacentre Becomes the World’s Second Largest Renal Transplantation Database
http://digitalpaper.stdaily.com/http_www.kjrb.com/kjrb/html/2013-09/26/content_225866.htm?div=-1
https://archive.is/9XwnJ
《中国肾移植数据中心 成全球第二大肾移植数据库》

1406 Ming Cai – Baidu Encyclopedia Baidu Encyclopedia
http://baike.baidu.com/subview/43576/5236918.htm
https://archive.is/DLuPR
蔡明-百度百科

1407 Entering the Well-Known Specialty Center of the People’s Liberation Army: The Organ Transplantation Center of the No. 309 Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army   Xinhua Military – Xinhua Net   February 28, 2012
http://news.xinhuanet.com/mil/2012-02/28/c_122763047.htm
https://archive.is/wLAPm
走进全军知名专科中心:解放军第309医院器官移植中心2012年02月28日

1408 Tan Jianming’s Advanced Accomplishments            People’s Daily
http://health.people.com.cn/n/2014/0604/c385611-25104541.html
https://archive.is/kfG6Q
《人民网》谭建明先进事迹

1409 Zhu Youhua of Changzheng Hospital, a fighter against kidney diseases, by Ren Quan and Dong Yuqing at Wen Hui Po
http://www.shenyounet.com/?action-viewnews-itemid-3838
https://web.archive.org/web/20160125011436/http://www.shenyounet.com/?action-viewnews-itemid-3838
长征医院朱有华:修行艺术的肾斗士》 2010年9月11日  《文汇报》  任荃 董悦青

1410 Medical Expert FuYaowen,   Source: Jilin Jilin Celebrity Online
http://mr699.cn/html/13413.html
https://archive.is/v3Xxl
医学专家傅耀文     来源:吉林名人网

1411 Guangdong Provincial People’s Hospital – experts Zheng Ke li
https://web.archive.org/web/20140326223343/http://www.gd2h.com/zhuanjia.asp?pid=26&nid=118
广东省第二人民医院 – 专家介绍  郑克力

1412 The Progress of Clinical Renal Homotransplantation in ChinaMedical Journal of the Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces,
June 2004, 15 (6)Yu Lixin , Southern Medical University Organ Transplantation Centre
http://qikan.9med.net/upload/pdf/160/1653/98377_3634.pdf
https://web.archive.org/web/20160131013506/http://qikan.9med.net/upload/pdf/160/1653/98377_3634.pdf
398   我国临床同种肾脏移植进展     《武警医学》杂志2004年6月15卷6期
第一军医大南方医院器官移植中心 于立新

1413 Investigation Leads: The new “organ transplanting policy” is for covering the continuous crime
http://www.minghui.org/mh/article_images/2007-9-12-image001.jpg
http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2007/9/17/162387.html
调查线索:新出台“器官移植政策”是中共继续犯罪的掩盖-明慧网

1414 Specialist list of  Hua Xin  Hospital First Hospital of Tsinghua University
http://health.sohu.com/20050803/n240219253.shtml
https://archive.is/yx3SU
清华大学第一附属医院专家名单

1415 Brief Introduction to the Organ Transplant Department of the Guangdong Second People’s Hospital
http://www.gd2h.com/ks/0040/
http://web.archive.org/web/20160124015650/http://www.gd2h.com/ks/0040/
广东省第二人民医院器官移植科-科室简介

1416 Investigation Leads: Guangdong Second People’s hospital carried out six kidney transplant on August 4th, 2006
http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2013/9/30/%E8%B0%83%E6%9F%A5%E7%BA%BF%E7%B4%A2-%E9%9B%B6%E5%85%AD%E5%B9%B4%E5%85%AB%E6%9C%88%E5%9B%9B%E6%97%A5%E5%B9%BF%E4%B8%9C%E7%9C%81%E7%AC%AC%E4%BA%8C%E4%BA%BA%E6%B0%91%E5%8C%BB%E9%99%A2%E5%81%9A%E5%85%AD%E4%BE%8B%E8%82%BE%E7%A7%BB%E6%A4%8D-279442.html
《明慧网-调查线索:零六年八月四日广东省第二人民医院做六例肾移植》

1417 Introduction to the Hepatobiliary Surgery Department of the People Liberation Army Navy General Hospital
Source: Navy General Hospital Hepatobiliary Surgery Department, 2002-2012
http://www.hjganai.com/zttj/ganyizhi/185.html [retrieved March 9, 2015. Link not accessible as of Feb. 2016]
https://web.archive.org/web/20150309062549/http://www.hjganai.com/zttj/ganyizhi/185.html
海军总医院肝胆外科简介2002-2012

1418 Open the “Green Channel” of Kidney Transplantation   Ignite the Fire of Life Rebirth
Source: Qilu Evening News December     Date: 24, 2012
http://epaper.qlwb.com.cn/qlwb/PDF/20121224/B05.pdf
https://web.archive.org/web/20160512053808/http://epaper.qlwb.com.cn/qlwb/PDF/20121224/B05.pdf
开启肾移植“绿色通道”   点燃生命重生之火    齐鲁晚报   2012年12月24日

1419 Profile of Gu Xinwei from the Organ Transplant Department
Source: Ruikang Hospital Newspaper special edition for Endoscopic magazine
http://www.gxrkyy.com/mag/2014.06_w/b03_guxinwei.html
https://archive.is/EC41k
器官移植科顾新伟   瑞康医院报2014年6月内镜微创专刊

1420 Profile of Doctor Lin Minzhuan from Ruikang Hospital      etong-online.com
http://www.51etong.com/s/ysdq/dq37918.shtml
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124011753/http://www.51etong.com/s/ysdq/dq37918.shtml
瑞康医院林民专   医通网

1421 Introduce the experts at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou University
http://www.czfph.com/daoshinr.asp?id=45
https://archive.is/eSVCh
常州市第一人民医院专家介绍

1422 Director of the Ophthalmology Department of Guangzhou Air Force Hospital, Professor Jing Lianxi’s Visit to Our Hospital
May 21, 2011
http://www.pr021.com/news/1571.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160109143436/http://www.pr021.com/news/1571.html
广州空军医院眼科主任景连喜教授莅临我院交流考察”  2011年5月21日

1423 Analysis of Effect Factors on Kidney Retransplantation 50 cases
Source: Journal of Medical Forum  Vol. 27   No. 14   JULY 2006
http://www.cqvip.com/read/read.aspx?id=22684593
https://web.archive.org/web/20160420052858/http://www.cqvip.com/read/read.aspx?id=22684593
《再次肾移植影响因素探讨(附50例报告)》   《医药论坛杂志》2006年7月  第27卷  第14期

1424 In China, 98% of Organ Transplant Sources Controlled by Parties Other Than Ministry of Health
Life Weekly, Sina.com   April 7th , 2006             Guo Na
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/zyieneilifa/2006-04/467.htm
https://archive.is/Ixf9t
中国98%器官移植源控制在非卫生部系统   《三联生活周刊》新浪网  2006-4-6

1425 In China, 98% of Organ Transplant Sources Controlled by Parties Other Than Ministry of Health
Life Weekly, Sina.com            April 7, 2006       Guo Na
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/zyieneilifa/2006-04/467.htm
https://archive.is/Ixf9t
中国98%器官移植源控制在非卫生部系统   《三联生活周刊》新浪网  2006-4-6

1426 Awarded Physician – Tan Jianming          “Chinese Physician Net”
http://www.doctorpda.cn/prize/2014/detail/?id=76
https://archive.is/vo9IT
《中国医师网》获奖医师-谭建明

1427 Bloody Harvest: Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners in China (Revised Edition)
Appendix 5.  The Recipient Experience            January 1, 2007  David Matas, David Kilgour
http://organharvestinvestigation.net/report0701/report20070131.htm#_Toc158023098
《血淋淋的器官摘取—关于指控中共摘取法轮功学员器官的调查报告修订版》

1428 Beyond the Dark Veil of China’s Organ Trade    China’s Forum “Phoenix Weekly”
The original page has been removed. Refer to its reprint:
http://club.china.com/data/thread/1011/2777/01/84/3_1.html
https://archive.is/3QuUt
《凤凰杂志网》“中国人体器官买卖的黑幕—凤凰周刊杂志网 ”

1429 Issuing Notice on Management Regulation for Liver, Kidney, Heart and Other Transplantation Technologies      (2006)
Document 243 issued by National Health and Family Planning Commission       July 4, 2006
http://www.nhfpc.gov.cn/yzygj/s3585u/200804/93275d481c9e46249c3f3650188c57d3.shtml
https://archive.is/6aygK#selection-185.0-185.10
卫生部印发肝, 肾, 心, 肺移植技术的管理规范

1430 Renewed Life after Organ Transplant, Source: Huangzhou Daily,  Date: March 14, 2006
http://gzdaily.dayoo.com/gb/content/2006-03/14/content_2439521.htm
https://archive.is/ZhPn3
《广州日报》2006年3月14日“器官移植重续生命乐章”

1431 A Brief History of the Urology Surgery Department of the People’s Liberation Army Kidney Disease Centre, p.157
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/files/report/2015/06/48090_image007.jpg
https://web.archive.org/web/20150928122350/http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/files/report/2015/06/48090_image007.jpg
《全军肾脏病中心泌尿外科简史》 157页

1432 General Hospital of Jinan Military Command
Source: Qilu Evening News, March 21, 2005
http://paper.dzwww.com/qlwb/data/20081201/html/65/content_1.html
https://archive.is/BOqgO
济南军区总医院 2005年3月21日的《齐鲁晚报》

1433 Brief introduction to the liver transplant centre of West China Hospital, Sichuan University
http://www.cd120.com/htmlylfwganyizhizhongxin/518.jhtml
https://archive.is/rTETP
四川大学华西医院肝移植中心简介

1434 Liver Transplantation Expert Yan Lvnan  (CCTV broadcast on 2007.3.26)
http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_5dc366b60100c8rl.html
https://archive.is/7g7e6
肝脏移植专家严律南  (中央电视台《人物》2007.3.26 播出)

1435 Completing 5 Liver Transplants in 17 Hours Without Sleep or Rest Chinese Organ Transplantation,
Source: Southeast Express March 10, 2014 Author: Shuping Huang
http://www.chinanews.com/tp/2014/03-03/5903781.shtml
https://archive.is/DpyDl
“17小时不眠不休完成5台肝移植手术”  日期:2014-03-10   来源:东南快报 作者:黄淑平

1436 “Completing 1 Liver Transplant, 6 Kidney Transplants, and 8 Corneal Transplants in the Same Day.”
Xiangya Hospital of Centre-south University. June 3, 2005.
http://www1.renminbao.com/rmb/article_images/2006-5-30-changsha06.jpg
同一天完成1台肝移植6台肾移植8台角膜移植  中南大学湘雅医院 2005-6-3

1437 “This Hospital Completed 7 Heart, Liver, and Kidney Transplants in One Day.”
Xiangya Hospital of Centre-south University. September 3, 2005.
http://www1.renminbao.com/rmb/article_images/2006-5-30-changsha05.jpg
我院一天完成7台换心肝肾手术 中南大学湘雅医院 2005-9-3

1438 “Our Hospital Created a new record again for transplant operation”
Xiangya Hospital of Centre-south University. May 14, 2006.
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/cn/images/nationalcriminalreports/250.jpg
https://archive.is/P31MJ
我院再创器官移植手术新纪录 中南大学湘雅医院 2006-5-14

1439 “Developing Toward an Ideal Transplantation Kingdom–Hospital President Huang Zufa Comments on
Development of Transplantation.” The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University News. Issue 9, May 2006.
Original link is no longer accessible. Please refer its archive.
www.xy3yy.com/nyygj/yb09-21.html
http://web.archive.org/web/20070105023111/http://www.xy3yy.com/nyygj/yb09-21.html
向着移植医学的理想王国进发—黄祖发院长纵论移植医学发展   中南大学湘雅三医院院报第九期 2006-05

1440 The Department of Organ Transplantation at the First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University
http://www.ydyy.cn/DepartmentDetail-9.aspx
https://web.archive.org/web/20160123175259/http://www.ydyy.cn/DepartmentDetail-9.aspx
昆明医科大学第一附属医院器官移植科

1441 The Blood Purification Centre for Organ Transplantation at No. 474 Hospital of Lanzhou Military Command
http://hospital.shuangyouyiliao.com/kszx/xyk/3493.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160123223558/http:/hospital.shuangyouyiliao.com/kszx/xyk/3493.html
兰州军区第474医院器官移植血液净化中心

1442 Fuzhou General Hospital carried out 3 liver transplant operations simultaneously and successfully
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/cn/images/nationalcriminalreports/226.png
https://archive.is/wSkDv
福州总院首次同时开展三台肝移植手术获成功     2006-03-25 12:04:20  新华网福建频道

1443 A team from Fuzhou General Hospital carried out 5 transplant operations within 17 hours
http://news.fznews.com.cn/shehui/2014-3-6/201436GBnLApFSxx103423.shtml
https://archive.is/wmebj
福州总院有个“牛人”团队 17小时完成5台手术
2014-03-06 10:33:00  作者:黄淑平  来源:东南快报

1444 People’s Liberation Army No. 181 Hospital Completes 8 Organ Transplants in One Day
http://www.gltvs.com/dianbo/201212/20121230183408c577781284c149d2_6.shtml
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124011224/http://www.gltvs.com/dianbo/201212/20121230183408c577781284c149d2_6.shtml
《解放军第181医院一天完成八台器官移植手术》来源:桂视网

1445 nvestigative leads: The Most Kidney Transplant Surgeries Were up to 21 Operations  in one day
in Beijing Chaoyang Hospital
http://www.clearwisdom.net/emh/articles/2006/7/29/76109.html
http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/7/14/132998.html#2006-7-13-xs-1
调查线索:北京朝阳医院肾移植手术最多一天达21台  明慧网14/07/2006

1446 Kidney Transplants in One Day at Second People’s Hospital of Shanxi Province on August 15 (2006)
http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/9/11/137584.html
https://archive.is/8zrPi
《明慧网》山西省第二人民医院8月15日一天做肾移植11例

1447 Chen Jingyu: Ten Years of Tempering Creates a Mythic Story in Transplant Field, Healthcare Media
http://www.cn-healthcare.com/article/20140724/content-458901-all.html
http://web.archive.org/web/20160123203459/http://www.cn-healthcare.com/article/20140724/content-458901-all.html
陈静瑜肺腑之言:十年磨砺打造移植界神话

1448 Department of Cardiovascular Surgery at Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College of
Huazhong University of Science & Technology,
http://www.whuh.com/Depart_content.php?class=1&sections_id=83
https://web.archive.org/web/20160312122008/http://www.whuh.com/Depart_content.php?class=1&sections_id=83
华中科技大学附属协和医院- 心血管外科,来源:华中科技大学附属协和医院

1449 Sun Yat-Sen Cardiovascular Hospital of Shenzhen: conducted two heart transplant within 6 hours
http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2003-10-29/09371014898s.shtml
https://web.archive.org/web/20160410093721/http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2003-10-29/09371014898s.shtml
深圳孙逸仙心血管医院:6小时移植两心脏  来源:南方日报

1450 Organ Harvesting Atrocities Against Falun Gong — Investigation Leads from China’s Guangzhou City –
A Comprehensive Report. Minghui.org. April 4, 2012
http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2011/1/8/234649.html
调查线索:广州中共系统活摘法轮功学员器官《明慧网》January 8, 2011

1451 China, the New Vibrant Organ Transplant Centre, organ sources “abundant”
(Original title: Investigation into foreigners’ organ transplant tourism to China)   China’s liver transplant network
http://news.163.com/06/0327/13/2D7OI3310001124T.html
https://archive.is/1XbCU
大陆成全球器官移植新兴中心 器官来源”丰富”?  来源: 中国肝肾移植网  (原标题:外国人赴华移植器官调查)

1452 Beyond the Dark Veil of China’s Organ Trade   Source:Phoenix Weekly   Dated:September 24, 2013
http://www.51fenghuang.com/news/shehui/2412.html
https://archive.is/B36qx
中国人体器官买卖的黑幕   《凤凰周刊》2013-9-24

1453 The medical specialties of Changhai Hospital: kidney transplant
http://www.chhospital.com.cn/dept/dept4/special/special4.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20080510054453/http://www.chhospital.com.cn/dept/dept4/special/special4.htm
长海医院特色医疗:肾脏移植

1454 United States Renal Data System
http://www.usrds.org/2015/view/v2_07.aspx

1455 Organ Transplant Waiting Times Rise Fast           Guardian              July 4, 2011
http://www.theguardian.com/society/2011/jul/04/organ-transplant-waiting-times-rise

1456 “Application for Liver Transplantation” of China’s Second Military University Changzheng Hospital
http://www.transorgan.com/apply.asp
http://images.epochweek.com/387/67-01.jpg        http://www.transorgan.com/apply.asp Archived
《第二军医大学长征医院》“肝移植申请”

1457 Prognostic Effects and Treatments of Severe Hepatitis Cases
Journal of Clinical Surgery  Volume 14, Issue 6, June 2006          Fu Zhiren and Ma Jun
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/files/report/2015/06/48090_image044.png
重型肝炎急诊肝移植的预后影响因素及处理
《 临床外科杂志》2006年6月第14卷6期     傅志仁, 马钧

1458 The Number of Organ Transplant Reached Record High
Organ Transplant Research Institute of Changzheng Hospital of People’s Liberation Army  May 1, 2005
http://www.minghui.org/mh/article_images/2006-6-15-shanghai-yizhi-02.jpg
本中心移植数再创新高 第二军医大学长征医院解放军器官移植研究所    May 1, 2005

1459 China Liver Transplant Registry’s 2006 Annual Report China Liver Transplant Registry
http://www.slideserve.com/lerato/2006
http://web.archive.org/web/20160216043257/http://www.slideserve.com/lerato/2006
《中国肝移植注册2006年度报告》       来源:中国肝移植注册网

1460 Clinical Evaluation of Emergency Liver Transplantation for Treating End-Stage Liver Diseases
Chinese Medical Journal   2005 Volume 85 page.49 3460-3463              Wang Weilin and Zheng Shusen
http://zhyxzz.yiigle.com/CN112137200549/124960.htm
https://archive.is/J6ITv
急诊肝移植治疗良性终末期肝病的临床分析
《中华医学杂志》2005年85卷49期 3460-3463页(英文期刊名:NATIONAL MEDICAL JOURNAL OF CHINA)

1461 The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University successfully completed
the world’s rare “second heart transplant.”
http://news.my399.com/system/2012095/000445088.html
https://archive.is/YV8XA
哈尔滨医大二院成功完成世界罕见“二次心脏移植手术”

1462 The Second Affiliated Hospital of Hebei Medical University conducted first heart transplant successfully
http://hebei.hebnews.cn/2011-05/20/content_2026711_2.htm
https://archive.is/Zbh0U
医大二院成功实施首例儿童心脏移植手术  来源:河北新闻网  2011-5-20

1463 A drunk woman caught liver failure  Got second life via liver transplant in six hours
Source: Shenyang Daily Group North hotline,  dated 2003-10-19
http://www.hbver.com/Article/gyhjqt/gyz/200310/2147.html
https://archive.is/V6CL9
一女子酒后肝衰竭 6小时换肝拣条命   来源:沈报集团北方热线   2003-10-19

1464 Report about two cases of renal artery embolization
《MEDICAL JOURNAL OF NATIONAL DEFENDING FORCES IN NORTH CHINA 》2004 Vol. 16 No. 1 Page 41
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/cn/images/medicalarticles/130.pdf
移植肾动脉栓塞二例报告       《华北国防医药》2004年16卷01期 41-41页
作者:姜伟, 杨广庭, 马秉刚, 刘彦斌, 祖强, 赵红旗(解放军281医院泌尿外科,河北,秦皇岛,066105)

1465 Brief Introduction to No. 281 Hospital of Beijing Military Region
http://www.pla281.com/about.php
https://archive.is/CTHoR
北京军区第281医院简介

1466 Coordination and Management of 313 cases of bulk kidney transplantation surgeries
Source:《Chinese Journal of Convalescent Medicine 》 Vol. 17, 2008, Issue 01, Page 8-9
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/cn/images/medicalarticles/128.pdf
313 例成批同种异体肾移植手术配合的组织与管理              来源:《中国疗养医学》2008年17卷01期 8-9页

1467 China International Transplantation Network Assistance Centre (CITNAC) Online Question and Answers
http://zoukiishoku.com/cn/wenda/index.htm
http://web.archive.org/web/20041023183012/http://zoukiishoku.com/cn/jueding/index.htm
国际移植(中国)网络支援中心在线回答

1468 Three Heart Transplants Performed by Two Changchun Hospitals With Donors Unknown
http://www.clearwisdom.net/emh/articles/2006/4/25/72405.html
《长春两家医院三例心脏移植手术供体来源可疑》【明慧网】

1469 Nanjing First Hospital Successfully completed heart transplantation for two patients simultaneously
Source: People Net  Dated: June 23, 2014
http://sh.people.com.cn/n/2014/0623/c134810-21489150.html
https://archive.is/tVE35
南京医生同时为两病人“换心”成功  来源:人民网  日期:2014年06月23日

1470 Investigation Leads: Waiting Time for Matched Organs Still Very Short in China
http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2014/9/26/调查线索-中共仍在经营活体器官移植库-298157.html
https://archive.is/IMqfG
http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2014/9/28/3480.html
调查线索:中共仍在经营活体器官移植库-明慧网

1471 ‘Japanese Flock to China for Organ Transplants’, The Asia-Pacific Journal, Japan Focus-Clifford Coonan,
David McNeill, Vol. 4, Issue 4, No. 0, April 2, 2006,
http://www.japanfocus.org/-Clifford-Coonan/1818/article.html
https://archive.is/atE1p

1472 “BLOODY HARVEST – Revised Report into Allegations of Organ Harvesting  of Falun Gong Practitioners in China.”
David Matas, Esq. and Hon. David Kilgour, Esq. ,  31 January 2007.
http://organharvestinvestigation.net/report0701/report20070131.htm

1473 “The high price of illness in China”, Louisa Lim, BBC News, Beijing, 2006/03/02
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4763312.stm

1474 YunNan Kunming Kidney Disease Hospital – Overview
http://tag.120ask.com/yiyuan/ynkmszbyy/info.html
https://archive.is/v7DNL
云南昆明肾脏病医院-概况

1475 YunNan Kidney Disease Hospital—a branch of the Yunnan Province Organ Transplant Centre
http://www.minghui.org/mh/article_images/2008-9-5-kunming-kidney-02.jpg
云南肾脏病医院-云南省器官移植中心分部

14761476YunNan Kidney Disease Hospital—a branch of the Yunnan Province Organ Transplant Centre
http://www.minghui.org/mh/article_images/2008-9-5-kunming-kidney-02.jpg
云南肾脏病医院-云南省器官移植中心分部

1477 The world’s highest region’s first orthotopic liver transplantation carried out successfully
Source: Xinhua Net  15/12/2002  reporter Qun Sang and Qiu Lihua
http://news.sohu.com/03/61/news204996103.shtml
https://archive.is/Btat1
世界海拔最高地区首例原位异体肝脏移植手术成功  新华网  2002年12月15日 记者群桑, 裘立华

1478  Interview with Tang Jinhai – Tibet’s first liver transplant surgeon
Source: Tibet News Net  12/2/2003  Zhang Qi
http://old.chinatibetnews.com/yiliao/2003-02/12/content_8575.htm
https://archive.is/69lOn
访西藏首次肝移植手术主刀唐金海  中国西藏新闻网  2002年2月12日 张琪

1479 Huang Jiefu recalled for the first time to participate in transplant organs from executed prisoners,
disclose the truth, supported by CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY  Central Committee
Source: Phoenix TV   January 12th, 2015
http://phtv.ifeng.com/a/20150112/40940402_0.shtml
https://archive.is/qKzmB
《凤凰卫视》:黄洁夫回忆首次参与死囚器官移植披露真相, 获中央支持 2015年1月12日

1480 Organ source transformed, however the number of transplant rises up instead of falling downing
Source: Beijing Youth Daily  October 15th, 2015
http://epaper.ynet.com/html/2015-10/19/content_159772.htm
https://archive.is/T3N0y
黄洁夫:器官来源转型 移植数不降反升   《北京青年报》  2015年10月15日

1481 “China to have more organ transplantation hospitals.”
China Daily. Source: Xinhua. May 15, 2016.
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2016-05/15/content_25287057.htm
https://archive.is/JYZSB

1482 Department of Kidney Transplantation and Nephrology at Zhengzhou No. 7 People’s Hospital – Current situation
http://www.zzsqy.com.cn/OfficeNewsDetail-38.html
https://archive.is/Srlbv
郑州市第七人民医院肾移植肾内科  科室动态

1483 Department of Kidney Transplantation and Nephrology at Zhengzhou No. 7 People’s Hospital
http://www.zzsqy.com.cn/OfficeDescription-3.html
https://archive.is/Q0kgX
郑州市第七人民医院肾移植肾内科 介绍

1484 The Blood Purification Centre for Organ Transplantation at No. 474 Hospital of Lanzhou Military Command
http://hospital.shuangyouyiliao.com/kszx/xyk/3493.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160123223558/http:/hospital.shuangyouyiliao.com/kszx/xyk/3493.html
兰州军区第474医院器官移植血液净化中心

1485 Introduction to the Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University
http://www3.sdfyy.cn/mnwk/index.htm
https://archive.is/VSjOJ
苏州大学附属第一医院泌尿外科(含肾移植中心)简介

1486 Suzhou is short of kidney supply, 300-500 people waiting for a kidney
Source: People’s Daily Online – Jiangsu Window  November 11th, 2012
http://js.people.com.cn/html/2012/11/12/183109.html
https://archive.is/PG1dM
苏州肾源供应紧张 300至500人等待一个肾  人民网 – 江苏视窗 2012-11-12

1487 Training experience at the Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College
http://www.0575fy.com/html/2012/83_0820/3679.html
https://archive.is/fTJl9
遵义医学院附属医院进修之体会

1488 The Department of Urologic Surgery at the Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College
http://www.zmchospital.com.cn/Office/Show.asp?ID=97
https://archive.is/xHgu9
遵义医学院附属医院泌尿外科

1489 Introduction to Department of General Surgery of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital
http://www.tjmugh.com.cn/info/content1.asp?infoId=2180
https://archive.is/Rzuou
天津医科大学总医院-普通外科专业

1490 Introduction to Department of Lung Cancer Surgery of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital
http://www.tjmugh.com.cn/info/content1.asp?infoId=2191
https://web.archive.org/web/20160516235129/
http://www.tjmugh.com.cn/info/content1.asp?infoId=2191
天津医科大学总医院-肺部肿瘤外科

1491 Introduction to Urologic Department of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital
http://www.tjmugh.com.cn/info/content1.asp?infoId=2176
https://archive.is/vWyLb
天津医科大学总医院-泌尿外科专业

1492 Introduction to Ophthalmology Department of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital
http://www.tjmugh.com.cn/info/content1.asp?infoId=2190
https://archive.is/99nQ9
天津医科大学总医院-眼科专业

1493 Introduction to Tianjin Medical University General Hospital
http://p.mztj.cn/jigoufenyuan/tianjinhexi/lvsezhuanzhen/2013/0503/479.html
http://archive.is/266d8
天津医科大学总医院介绍

1494 Introduction to Thoracic Surgery Department of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital
http://www.tjmugh.com.cn/info/content1.asp?infoId=2188
https://archive.is/jcQpW
天津医科大学总医院-胸外科

1495 Guizhou Provincial People’s Hospital
http://www.zwbk.org/MyLemmaShow.aspx?lid=166894
https://web.archive.org/web/20160604190350/http://www.zwbk.org/MyLemmaShow.aspx?lid=166894
贵州省人民医院简介

1496 Guizhou Provincial People’s Hospital of Hepatobiliary Surgery
http://www.jianke.com/hospital/hospital-category/826074-720
https://web.archive.org/web/20160524204954/http://www.jianke.com/hospital/hospital-category/826074-720
贵州省人民医院 肝胆外科

1497 “Exploring Xiangya Organ Transplantation: Thousands of People Waiting for Surgery; Most Are Young.”
Source: Sanxiang City News. Sina. November 10, 2012.
http://hunan.sina.com.cn/news/s/2012-11-10/095024769.html
https://archive.is/dmgjS
探秘湘雅器官移植:上千人等待手术 多是年轻人

1498 Xi’an Jiaotong University First Affiliated Hospital Has Performed Over 4,000 Kidney Transplants; Longest Survival 35 Years.     China News,  April 17, 2015
http://www.chinanews.com/jk/2015/04-17/7216205.shtml
https://archive.is/WLEQa
西安交大一附院肾移植超4000例   最长存活35年

1499 Liu, Yongxiao. “The Journey of a Healthy Liver.” People.cn. January 20, 2011. Third Edition.
http://paper.people.com.cn/jksb/html/2011-01/20/content_728278.htm
https://archive.is/w95TU
一只健康肝的旅行

1500 “The Road of Organ Transplantation in China.” Dooland.com. Source: Oriental Outlook. September 27, 2013.
http://www.dooland.com/magazine/article_303295.html
http://archive.is/U7wHH
中国器官移植之路

1501 “Thousands of People Waiting for Kidney Transplants; Only 17 Donors This Year.” Jindongqu.cn. October 14, 2014.
http://jdnews.zjol.com.cn/jdnews/system/2014/10/14/018553511.shtml
https://archive.is/3T2Ei
等待肾移植有上千人 今年捐的供体才17例

1502 The Urology Surgery Department at Shanghai Renji Hospital
http://renji.h.yynet.cn/departments.php?section_id=605
https://archive.is/qNzPt
上海仁济医院 – 泌尿外科

1503 The Urology Surgery Department at Shanghai Renji Hospital
http://yyk.familydoctor.com.cn/2/schedule_81/
https://archive.is/I9G5d
上海仁济医院泌尿外科

1504 Shanghai Renji Hospital conducted up to 120 surgeries a day    Source: Wenhui Daily,  Dated:  March 3, 2016
http://sh.people.com.cn/n2/2016/0303/c134768-27853288.html
https://archive.is/xNtPY
仁济医院一日最多做120台手术  科主任”放手”让新人上 2016年03月03日08:45    来源:文汇报

1505 Looking at the Stars-Biography of Xia Qiang, Winner of the Ninth Chinese Physician Award, Director of the Liver Surgery Department at Renji Hospital              Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine July 4, 2014
http://zixun.mingyizhudao.com/a/2774.shtml
https://archive.is/f0gDz
仰望星空——记第九届中国医师奖得主, 附属仁济医院肝脏外科主任夏强  2014-07-04

1506 Department of Anesthesiology at Renji Hospital Affiliated with Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine
http://www.jianke.com/hospital/hospital-category/911863-601
https://archive.is/UORjo
上海交通大学医学院附属仁济医院 麻醉科

1507 Introduction to the Liver Transplant Centre at Renji Hospital Affiliated with Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZJiaoTongDaXueYiXueYuanFuShuRenJiYiYuanKuaiXun/2011-03/5506.htm
https://archive.is/759ji
交通大学医学院附属仁济医院肝移植中心简介

1508 The liver transplant team of Organ Transplant Centre at Shanghai Renji Hospital     Dated: 2007-06-28
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZJiaoTongDaXueYiXueYuanFuShuRenJanDui/2007-06/1587.htm
https://archive.is/lSOw2
上海仁济医院器官移植中心肝移植团队     [日期:2007-06-28]

1509 Looking at the Stars-Biography of Xia Qiang, Winner of the Ninth Chinese Physician Award, Director of the Liver Surgery Department at Renji Hospital              Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine July 4, 2014
http://www2.shsmu.edu.cn/default.php?mod=article&do=detail&tid=354467
https://archive.is/f0gDz
仰望星空——记第九届中国医师奖得主, 附属仁济医院肝脏外科主任夏强  2014-07-04

1510 The project of Novartis transplant demonstration centre started in Renji Hospital         April 2, 2015
http://www.novartis.com.cn/cat/85/show/871.html
https://archive.is/3k7vc
诺华制药移植示范中心项目在上海交通大学医学院附属仁济医院启动    2015-04-02

1511   The best kidney transplant centre in Beijing – People Liberation Army No. 307 Hospital
http://www.ourbank.com.cn/niaoduz/11376.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160325062054/http://www.ourbank.com.cn/niaoduz/11376.html
北京最好的肾脏移植中心丨解放军307肾移植中心

1512 Introduction to People’s Liberation Army No. 307 Hospital    November  20, 2014
http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_76483dbd0102v5ey.html
https://archive.is/a1TGY
解放军307医院介绍    2014-11-20

1513 Long Yan: Inside Story of China’s Pillaging of Human Organs (Part I)        Epoch Times
http://tw.epochtimes.com/gb/6/10/19/n1491866.htm
https://archive.is/YxY22
龙延:中国盗取人体器官黑幕(上)

1514 Chinese Journal of Digestive Surgery  Chinese Baike Interactive Encyclopedia
http://www.baike.com/wiki/%E3%80%8A%E4%B8%AD%E5%8D%8E%E6%B6%88%E5%8C%96%E5%A4%96%E7%A7%91%E6%9D%82%E5%BF%97%E3%80%8B
https://archive.is/EN9az
《中华消化外科杂志》

1515 Introduction to the Hepatobiliary Surgery Department of the People Liberation Army Navy General Hospital
Source: Navy General Hospital Hepatobiliary Surgery Department, 2002-2012
http://www.hjganai.com/zttj/ganyizhi/185.html [retrieved March 9, 2015. Link not accessible as of Feb. 2016]
https://web.archive.org/web/20150309062549/http://www.hjganai.com/zttj/ganyizhi/185.html
海军总医院肝胆外科简介2002-2012

1516 The People Liberation Army Navy General Hospital‘s new medical building completed
http://www.cse.org.cn/html/news/hospital/20091218/4063.html
https://archive.is/PhUbh
http://wenku.baidu.com/view/92ca486758fafab069dc02d8.html?fr=zhidao
海军总医院新医疗大楼落成    日期:2009-12-18 10:49来源:中国卫生

1517 The Liver Disease Department of the People’s Liberation Army No. 458 Hospital
http://www.medste.gd.cn/Html/dip/Class985/Class1033/16530320070427091500.html
https://archive.is/hRWZC
解放军第四五八医院肝病中心

1518 “Relying on the market to protect the battlefield,” said Zhang Cong from People’s Liberation Army No. 452 Hospital
http://news.sohu.com/20090112/n261710745.shtml
https://archive.is/5rsNd
解放军452医院院长张聪:依托市场保障“战场”

1519 Liver transplant move to a new era
http://www.hbver.com/Article/gyhjqt/gyz/200505/3770.html
https://archive.is/4OpEg
肝移植走向新时代     2005-5-10    张荔子   文章来源:健康报

1520 The Kidney transplant Department of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University
http://www.zssy.com.cn/Home/Detail/GanZangWaiKe?colType=10&colID=10145&pageIndex=1
https://archive.is/1lwit
中山大学附属第三医院肝脏移植中心

1521 Wuhan Union Hospital surgical ward building
http://photo.zhulong.com/proj/detail34951.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160524003714/http://photo.zhulong.com/proj/detail34951.html
武汉协和医院外科病房大楼

1522 Wuhan Union Hospital surgical ward building project
http://cnki.scstl.org/KCMS/detail/detail.aspx?filename=SNAD000001339279&dbcode=SNAD&dbname=SNAD
https://archive.is/w9xoD
武汉市协和医院外科病房大楼工程

1523 Introduction to the Urologic Surgery Department of Union Hospital affiliated with Tongji Medical College
– Subject Characteristics
http://www.whuh.com/Depart_content.php?class=1&sections_id=25
https://web.archive.org/web/20160312120607/http://www.whuh.com/Depart_content.php?class=1&sections_id=25
华中科技大学同济医学院附属协和医院泌尿外科-学科特色

1524 The Union Hospital “reinstalled” 4 hearts within 22 minutes,   Wuhan Evening,   June 25, 2013
http://whwb.cjn.cn/html/2013-06/25/content_5179875.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160613035243/http://whwb.cjn.cn/html/2013-06/25/content_5179875.htm
协和医院22分钟内“重装”4颗心     武汉晚报, 2015年6月25日

1525 Department of Cardiovascular Surgery at Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College of
Huazhong University of Science & Technology,
Source: Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science & Technology
http://www.whuh.com/Depart_content.php?class=1&sections_id=83
https://web.archive.org/web/20160312122008/http://www.whuh.com/Depart_content.php?class=1&sections_id=83
华中科技大学附属协和医院- 心血管外科,来源:华中科技大学附属协和医院

1526 Introduction to the  Organ Transplant Centre at Peking University Third Hospital
http://www.eightbridge.com/livertx/old/Press.htm
https://archive.is/seCuM
北京大学第三医院器官移植中心简介

1527 Liver transplant hospitals Introduction: Peking University First Hospital – Surgical Department – liver transplant
Source: GoodDoctor.com    Dated:  February 25, 2009
http://med.haoyisheng.com/09/0225/310006734.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160225205619/http://med.haoyisheng.com/09/0225/310006734.html
介绍一些肝移植医院 – 北京大学第一医院外科 – 肝脏移植简介   来源: 好医生   2009年02月25日

1528 The new surgery building put into operation at Peking University Third Hospital
http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2005-12-10/00437668473s.shtml
https://archive.is/eyhdc
北医三院新外科病房搬迁

1529 Introduction to the  Organ Transplant Centre at Peking University Third Hospital
http://www.eightbridge.com/livertx/old/Press.htm
https://archive.is/seCuM
北京大学第三医院器官移植中心简介

1530  Sharing System Moves Chinese Organ Transplantation into the Public Welfare Era
China Economic Weekly, 2013, Issue 34                          Liu, Yanqing
http://paper.people.com.cn/zgjjzk/html/2013-09/06/content_1295101.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160116163206/http://paper.people.com.cn/zgjjzk/html/2013-09/06/content_1295101.htm
共享系统推动中国器官移植进入公益化时代 《中国经济周刊》2013年第34期           刘砚青

1531 Brief Introduction of the Organ Transplantation Centre of the No. 309 Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army
http://www.309yy.com/_Dept/View.aspx?id=3323
http://web.archive.org/web/20140417235354/http://www.309yy.com/_Dept/View.aspx?id=3323
《解放军第309医院》器官移植中心简介 发表时间:2010-11-17

1532 Entering the Well-Known Specialty Center of the People’s Liberation Army: The Organ Transplantation Center of the No. 309 Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army   Xinhua Military – Xinhua Net   February 28, 2012
http://news.xinhuanet.com/mil/2012-02/28/c_122763047.htm
https://archive.is/wLAPm
走进全军知名专科中心:解放军第309医院器官移植中心2012年02月28日

1533 Zhongshan Hospital partnered with world’s largest organ transplant institute, bringing its organ transplantation to a higher level
http://www.biosino.org/news-2003/200312/03121008.htm
https://archive.is/QGm9Z
中山医院与世界最大器官移植机构携手 器官移植更上一层楼

1534 Introduction to Fudan University Organ Transplant Centre
http://www.transplantation.com.cn/About.Asp
https://web.archive.org/web/20140726202428/http://www.transplantation.com.cn/About.Asp
复旦大学器官移植中心简介

1535 Introduction to Fudan University Zhongshan Hospital Liver Surgery
http://www.zs-hospital.sh.cn/keshi/detail.aspx?id=100001093&cid=150&kid=218
https://web.archive.org/web/20160128222634/http://www.zs-hospital.sh.cn/keshi/detail.aspx?id=100001093&cid=150&kid=218
复旦大学中山医院-肝外科-简介

1536 “Triple Happiness’ at Union Hospital Cardiac Surgery Department.” Fujian Medical University Union Hospital.
http://www.fjxiehe.com/menunews_html/00198/200712/200712/20071218120207.htm
http://web.archive.org/web/20080501040831/http://www.fjxiehe.com/menunews_html/00198/200712/200712/20071218120207.htm
协和医院心外科“三喜临门”

1537 “Union Hospital Affiliated with Fujian Medical University Integrated Surgery Building.” Archcy.com. September 25, 2012.
http://www.archcy.com/focus/hospital%20/f43f29009f4febee
https://web.archive.org/web/20150329063442/http://www.archcy.com/focus/hospital%20/f43f29009f4febee
福建医科大学附属协和医院外科病房综合楼

1538 “Our Hospital Holds Celebration Event for Official Opening of Integrated Surgery Building.”
Fujian Medical University Union Hospital.
http://www.fjxiehe.com/menunews_html/00198/200907/200907/20090728083925.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160529082818/http://www.fjxiehe.com/menunews_html/00198/200907/200907/20090728083925.htm
我院隆重举行外科病房综合大楼正式启用庆典活动

1539 Introduction to the Nephrology Department of the Affiliated Hospital of the Logistics University of People’s Armed Police Force
Source: Medical Network / Medical guide
http://jiuyi.ewsos.com/yiyuan/keshijieshao-ShenBingKe459960
https://web.archive.org/web/20160412000315/http://jiuyi.ewsos.com/yiyuan/keshijieshao-ShenBingKe459960
武警后勤学院附属医院-肾病科简介 来源:医网 / 就医指南

1540 Expert Li hui from the Nephrology Department of the Affiliated Hospital of the Logistics University of People’s Armed Police Force          Source: yynet.cn
http://lihui385.u.yynet.cn/intro.php
https://archive.is/Y4lSt
武警后勤学院附属医院肾病科-专家介绍-李辉简介              来源:医元网

1541 Introduction to the Affiliated Hospital of the Logistics University of People’s Armed Police Force
Source: Medical Encyclopedia A-hospital.com
http://www.a-hospital.com/w/天津市武警医学院附属医院
https://archive.is/fPJre
天津市武警医学院附属医院      来源:医学百科

1542 Buildings and the Masters – Analysis on the scientific development for talented personnel at the Affiliated Hospital of the Logistics University of People’s Armed Police Forces
http://cxnews.zjol.com.cn/cxnews/system/2011/03/24/013525364.shtml
http://web.archive.org/web/20160605002329/http://cxnews.zjol.com.cn/cxnews/system/2011/03/24/013525364.shtml
大楼与大师——武警医学院附属医院用人才支撑科学发展新闻分析之一

1543 Interview with the Dean Li Yuming of Affiliated Hospital of Armed Police Medical College
http://news.163.com/10/0904/09/6FNOSCKP00014AED.html
https://archive.is/yriD2
专访武警医学院附属医院院长李玉明

1544 Great Achievements from Dedication and a New Chapter from Harmony             2009-10-10 Xinhuanet
http://news.xinhuanet.com/mil/2009-10/10/content_12205069_2.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160506153535/http://news.xinhuanet.com/mil/2009-10/10/content_12205069_2.htm
“敬业厚德写辉煌和谐创新谱新篇”-新华网 2009年10月10日

1545 Great Achievements from Dedication and a New Chapter from Harmony
http://news.xinhuanet.com/mil/2009-10/10/content_12205069_2.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160506153535/http://news.xinhuanet.com/mil/2009-10/10/content_12205069_2.htm
“敬业厚德写辉煌和谐创新谱新篇”-新华网 2009年10月10日 10:38:29

1546 Dr. Bai Hai, Director of the People’s Liberation Army Blood Disease Centre at the Lanzhou General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Region
http://gansu.gansudaily.com.cn/system/2010/04/21/011527789.shtml
http://archive.is/ycsg5
兰州军区兰州总医院血液科, 全军血液病中心主任, 医学博士 主任医师 白海

1547 Great Achievements from Dedication and a New Chapter from Harmony
http://news.xinhuanet.com/mil/2009-10/10/content_12205069_1.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160123214819/http://news.xinhuanet.com/mil/2009-10/10/content_12205069_1.htm
“敬业厚德写辉煌和谐创新谱新篇”-新华网 2009年10月10日 10:38:29

1548 The Urology Surgery Department at the First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University
http://www.medste.gd.cn/Html/dip/sywztjs/zkjj/zdzk/25491620090318121000.html
https://archive.is/6FQjZ
暨南大学附属第一医院泌尿外科

1549 The Organ Transplant Centre at the First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University
http://www.medste.gd.cn/Html/dip/sywztjs/zkjj/zdzk/25491620090318121000.html
https://archive.is/XwUBT
暨南大学附属第一医院器官移植中心  好大夫在线

1550 The New Ward Building Put into Operation Day  at the First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University
http://photo.familydoctor.com.cn/social/201212/9252712182938.html
https://archive.is/YUwih
暨南大学附属第一医院新住院大楼于公开日活动

1551 The new ward building put into operation on  Dec. 9, 2012 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University
http://zl.39.net/zt/kfr/kfr/#a4
https://web.archive.org/web/20160419210027/http://zl.39.net/zt/kfr/kfr/
暨南大学附属第一医院新住院大楼于2012年12月9日开放

1552 Brief Introduction to The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University
http://jd.jnu.edu.cn/yxsz/yxsz2014/default.asp?see=clg&id=30
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124012643/http://jd.jnu.edu.cn/yxsz/yxsz2014/default.asp?see=clg&id=30
415  暨南大学附属第一医院简介

1553 Yiyang Central Hospital        Interactive Encyclopedia
http://www.baike.com/wiki/益阳市中心医院
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124021134/http://www.baike.com/wiki/益阳市中心医院
益阳市中心医院互动百科

1554 Kidney Transplantation Centre at Yiyang People’s Hospital
http://www.yych.cn/departmentdirectory/depinfo_567350EC-3F03-4113-98C5-D210232B7E20.html
https://archive.is/Sujmc
益阳市中心医院 – 科室导航:肾移植中心

1555 Yiyang People’s Hospital overview
http://yych.cn/onhospital/overview.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20130205065139/http://yych.cn/onhospital/overview.html
益阳市中心医院

1556 Introduction to the Department of Organ Transplantation at No. 303 Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZGuangZhouJunQuDi303YiYuanKuaiXun/2011-02/5209.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124025836/http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZGuangZhouJunQuDi303YiYuanKuaiXun/2011-02/5209.htm
广州军区第303医院器官移植科简介来源:中国器官移植网

1557 Introduction to the Department of Organ Transplantation at No. 303 Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZGuangZhouJunQuDi303YiYuanKuaiXun/2011-02/5209.htm
https://archive.is/wYt9F
广州军区第303医院器官移植科简介来源:中国器官移植网

1558 The Appearance of Master’s Advisors at Guangxi Medical University
http://210.36.48.20/infor/Dsjs.aspx?dsdm=95321001
 https://web.archive.org/web/20160313033643/http://210.36.48.20/infor/Dsjs.aspx?dsdm=95321001
『广西医科大学研究生导师风采』

1559 National clinical specialist focus – Surgery Department of First Affiliated Hospital of Shanxi Medical University
Source: official web site of First Affiliated Hospital of Shanxi Medical University
http://www.sydyy.net.cn/News_View.asp?NewsID=3388&lm=&lm2=107
https://archive.is/nRP3X
山西医科大学第一医院国家临床重点专科建设项目—普通外科        来源:山西医科大学第一医院官方网站

1560 The Heart and great vessels Surgery Department at the First Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical College
http://www.nmgfy.com/KsAbout.aspx?id=962473fc-f838-4bd5-bea5-ff78981bf9cf&type=1
https://archive.is/YxTib
内蒙古医学院附属第一医院心脏大血管外科简介

1561 The First Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical College-Baidu Encyclopedia
http://baike.baidu.com/view/2523784.htm
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache%3Ahttp%3A%2F%2Fbaike.baidu.com%2Fview%2F2523784.htm
https://archive.is/W2Cy3
内蒙古医学院附属第一医院-百度百科

1562 Introduction to the Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical College
http://www.baike.com/ipadwiki/%E5%86%85%E8%92%99%E5%8F%A4%E5%8C%BB%E5%AD%A6%E9%99%A2%E9%99%84%E5%B1%9E%E5%8C%BB%E9%99%A2
https://archive.is/7d8AP
内蒙古医学院附属医院 医院简介

1563 The Third Hospital Affiliated with the Second Military Medical College (Dongfang Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital)
started trial running, dated October 17, 2015
http://www.ehbh.cn/news.php?cate=2665&id=13197
https://web.archive.org/web/20160131060323/http://www.ehbh.cn/news.php?cate=2665&id=13197
第二军医大学第三附属医院(东方肝胆外科医院)在安亭开诊试运行   2015-10-17

1564 Changzheng Hospital Pudong New Branch held the ground-breaking ceremony
http://jinqiao.pudong.gov.cn/jq_zxdt/2009-11-16/Detail_280561.htm
http://web.archive.org/web/20110210230352/http://jinqiao.pudong.gov.cn/jq_zxdt/2009-11-16/Detail_280561.htm
长征医院浦东新院举行奠基仪式

1565 Shanghai Dongfang Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Anting Branch
http://www.yamashitasekkei.co.jp/works/list/shanghaiehshospital.html
https://archive.is/M0HVJ
上海東方肝胆外科医院安亭院区

1566 Rendering of Changzheng Hospital Pudong New campus
http://www.smmu.edu.cn/_s2/02/bd/c1a701/page5.psp
https://archive.is/iQuhC
长征医院浦东新院效果图

1567 Ward Building Group at Fuzhou General Hospital is expected to be completed in 2014
http://www.fjsen.com/d/2011-05/19/content_4588740.htm
https://archive.is/1bsBi
福州总院“病房大楼群”动工   预计2014年竣工

1568 Recruit Postdoctoral Profile of Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Region
http://zhaopin.100zp.com/html/fzzyy/
https://archive.is/8lBSw
南京军区福州总医院博士后招收简介

1569 The Second Xiangya Hospital – Expert Profile – Peng, Longkai
http://www.xyeyy.com/Pages/MZB/ZjIntro.aspx?staffid=503
https://archive.is/bCwpK
湘雅附二院专家介绍-彭龙开

1570 “Time of Dragons Soaring and Tigers Leaping – Kidney Transplantation Department of
Organ Transplantation Centre, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University”
“Hunan Online – Public Health Edition”            October 21, 2005
http://hunan.voc.com.cn/content/2005-10/21/content_3479431.htm
https://archive.is/xlZWE
龙腾虎跃正当时―记中南大学湘雅二医院器官移植中心肾移植科”《湖南在线-大众卫生报版》2005年10月21日

1571 “Our Hospital’s Cadaveric Kidney Transplant Numbers Greatly Exceed Last Year’s.”
Qilu Hospital. December 26, 2010.       www.qiluhospital.com
http://www.qiluhospital.com/site57/ksxw/15301.shtml
https://archive.is/67ofi
我院尸体肾移植数目大幅超越去年

1572 Shen Zhongyang – Baidu Encyclopedia
http://baike.baidu.com/view/1577731.htm
https://archive.is/gXqoe
226-沈中阳_百度百科

1573 “Shen Zhongyang: Hope of Transplants, Strengthening Life.” Source: Guangming Daily. January 27, 2011. 13th Edition.
http://epaper.gmw.cn/gmrb/html/2011-01/27/nw.D110000gmrb_20110127_1-13.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160513050439/http://epaper.gmw.cn/gmrb/html/2011-01/27/nw.D110000gmrb_20110127_1-13.htm
沈中阳:移植希望,让生命坚强     来源:《 光明日报 》( 2011年01月27日   13 版)

1574 Investigation on tens of thousands of foreigners going to China for organ transplants,
China has become the world’s organ transplant centre           Phoenix Weekly  2006-02-22
http://web.archive.org/web/20100611090330/http://news.ifeng.com/phoenixtv/83932384042418176/20060222/751049.shtml
数万外国人赴华移植器官调查   大陆成全球器官移植新兴中心  来源:《凤凰周刊》 日期:2006-02-22    谌彦辉

1575 Bring the hope of life by transplant       tast.org.cn           1/5/2015
http://www.tast.org.cn/2015/1-5/15151628325.html
https://archive.is/vbxy4
用移植带来生命的希望 天津市科学技术协会           1/5/2015

1576 “Organ Transplant” of General Hospital Awarded First “Shiyan Business Card” Title
Source: Dongfeng General Hospital
http://www.dfmhp.com.cn/a/dongfengyilin/yiyuanyaowen/2011/1102/7158.html
https://archive.is/WUH4j
总医院“器官移植”荣获首届“十堰名片”称号,来源:东风总医院

1577 “Organ Transplant” of General Hospital Awarded First “Shiyan Business Card” Title,
Source: Dongfeng General Hospital
http://www.dfmhp.com.cn/a/dongfengyilin/yiyuanyaowen/2011/1102/7158.html
https://archive.is/WUH4j
总医院“器官移植”荣获首届“十堰名片”称号,来源:东风总医院

1578 Climbing the peak of transplantation, continue the wonderfulness of life
http://www.dfmhp.com.cn/a/dongfengyilin/xingyedongtai/2010/1222/3020.html
https://archive.is/DATK4
攀登移植之巅 延续生命精彩

1579 Organ Transplantation Breast Surgery
http://www.dfmhp.com.cn/a/keshidaohang/shoushukeshi/qiguanyizhi/
https://archive.is/ZkHcG
器官移植乳腺外科

1580 Climbing the peak of transplantation, continue the wonderfulness of life
http://www.dfmhp.com.cn/a/dongfengyilin/xingyedongtai/2010/1222/3020.html
https://archive.is/DATK4
攀登移植之巅 延续生命精彩

1581 Notice from the Ministry of Health regarding starting cardiac death organ donation transplant experimental work
http://www.moh.gov.cn/zwgkzt/s9968/201104/51516.shtml
https://archive.is/8h3IW
卫生部办公厅关于启动心脏死亡捐献器官移植试点工作的通知 2011-04-26

1582 List of Hospitals Approved to Carry Out Human Organ Transplantation
National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People’s Republic of China
The following archive was captured on 2014-01-07.
http://web.archive.org/web/20140107075300/http://www.moh.gov.cn/zhuzhan/sjcx/201308/1ef2115e6ce84414b28bcc4b608d0910.shtml
已批准开展人体器官移植项目的医院名单, 中华人民共和国国家卫生和计划生育委员会,

1583 Brief of the development of Foshan First People’s Hospital                          2012-11-01
https://web.archive.org/web/20121101155540/http://www.fshospital.org.cn/CN/about/index.asp
https://archive.is/QtM0B
佛山市第一人民医院发展简介   2012-11-01

1584 They make “moving” Puppetry
http://www.fshospital.org.cn/cn/infosystem/document/new8712.htm
https://archive.is/wn7XG
他们让“感动”流芳 《佛山市第一人民医院》 2005-1-6

1585 The peak day for transplantation: two liver transplants and six kidney transplants carrying out simultaneously
http://zplcwyq.fsyyy.com/ArticleDetail.aspx?lcids=0&id=105880&Columnid=14
https://archive.is/7nFCh
移值高峰日:2台肝移植6台肾移植同时施行. 2005-03-04

1586 Urologic Department carried out seven kidney transplants simultaneously
http://www.fsyyy.com/ArticleDetail.aspx?lcids=0&id=121172&Columnid=275
https://archive.is/UxAum
泌尿外科同时完成7台肾移植手术  《佛山市第一人民医院》 2006-01-02

1587 China Calls to Halt Organ Transplant Tourism   infzm.com  December 20, 2007
http://www.infzm.com/content/9556
https://archive.is/js308
《南方周末》中国叫停“器官移植旅游” 作者:南方周末记者  发自天津  2007-12-18

1588 Oriental Organ Transplant Centre Put into Use Yesterday             Chinese
Organ Transplant Website / Source: Tianjin Daily Website – Daily News              September 5, 2006
http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2006-09-02/09019916538s.shtml
https://archive.is/PC0hS
166 《中国器官移植网》东方器官移植中心昨天投入使用[2006-09-05] 来源:天津日报网-每日新报 -徐杨

1589 “Previous Hard Work Sees Renewed Glory Today – Well-Known Transplant Specialist Professor Shen Zhongyang.”
Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine in Intensive and Critical Care. February 2006.
http://www.cccm-em120.com/zhongxiyiguokan/cccm/pdf/2006-2/1%E6%98%94%E6%97%A5%E6%8B%BC%E6%90%8F%E8%BF%9B%E5%8F%96%20%E4%BB%8A%E6%97%A5%E9%87%8D%E5%BB%BA%E8%BE%89%E7%85%8C%E2%80%94%E2%80%94%E8%91%97%E5%90%8D%E7%A7%BB%E6%A4%8D%E5%AD%A6%E4%B8%93%E5%AE%B6%E6%B2%88%E4%B8%AD%E9%98%B3%E6%95%99%E6%8E%88.pdf
https://web.archive.org/save/_embed/http://www.cccm-em120.com/zhongxiyiguokan/cccm/pdf/2006-2/1%E6%98%94%E6%97%A5%E6%8B%BC%E6%90%8F%E8%BF%9B%E5%8F%96%20%E4%BB%8A%E6%97%A5%E9%87%8D%E5%BB%BA%E8%BE%89%E7%85%8C%E2%80%94%E2%80%94%E8%91%97%E5%90%8D%E7%A7%BB%E6%A4%8D%E5%AD%A6%E4%B8%93%E5%AE%B6%E6%B2%88%E4%B8%AD%E9%98%B3%E6%95%99%E6%8E%88.pdf
昔日拼搏进取 今日重建辉煌 – 著名移植学专家沈中阳教授  《中国中西医结合急救杂志》 2006年第二期

1590 Tianjin First Centre Hospital   enorth.com.cn   June 25, 2014
http://news.enorth.com.cn/system/2014/06/25/011973313.shtml
https://archive.is/H1D8F
天津市第一中心医院-北方网-2014-06-25

1591 Introduction of Liver Transplantation Centre at The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZheJiangDaXueFuShuDiYiYiYuanKuaiXun/2011-02/5400.htm
https://archive.is/j0gn7
浙江大学附属第一医院肝移植中心简介