AN UPDATE TO ‘BLOODY HARVEST’ & ‘THE SLAUGHTER’

Chapter Four: Approved Civilian Transplant Centres

Organized and directed first by the Ministry of Health and later by its successor, the National Health and Family Planning Commission, civilian transplant centres also grew rapidly after 2000. This growth is apparent especially for the 55 national-level civilian transplant centres in the first batch approved by the Ministry of Health.

Before 2000, these institutions had matured in their technology in kidney and liver transplants. After 2000, the technology was applied to massive numbers of patients. Within a few years, liver and kidney transplants became routine clinical surgery; organ transplantation techniques and volume increased rapidly. These hospitals became the largest transplant centres in their areas, the country, and Asia. These national-level transplant centres popularized their clinical technology throughout the country, trained a large number of transplant doctors, and led the exponential growth of China’s transplant industry.

Examples

Tianjin First Central Hospital Organ Transplant Institute

(Oriental Organ Transplant Centre)

Tianjin First Central Hospital’s Organ Transplant Institute is the largest transplant center in Asia and ranked first in China in the cumulative volume of transplants performed for sixteen consecutive years through the end of 2013.242

In September 1998, the hospital established its Organ Transplant Surgery Department, which became the Tianjin Organ Transplant Centre in December 2000 and the Oriental Organ Transplant Institute in November 2003. It integrates clinical practice, teaching, and research.243 The Centre gained influence worldwide and was the first in mainland China to be included in the Clinical Transplants registry.244

Shen Zhongyang

Shen Zhongyang is known as the founder of China’s liver transplant field. From the time he graduated from China Medical University in 1984 until 1998, Shen twice studied in Japan. According to data from the Ho Leung Ho Lee Foundation,245 after Shen returned to China in 1998, he began to build an organ transplant division and a transplant institute at Tianjin First Central Hospital, which became the Oriental Organ Transplant Centre. Since then, Shen has been the director of the centre. He became president of the hospital in 2007.

In 2001, Shen set up the transplant centre at the Tianjin Armed Police General Hospital and established the Liver Transplant Institute at the Armed Police General Hospital in Beijing in April 2002. The latter quickly topped the rankings in the Beijing area for the volume and success rate of liver transplants performed.246 He also assisted in the creation of the Jinan Armed Police Organ Transplant Institute and the Qianfoshan Hospital Liver Transplant Centre in Shandong Province.

Shen was a chief expert for transplant research under the 863 Project, a transplant expert in the Central Committee of the Health Core Group, and vice chairman of the Chinese Medical Association Organ Transplant Society.247 248

In mainland China, liver transplantation was still in its clinical exploration stage until the end of the last century. It is the only effective treatment for end-stage liver disease. In May 1994, Shen completed the first orthotopic liver transplant after he returned to China; by the end of the century, liver transplants were slowly becoming routine.249

Shen Zhongyang was the first doctor in China to establish a modern transplant centre incorporating multiple disciplines, including anesthesia, transplant pharmacology, and pathology. He also implemented cooperation in treatment before, during and after surgery, as well as quality control.250

Shen pioneered and improved a variety of liver transplant surgical procedures. He developed an integrated prevention system that reduced the recurrence rate of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) after liver transplants from over 80% to under 5%. This advance overcame the main obstacle to the development of liver transplantation in China.

Shen also established a multidisciplinary liver transplant standard and procedure, with surgery as the central component. His books include Clinical Liver Transplantation, Modern Clinical Liver Transplantation, China Liver Transplantation, and Liver Transplantation Manual addressing the new theories and technologies he was exploring. Shen also provided training for dozens of transplant units across the country, helping liver transplantation become routine surgery.

According to the 2009 edition of the Tianjin Medical Journal, between January 2004 and August 2008, Shen participated in 1,600 liver graft procurements.251 The now-standard procedure for grafting the liver from a donor lowered the time necessary for the organ to remain at body temperature to under five minutes and reduced the time for procurement operations to thirty minutes.252 His development of this procedure which, according to the Journal article, “suits the characteristics of China,” indicates that Shen very likely participated in a large number of live organ procurement operations, given that the five-minute procurement time indicates that the involuntary organ donor had not yet died when the liver was removed.

In July 2006, the Oriental Organ Transplant Centre became China’s liver transplant training centre. It trained over 385 transplant doctors for other transplant centres, who became the backbone of their departments in hospitals across the country. The Centre also performed a large number of transplants.253

Oriental Organ Transplant Centre

The fifth edition of Phoenix Weekly in 2006 published an article entitled “Investigation into tens of thousands of foreigners going to China for organ transplants; China has become the world’s organ transplant centre.”254 The article also stated that Oriental Organ Transplant Centre is the world’s largest transplant centre.

The Centre’s high bed utilization is reflected in its head nurse’s statement: “The hospital began to accept and treat South Korean patients in 2002. A large number of South Korean patients poured in, making existing facilities insufficient. Now, the hospital has turned the fourth to seventh floors of the 12-floor building into transplant patient wards. It also borrowed the eighth floor of the Tianjin Economic Development Area International Cardiovascular Hospital as a hospitalization area for Korean patients. It has also converted the 24th and 25th floors of a nearby hotel into wards for patients waiting for transplants. Even so, we’re still short of beds.”

The article says that 85% of its patients came from over 20 countries and regions, including South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, Egypt, Europe, Israel, Pakistan, India, Saudi Arabia, Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan. The café in the ward on the fourth floor became an “international conference club,” where patients of different ethnicities gather to exchange their treatment experiences.

Using incomplete data, in the three years prior to the date of the article, over 3,000 patients from South Korea alone underwent organ transplants in mainland China. More than 1,000 people from other countries and regions underwent organ transplants in China every year.

This was not the only hospital with an influx of overseas transplant patients; transplant centres all over the country were attracting and receiving foreign patients. Documented cases include the First People’s Hospital of Zhejiang Province and the Guangdong Nanfang Hospital. The latter facility opened its doors specifically for overseas Chinese and was called the “model medical department for benefiting overseas Chinese” in 1995. It had received over 110,000 patients from over 91 countries and regions for hospitalization and examination. 255 The hospital had completed 2,123 kidney transplants by as early as November 2001.256

Volume of Organ Transplants

The same Phoenix Weekly article257 stated, “According to family members of patients, the Organ Transplant Centre carries out up to 24 liver and kidney transplants in one day. The hospital once set a record of completing 44 liver transplants within one week in December 2004.

Because its 120 hospital beds were insufficient, the Oriental Organ Transplant Center rented a large number of rooms from nearby hotels and a hospital for foreign transplant patients. At the time, the facility had seven liver and kidney transplant teams. They had almost no rest days: “…doctors hurriedly shuttle between wards and operating rooms, with no time to greet one another. They kept saying, ‘These few days are crazy busy, with more than a dozen surgeries a day.’ Some doctors were even “rushing surgeries all night long [and] did not sleep at all.” Doctors complain that the off-season is only a month after the New Year; they are busy until the end of the year and normally don’t go home. The end of the year is particularly busy.”

Because of its growth after 2000, the Center broke ground in 2002 on its new building with 500 transplant beds. The project was funded by the Tianjin municipal government, which aimed to build Asia’s largest integrated organ transplant center.258

 

Previous Hard Work Sees Renewed Glory Today — Well-Known Transplant Specialist Professor Shen Zhongyang. Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine in Intensive and Critical Care. February 2006 ...The newly completed Oriental Transplant Center building , opened with 700 beds ... [and] currently has 310 medical professional personnel ...

Figure 4.1 The screenshot of the special interview with Shen Zhongyang in February 2006 by the Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine in Intensive and Critical Care

 

According to a special interview with Shen Zhongyang in February 2006 by the Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine in Intensive and Critical Care, the newly completed Oriental Transplant Center building had actually opened with 700 beds.259 This was 200 more than the plan.260

In September 2006, Xinhua News Agency reported that this new building officially entered operation. The report stated that its transplant surgery center could simultaneously carry out nine liver transplants and eight kidney transplants.261 The report added that, while focusing on the development of liver transplants, the Center would also develop kidney, pancreas, bone, skin, hair, stem cell, heart, lung, cornea, and larynx transplantation.

… The bed utilization rate has reached 131.1%, an increase of 5.7% from the same time in the previous year. In 2013, based on developmental needs, our hospital has added 300 beds … and adjusted the bed counts allocated for Heart Surgery, …, Urologic Surgery, and the Organ Transplant Center.

Figure 4.2 Snapshot of a report on Enorth Netnews on June 25, 2014

 

Three years later, by October 2009, its bed utilization rate reached 90%;262 utilization reached 131% after it added more beds in 2013.263 According to a report by Enorth Netnews on June 25, 2014, Tianjin First Central Hospital had made progress in its various departments in 2013, with a bed utilization rate of 131.1%, an increase of 5.7% from the same time in the previous year. Based on developmental needs, it had added 300 beds and adjusted the number allocated for several departments, including the organ transplant center.264

The average hospitalization time for liver transplants at this center was 25-30 days but was later shortened to 20-23 days.265 In general, hospitalization times for kidney recipients are much shorter. Even if we count the new building as 500 beds instead of 700, when it achieved a 100% bed utilization rate (around 2010 by its growth trend), the transplant volume may have reached 6,000 to 8,000 per year. With its 131% bed utilization rate in 2013, the corresponding annual volume may have been as high as 7,800 to 10,400. It also added beds later, pushing the annual transplant volume even higher.

The hospital has 17 operating rooms. If these 17 operating rooms were in use at the same time, at least 30 liver and kidney transplants could be completed in one day. Then 30 x 360 = 10,800 transplants could be done in one year. This calculation is based on only a regular utilization rate and a workload of fewer than two operations a day per transplant operating room.

After evidence of live organ harvesting in China attracted international attention, the authorities deleted web pages and claimed that the number of organ transplants had decreased after 2006. It used Tianjin First Central Hospital as an example to promote this story.

On December 18, 2007, Southern Weekly published the article “China is calling a stop to ‘transplant tourism,”266 which claimed that, starting from 2007, the number of transplants at the hospital suddenly dropped significantly due to lack of organ supply, that it conducted only 15 liver transplants in the first half of the year, and that the donors were all patients’ relatives.

Yet, in April 2009, the hospital’s official web page said that it ranked first in the country for the number of liver and kidney transplants for the four preceding years.267 The hospital could not have performed only fifteen liver transplants in the first six months of 2007 and still rank first in the country in volume for liver transplants in 2007.

The current official website shows a bed count less than the number before the new building was put into use in 2006 – only 120 transplant surgery beds and seven liver and kidney transplant teams.268 However, its archived webpages since 2003 show that the Centre, funded by the Tianjin municipal government, would include 500 transplant beds and aim for 500 liver transplants, 300 kidney transplants, and other types of transplants per year.269 This suggests that each transplant bed would accommodate only one to two patients per year, an unlikely scenario.

The transplant volume of this centre can be cross-checked with those conducted by individual doctors. Based on published papers, the Centre has 110 doctors participating in liver and kidney transplants, among whom 46 are chief or associate chief physicians and 13 are attending physicians.270

Shen Zhongyang’s biography shows that he had completed close to 10,000 liver transplants by the end of 2014.271 His colleagues and the majority of the doctors he had trained had each independently completed approximately 1,000 transplants.272 Thus, while the centre claims that it has completed 10,000 organ transplants in total, this figure is surpassed by just a few doctors.273

By 2011, Vice President Zhu Zhijun of Tianjin First Central Hospital had completed 1,400 liver transplants and 100 liver transplants from relatives’ donors. 274 Cai Jinzhen, the deputy director of the liver transplant department, had completed 1,500 liver transplants; Cai has worked in the centre since 2000 and had developed in-depth experience in liver transplantation.275

As of July 2006, associate chief surgeon Pan Cheng had independently completed over 1,000 liver transplants, over 100 liver transplants from relative donors.276

Chief surgeon Song Wenli from the renal transplant department had completed over 2,000 kidney transplants and over 100 combined transplants.277Associate chief surgeon Mo Chunbo had completed over 1,500 kidney transplants.278 Chief surgeon Gao Wei had completed over 800 liver transplants and 100 from relative donors after he graduated from the university; he joined the Oriental Organ Transplant Centre in 1999.279

Zhongshan Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University

Rendering: Roadmap of Zhongshan Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University (east campus)

 

Zhongshan Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University was one of China’s first hospitals to conduct heart, liver, and kidney transplants.280 It has set several records as the first hospital to carry out certain types of organ transplants in China and in the Shanghai region. Over the years, the hospital has seen all-around development in kidney, liver, heart, and lung transplantation. It claims to be the most comprehensive organ transplantation centre in China, with its transplant volume growing rapidly each year.281 A report in 2004 showed that its transplant volume had been increasing at a rate of 50% a year. 282 In December 2003, it partnered with the world’s largest organ transplant institute and jointly established the Fudan University Zhongshan Hospital – University of Pittsburgh Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute Liaison Centre.283

Zhongshan Hospital’s kidney transplant unit includes 27 doctors, 6 senior professionals, 5 associate chief physicians. The liver transplant unit includes 10 senior professionals and 9 associate chief surgeons and physicians. The heart surgery department has 3 senior professionals.

The hospital’s Zhu Tongyu carried out the fourth highest-difficulty kidney transplant and Asia’s first combined heart, liver, and kidney transplant. Fan Jia, the president of Zhongshan Hospital and founder of the “Shanghai Fudan Criteria,” has led over 7,000 difficult liver cancer surgeries over 20 years; among them were over 1,300 liver transplants.284

Photo: Zhongshan Hospital lobby and VIP section

 

The hospital performed its first liver transplant in 1978. Since 2001, liver transplantation at this hospital has seen rapid development, with increased variety, more innovations, shorter operating times (4 to 6 hours on average), less bleeding, and fewer complications. Some patients are discharged 9 days after their operation. Transplant recipients extend from patients of liver cancer to those of hepatitis, congenital liver diseases, and other end-stage liver diseases. Its quantity and success rate of liver transplantation lead both the Shanghai region and the country.285

The Liver Surgery Department of Zhongshan Hospital serves as the Shanghai Liver Cancer Clinical Medical Centre, one of China’s two major liver cancer research facilities. It recently started immediate outpatient follow-up treatments with its liver transplant patients, such that a patient receives their operation immediately after an exam and hospital admission, accelerating the treatment cycle. It has attracted patients from more than ten countries and regions and seen dramatic growth in surgery volume. In February 2015, the department moved into the new Shanghai Liver Cancer Medical Centre building. It now has 230 beds, with its scale and medical capabilities among the world’s best.286

The department’s leading figures are Professor Fan Jia and Professor Zhou Jian. It currently has a faculty of 41 members, including 22 with senior professional titles and 16 surgeons qualified to perform liver transplants. 287 Over 90% of its staff hold doctoral degrees.

The hospital’s president, Fan Jia, also serves as the director of the Fudan University Organ Transplant Centre and the director of the Shanghai Liver Cancer Clinical Medical Centre. Between 1999 and 2000, Fan went to the University of Pittsburgh Starzl Transplantation Institute as a senior visiting scholar for clinical surgical research on liver transplantation and liver surgery. For the past 5 years, he has presided over 14 major research subjects at the national, provincial, and ministerial levels, including the 973 Program, 863 Program, the Eleventh Five-Year Plan, and more. He also helped create the Shanghai Standards for transplantation.288 By 2012, he had completed more than 7,000 liver cancer surgeries, including over 1,300 liver transplants.289

The Urology Department of this hospital completed its first cadaveric kidney transplant in January 1970 and was one of China’s first to carry out an allogeneic kidney transplant. In August 1983, the department published China’s first book on organ transplantation, entitled Kidney Transplantation. In 2000, the department made a breakthrough in kidney transplantation and continues to innovate in its clinical work. The department currently has 4 full professors and 5 associate professors, including 2 doctoral advisors and 3 master’s advisors.290

The department’s director, Zhu Tongyu, is currently in charge of China’s organ transplantation clinical research programs. He successfully conducted a very challenging fourth kidney transplant and Asia’s first sequential heart-liver-kidney transplant.291

Its Heart Surgery Department presides over China’s heart transplantation access ordinance. In May 2000, it successfully conducted a heart transplant on the youngest recipient in China. The department has developed a complete set of standard procedures for heart transplantation. All of its heart transplant patients achieve ambulation within 3 days. It claims to account for approximately half of all heart transplants in China. It also innovated in the field of heart preservation technology and set a record for safely preserving a heart for 7 hours. 292

The Thoracic Surgery Department stated on its website that lung transplantation is so far the only effective treatment for end-stage lung diseases. The department has accumulated abundant experience in lung transplantation with significant achievements. It still holds the record of performing a lung transplant for the oldest recipient in Asia.293

On March 1, 2015, Zhongshan Hospital’s east campus officially opened, after an investment of 1.6 billion RMB and 6 years of construction. The new campus has 16 wards, 19 operating rooms, and 4 ICUs.294

Photo: Cardiovascular Disease Clinical Research

 

Photo: Rooftop helipad (16th floor)

 

Zhongshan Hospital operates Shanghai’s key laboratory for organ transplantation. According to incomplete data, the lab is currently working on 18 research projects under the National Natural Science Foundation and 12 research projects at the provincial and ministerial levels, with total funding of over 10 million RMB. In 2013 and 2014, it published 45 Science Citation Index papers and was granted 3 national patents.295

Doctor: “We don’t care who it’s from”

After the public release of information in 2006 about organ harvesting, a doctor at the transplantation center stated to an investigator who called in the name of a patient relative that its organs came from Falun Gong practitioners:296

Shanghai’s Zhongshan Hospital Organ Transplant Clinic (16 March 2006):

Investigator: Hi. Are you a doctor?

Doctor: Yes, I am…

Investigator: … So how long do I have to wait [for organ transplant surgery]?

Doctor: About a week after you come…

Investigator: Is there the kind of organs that come from Falun Gong? I heard that they are very good.

Doctor: All of ours are those types.

On February 8, 2015 the director of Zhongshan Hospital’s liver disease department, Tan Yunshan, stated to an overseas reporter, “All the donor livers are directly extracted at the source. Because we do the extraction ourselves and have access to the original information of the donor organ, we would know for sure whether a donor liver can be used or not…”297 298

When asked whether the hospital used organs from Falun Gong practitioners, Tan answered, “We don’t care whether it’s from a Falun Gong practitioner or not. We don’t get involved in politics. As doctors, we only care about the donor liver, about whether it meets the requirements of transplantation. If it meets the requirements, we don’t care who it’s from.”

The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University

Rendering: Bird’s-eye view of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, Yuhang Branch299

 

The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University has the largest organ transplantation centre in eastern China and one of the largest in China. 300 301  The hospital has 682 experts with senior professional titles and 2,500 beds. The hospital also contains the Ministry of Health Key Research Lab for Multiple Organ Transplantation.

Its Department of Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Surgery and Liver Transplantation Centre claim to be China’s largest and most technologically advanced facility of its kind, with more than 340 beds, coupled with a leading number of combined liver-kidney transplants and combined pancreas-kidney transplants completed. Its transplantation team is headed by Zheng Shusen of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, with a staff of 134 medical personnel, including 39 with senior titles. About 60% of these personnel hold doctoral degrees.302

Photo: The Department of Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Surgery and Liver Transplantation Centre

 

Zheng Shusen is the president of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, the director of the China Organ Transplantation Society, and the only committee member of the International Liver Transplantation Society (ILTS) from mainland China. He twice served as the chief scientist presiding over the only two projects in the field of organ transplantation under the National Key Basic Research Program (“973 Program”). In 2006, he helped to create the Hongzhou Criteria, the first of its kind to guide the selection of Chinese liver cancer patients to receive liver transplants. With influence in over 20 provinces, he has helped the Beijing Union Medical College Hospital, the Fudan University Huashan Hospital, the Shanghai Xinhua Hospital, and the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University with their liver transplantation practices. He has trained 6 post-doctorates and more than 160 postgraduates with doctoral and master’s degrees.303

Zheng wrote in a paper that, between January 2000 and December 2004, he had conducted 46 emergency liver transplants, with all of the patients receiving orthotopic liver transplants within 72 hours.304 Zheng claims that he has led over 1,400 liver transplants to date.305

In recent years, the liver transplantation centre has undertaken and completed more than 40 national-level research projects, including two projects under the National 973 Program with Zheng as its chief scientist; one was completed between 2003 and 2008, and the other between 2009 and 2013.306 The team also completed three projects under the National 863 Program, among others.307

Its Kidney Disease Centre claims to be one of China’s largest kidney transplantation centres,308 with 5 personnel with senior professional titles, 12 professors and associate professors, a doctoral advisor, and 6 Master’s advisors. The World Organization to Investigate Persecution of the Falun Gong verified from published medical papers that at least 35 surgeons at this centre have conducted organ transplants. 309

The Centre’s director, Chen Jianghua, specializes in kidney transplantation and combined multiple organ transplantation. He serves as the vice director and secretary for the Ministry of Health Administrative Committee of Scientific Registration System of Kidney Transplantation.310 He has presided over more than 50 research projects at the national, provincial, and ministerial levels, including two projects winning second-class national scientific improvement awards, 6 first-class scientific improvement awards in Zhejiang Province, and 3 second-class provincial awards. He has published more than 280 professional papers, 72 of which were listed by Science Citation Index.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University

The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University leads the nation in vital organ transplantation projects. It claims to have the most types of transplants and to rank second in total volume.311 It conducted the first kidney transplant in China in 1972 and the first liver transplant in 1993. It is described as the birthplace of China’s second surge of liver transplants.312

Alongside transplants of liver, kidney, heart and lung, it also conducts upper abdominal multi-organ transplants on a routine basis. It is one of the most renowned kidney transplants centre inside and outside of the country.313 In addition to patients from China, it also provides kidney transplants to patients from over ten countries and regions, including the U.S., Japan, Hong Kong, and Taiwan.

On March 14, 2006, Guangzhou Daily reported: Recently, in the operation room of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, the reporter witnessed 5 liver and 6 kidney transplants being conducted simultaneously… At its height, this centre performed 19 kidney transplants in one day. The record set for 6 liver transplants and one multi-organ transplant in one day.314

Huang Jiefu previously worked at this hospital with Zheng Keli, the team leader of the National Kidney Transplant Team who established the hospital’s Organ Transplant Department. Its current director is He Xiaoshun who has reportedly completed 1,300 liver transplants.315 In 2006, it became one of the three liver transplantation training centres of the China Medical Board, with 42 organizations having visited and studied there.316

The Sun Yat-Sen Ophthalmology Centre of the Sun Yat-Sen University has conducted over 40,000 ocular surgeries, including cornea transplants. Both its cumulative and annual volume rank near the top nationwide.317 The Ophthalmology Centre has led over 20 national or provincial key scientific and technological research projects, including the 973 Project, the 863 Project, the Eleventh Five-Year National Scientific and Technological Research plan, key clinical research projects for Ministry of Health, and more than 20 major projects for Guangdong and other provinces. It has also won numerous research grants and published over 200 papers in the past five years.

Beijing Friendship Hospital (Affiliated Hospital of Capital Medical University)

In mainland China, medical universities are affiliated with hospitals. In an education reform, a large number of hospitals were also placed under universities. For example, Capital Medical University has 20 affiliated hospitals,318 including Friendship Hospital, Chaoyang Hospital, Anzhen Hospital, YouAn Hospital, and Tongren Hospital. Because these hospitals are so well-known, they maintained their independent names rather than being renamed as affiliated hospitals of Capital Medical University.

Rendering: Beijing Friendship Hospital 319

 

Rendering: Interior of Beijing Friendship Hospital

 

Beijing Friendship Hospital was named by the Health Bureau as the Beijing Organ Transplant Matching Centre in 1997. It is Asia’s largest kidney transplant centre and had completed the first 1,000, 2,000, and 3,000 transplants in China. In 1998, it established the Sino-U.S. Terasaki Matching Centre.320

Hospital number 1-Year Survival Rate (%) End Date Beijing Friendship Hospital 2300 87.3 October 2000 Guangzhou Nanfang Hospital 2123 96.7 November 2001 First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University 1501 87.0 July 1999 People’s Liberation Army (No. 301) General Hospital 1180 88.6 June 1999 First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University 1140 90.2 June 2000 Beijing Chaoyang Hospital 1118 91.2 October 2000

Table 4.1 Progress of China’s Clinical Kidney Allografts, Medical Journal of the Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces, Vol. 15, No. 06, June 2004

 

According to an article entitled “Progress of China’s clinical kidney allografts” published in June 2004 by Director Yu Lixin, the director of the Guangzhou Nanfang Hospital Organ Transplant Centre,321 the number of kidney transplants completed at Friendship Hospital had already exceeded 2,300 by the year 2000. At that time, many other organ transplant centres had also completed over 1,000 kidney transplants, including Guangzhou Nanfang Hospital, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, People’s Liberation Army General Hospital, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, and Chaoyang Hospital. Between 2000 and 2006, the number of transplants rose quickly. Because October 2000 was only the beginning of this exponential growth rather than its peak, we conclude that the number of transplants conducted at these hospitals after 2000 was even more substantial.

The First Hospital of China Medical University

(China International Transplantation Network Assistance Centre)

Photo: The First Hospital of China Medical University322

 

The First Hospital of China Medical University is located in Shenyang, Liaoning Province. It is the largest organ transplant centre in northeastern China and also the first hospital to develop liver and pancreas-kidney transplants in the region.323

In 2003, the hospital established its China International Transplantation Network Assistance Centre (CITNAC), a transplant institution for foreigners, with customers mainly coming from Japan, South Korea, and other countries. The hospital ran a strong advertising campaign in Japan, promoting targeted services. The campaign stated, “The Organ Transplant Institute not only has several doctors and head nurses who studied in Japan and are familiar with Japanese culture, but most nurses can also speak Japanese, which is convenient for Japanese patients. Post-surgery patients will all be admitted to the Senior Cadre Ward for special care.”324

Using Living Donors

After the exposure of organ harvesting crimes in Sujiatun hospital in 2006, CITNAC removed information regarding living donors from its website.325 In an archived version of the website from September 2004, the Centre had emphasized, “In China we carry out living donor kidney transplants. It is completely different from the deceased body [corpse] kidney transplants you hear about in Japanese hospitals and dialysis centres…Compared to cadaver kidney transplants in Japan, what is offered here is much safer and more reliable.”326

Figure 4.3: China International Transplantation Network Assistance Centre’s price chart for organ transplants

 

CITNAC listed its prices for living organs: over $60,000 USD for a kidney transplant, about $100,000 for a liver transplant, and over $150,000 for lung or heart transplants.327

Numbers Attributed to Government Support

In a 2006 report published in the The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus, Chairman Suzuki Masanori of the Japan Transplant Recipients Organization said that a Chinese hospital had conducted 2,000 organ transplants in 2005 alone.328 According to an investigation by the World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong, Masanori was referring to the China International Transplantation Network Assistance Centre of the First Hospital of China Medical University, located in Shenyang, Liaoning Province, which is close to Japan.

The Centre’s website stated, “To be able to complete such a large number of organ transplant surgeries every year, we need to give all of our thanks to the support given by the government. In particular, the Supreme People’s Court, Supreme People’s Procuratorate, Public Security system, judicial system, Ministry of Health, and Ministry of Civil Affairs have jointly promulgated laws to establish that organ procurement receives government support and protection. This is one of a kind in the world.” 329

Professor Liu Yongfeng is a doctoral advisor and the director of the Centre’s Organ Transplant Division. According to its archived version of the “famous doctors list” from October 23, 2004,330 Liu had studied liver and pancreas transplants at the University of Minnesota Transplant Centre in the U.S. and had mastered techniques in graft procurement, organ transplantation, and postoperative management. He established the Centre’s organ transplant division in 1992 331 and developed kidney, liver, combined liver-kidney, and combined pancreas-kidney transplants. The web page indicates that the Centre has become one of the largest comprehensive organ transplant centres in China and is the largest multi-organ transplant centre in northeastern China. Liu trained over twenty doctoral students and over thirty master’s students. He also guided many units to develop kidney transplant surgeries. The posting indicates that he had been promoted to vice president of the First Hospital of China Medical University for his achievements.

According to its archived web pages,332 the Centre in 2004 had two professors, two associate professors, four doctorates, seven doctoral students, and two master’s students. In total, it had sixteen people with graduate degrees, with over half of them having studied or received training overseas. The Centre was the only hospital in China at the time capable of simultaneously conducting multiple organ transplants, including kidney, liver, combined pancreas-kidney, and combined liver-kidney transplants. The hospital claims to have performed more than 1,000 kidney and liver transplants as of April 2016,333 giving an average of 45 per year, or less than one per week. This number is derisory, considering the Centre’s staff complement and capacity.

Organ Graft Procurement and Human Experimentation

Between 2003 and 2008, Wang Lijun was the Police Commissioner of Jinzhou City in Liaoning Province. He established an “On-Site Psychology Research Centre” with the main purpose of experimenting with organ transplantation from living donors. Its collaborative partners included seven foreign universities and seventeen domestic universities and hospitals. Chinese Medical University and the People’s Liberation Army No. 205 Hospital in Jinzhou were among them.334

On September 19, 2006, at the award ceremony of China Guanghua Science and Technology Foundation’s Innovation Special Contribution Award, Secretary-General Ren Jinyang of the foundation said in his presentation:335 “Professor Wang Lijun and the research centre has conducted basic research and clinical trials on the difficult issue of organs that cannot easily be transplanted after lethal injection. Through animal testing, in vitro experiments and clinical application, they have developed a brand new formula for a preservative solution. After injecting the solution into the liver and kidney in vivo or in vitro, the organs can be used for transplants.” Wang Lijun also commented while receiving the award, “Our technological achievement is the result of several thousand on-site intensive trials and is through efforts of many people…”336

Photo: People’s Liberation Army No. 205 Hospital

 

The People’s Liberation Army 205 Hospital in Jinzhou is the largest organ transplant centre in western Liaoning Province, though it has not been approved to perform transplants by the Ministry of Health. On May 23, 2006, Western Liaoning Business Daily published a report stating that Chen Rongshan, the director of its urology department, had completed 568 kidney transplants. Patients from Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea, Malaysia, and that patients from other places “flock there because of its reputation.”337 By December 2006, Chen had participated in at least 632 kidney transplants.338

On May 25, 2012, when an investigator of the World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong called Chen, he stated that he had participated in Wang Lijun’s human experiments, and so did China Medical University and its affiliated hospitals.339

This is a partial transcript, translated, of the conversation between them:

Investigator: Wang Lijun had a post-drug-injection transplantation project. Have you collaborated with him on this?

Chen R.S.:  Not only us, China Medical University, and its affiliated hospitals, were also involved in this.

Investigator:  Some of the organs were from detained Falun Gong practitioners. Can you confirm this?

Chen R.S.:   Those were all handled through the courts.

Director Liu Yongfeng of China Medical University’s Organ Transplant Institute stated that he participated in the research and development of organ preservation solutions and developed kidney preservation solutions that led the field in China. His account further stated that his technique of multiple abdominal organ procurement reduced damage to organs and has become the most widely used procurement technique in China. Liu led various scientific research projects, including four National Natural Science Foundation projects, and won a first prize of the National Science and Technology Progress Award.340

Shanghai Renji Hospital (Affiliated with Shanghai Jiaotong University)

Photo: Shanghai Renji Hospital, East Campus (Pudong)341

 

Shanghai Jiaotong University has fourteen affiliated hospitals,342 including Renji Hospital. Other affiliated hospitals, such as Shanghai Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, and Shanghai Xinhua Hospital are all organ transplant centres designated by the Ministry of Health. This university is former Chinese leader Jiang Zemin’s alma mater.

Shanghai Renji Hospital conducted its first liver transplant in 2001.343 After several years of development, its volume of liver transplants ranked first in Shanghai for eight consecutive years. It claims to have ranked first in China for liver transplants in 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 and first in the world for pediatric liver transplants. Renji has become one of the top liver transplant centres in China.344

Busy Activity Shows Large Volume of Transplants Performed

According to an online posting, “Renji Hospital Liver Transplant Centre was officially established on September 20, 2004. Its main leader is Xia Qiang, who was recruited by the hospital. Though he had completed several hundred liver transplants successfully, Xia was still inexperienced within the transplant circle in China at the time.”345

In a report by Jiefang Daily on January 26, 2005, Xia said, “I’m obsessed with liver transplants. It’s like I’m addicted to it. I would feel uncomfortable if I don’t go to the ward to see patients for one day. I do at least two to five liver transplants a week. I’m not afraid of failures. I would carefully analyze and summarize and continue to do it the next day.” Exactly how many liver transplants had he done? Xia had lost count. He remembers only his record of six liver transplants in one day.346 Even now, a classical liver transplant takes four to six hours to complete; back in 2005, the operation time was even longer.

Exactly how many liver transplants had he done? Xiaqiang had lost count. He remembers only his record of 6 liver transplants in one day.

Figure 4.4: Snapshot of People’s Daily Online report in June 2006 (Jiefang Daily)

 

Xia said, “The management of my team is militarized. Every medical staff member must keep their cell phone turned on 24 hours a day, because liver transplants may require going out for graft procurement or preparing for surgery at any time. We doctors must be on standby at all times.”347 Among media reports, “busy” seems to be the most common word. In 2013, a Wenhui Daily article wrote, “Renji Hospital conducts liver transplants surgeries continuously, and doctors could not get out of the hospital all night long.”348

Volume of Transplants

In October 2004, Renji Hospital expanded the beds available for liver transplants less than ten days after the Centre was established. “The fourth day after I arrived at Renji Hospital, I performed the first liver transplant. The next week, we successfully completed 4 liver transplants.” As the hospital executives saw the strength of this young team, they immediately decided to expand from 13 beds to 23 beds for liver transplant during the October 1st long holiday.349

In less than three years, the China Organ Transplant website showed in June 2007 that Renji Hospital had 90 beds for liver transplants and can carry out 6 liver transplant operations simultaneously.350 By 2014, Renji Hospital’s Liver Transplant Surgery Department had 3 wards, 110 beds, and over 70 medical personnel. It has become a national key clinical discipline, a key discipline for development under the national “211 Project,” and a key clinical medical discipline under the Shanghai Health and Family Planning Commission.351

In 2007, the hospital website showed that it “completed close to 200 liver transplants per year.” In 2013, it stated that the number of annual liver transplants was “over 200.” If that figure were true, the 23 beds in 2004 would have been more than sufficient. Yet, its bed count was increased to 110.

Source: China Organ Transplantation Net / Renji Hospital Date: June 28, 2007 Title: The Liver Transplant Team of Shanghai Renji Organ Transplant Centre ... This centre has first class equipment and facilities. It has 90 beds, and hundred per cent particle free level laminar (unidirectional) air flow operating rooms can carry out 6 liver transplant operations simultaneously ...

Figure 4.5: Snapshot of June 2007 China Organ Transplantation Webpage

 

In Shanghai, where hospital beds were in short supply, Renji Hospital innovated many methods to increase their utilization rate, including the well-known “daytime surgery centre,” where patients need to stay for only 24 to 48 hours.352 A variety of factors affect individual patients’ hospitalization times. The shortest hospitalization times for liver transplants are listed at or below two weeks, including 9 days at Fudan University353 and 12 days at Shandong Provincial Hospital Organ Transplant Center.354

Even assuming a 30-day hospitalization time and a 100% utilization rate, 90 beds would allow 1,080 transplants per year, and 110 beds would allow 1,320 transplants per year. If Renji Hospital had also achieved a three-week hospitalization time and if we deduct a small number of beds used for other purposes, its annual liver transplant quantity would have reached over 1,500.

Renji was one of the first hospitals in Shanghai to conduct kidney transplants.355 Its urology department established a new wing and renal transplant ward in Pudong in November 1999 and later expanded to 70 beds. Its new medical team and distribution system allowed its number of surgeries to increase by 300%.356  The medium-sized department performs over 5,000 surgeries per year, with over 60% being large and extra-large operations. The average hospitalization time is five days.357 These data points suggest that the hospital performs as many kidney transplants as liver transplants.

Obtaining Organs Directly from Military Sources

Xia Qiang said, “If there is a sufficient supply of livers, we will not start liver transplants from living donors [referring to patients’ relatives], since, after all, it requires healthy donors to bear the risk of surgery.”358 According to a Wenhui Daily report, among the 1,500 surgeries completed at the hospital between 2004 and 2013, just over 300 were from living relative donors. The hospitals realistic capacity is over 1,000 transplants per year and the number of relative donors (33 per year on average) represent a fraction of its total volume.

A page on Good Doctors Online, a widely used medical directory for Chinese doctors, states, “In 2013, with the strong support of hospital officials, it [the hospital] set up the first Organ Procurement Organization (OPO) in Shanghai. By June 2014, it has already obtained 22 organ donations, including from 14 adults and 8 children, providing 17 livers and 34 kidneys, accounting for two-thirds of all organ donations in the Shanghai area.”359 If we consider only the officially published volume of transplants, the sources of more than 1,100 transplants among the 1,500 are unexplained.

In an investigative report broadcast by New Tang Dynasty (NTD) TV on February 7, 2015, the head nurse on duty at the liver transplant department of Renji Hospital acknowledged that the procurement of living organs was done through military sources.360

Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Affiliated with Nanjing University Medical School

Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital was originally established as a Christian hospital in 1892. It now has about 3,000 beds, more than 400 chief physicians and associate chief physicians, more than 220 full and associate professors, over 40 doctoral advisors, and over 180 master’s advisors. It employs 40 experts who receive special allowances from the State Council. The hospital’s liver transplantation capability is claimed in a leading position in China. 361

In 1995, its hepatobiliary department successfully conducted China’s first piggyback liver transplant, which was considered an advanced operation at the time. In 2001, it performed the first combined liver-kidney transplant in Jiangsu Province. The department currently has 180 beds. Its subordinate departments include transplantation, liver surgery, and biliary-pancreatic surgery. This department is a national key discipline and serves as the Jiangsu Province Hepatobiliary Clinical Medical Centre. 362

The department’s academic leader, Ding Yitao, now serves as director of the organ transplant centre, honorary president of Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital (he was president between 1996 and 2014), and vice president of Nanjing University Medical School. He has received research grants from the National Natural Science Foundation, National 863 Program, and Chinese Academy of Sciences special projects. He has published more than 500 papers and books, including around 200 papers as the primary author. He has received 16 awards at the national and provincial levels. He also received advanced training at the Australian National Liver Transplantation Unit.

In addition, the hospital’s urologic surgery department is approved by the Ministry of Health to perform kidney transplants. It is a Jiangsu provincial medical and clinical key specialist department. The department is assigned 120 beds and has 3 wards.363

The hospital’s gigantic, modern General Medical Building was put into use on December 15, 2012. The building is equipped with amenities akin to that of a five-star hotel, including a grand piano worth 7 million RMB. The building can accommodate 15,000 outpatients per day and has close to 3,000 beds. The building has won a World Architecture News award and China’s top architecture award, the Lu Ban Award.

Photos: Hospital lobby and inpatient ward lobby

 

Photos: Rooftop helipad

Summaries

1.

Peking Union Medical College Hospital
  • City, Province: Beijing
    • National-Level Civilian
    • Capacity: 2,000 beds
  • Certified transplant types:
    • liver
    • kidney
  • Types of transplants actually conducted:
    • liver
    • kidney
  • Hepatobiliary Surgery:
    • 10 transplant experts
  • Urological Surgery:
    • 80 beds
    • 15 transplant experts
  • Facts of Interest:
    • Huang Jiefu says he did 500 liver transplants in 2012.

Thousands of people line up overnight to register for an appointment slot at Peking Union Medical College Hospital, which treats both cadres and common citizens–a rarity among top-ranked hospitals in China.

The hospital was built in 1921 by the Rockefeller Foundation in an effort to “build the best medical centre in Asia.” It is renowned both domestically and internationally. It was the earliest medical facility to provide service to foreign guests in China, with special wards for foreign dignitaries and a clinic for senior cadres. The hospital ranked first on the list of China’s Best Hospitals Honor Roll for six consecutive years, from 2010 to 2015, released by The Institute of Hospital Administration of Fudan University.364

It has more than 4,000 employees, including 5 academicians, 20 national key disciplines, 29 national key clinical specialties, 16 PhD programs, 29 master’s degree programs, 6 national bases for continuing medical education, 18 training bases for residents with secondary disciplines, 15 training bases for residency specialists with third-level disciplines. The hospital has more than 2,000 inpatient beds.

It successfully performed China’s first renal transplant operation in 1973 and has a long history of and strength in performing liver transplants.365

Its liver transplant division has a strong team of doctors trained overseas. It has two doctoral advisors, three master’s advisors, five professors or associate professors, and five attending surgeons/physicians. All of these staff members hold PhDs. It also recruits a large number of training surgeons/physicians every year, and is responsible for teaching eight-year medical students and graduate students for Peking Union Medical College.366

The current director of hepatobiliary surgery is Huang Jiefu, former Deputy Minister of Health. He is a promoter of the second surge of liver transplantation in China. He served as director of the China Organ Transplant Board, vice president of the Chinese Medical Association, and a visiting professor of Harvard University, Stanford University, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was the chief editor of 11 surgery monographs and participated in the editing of 5 surgery monographs.

The first list of organ transplant surgeons in Beijing contains names of doctors in the field of liver transplantation, such as Mao Yilei, Sang Xinting, Zhong Shouxian, and other well-known liver transplant doctors at Union Hospital.367

PhD advisor Zhong Shouxian lead the first liver transplant surgery at Union Hospital. He graduated from the Kharkov Medical Institute in the former Soviet Union and subsequently studied at Massachusetts General Hospital of Harvard University and the Johns Hopkins Hospital. He also served as vice chairman of the National Pancreatic Surgery Group, and editor and consultant of more than ten professional journals, such as Chinese Journal of General Surgery and National Medical Journal of China. 368

Mao Yilei was named one of the best ten professors of surgery at Peking Union Medical College Hospital in 2014. He completed a residency training program at Modbury Hospital in Australia in 1990. In 1997, he graduated from a PhD program in surgery at Lund University in Sweden, under the tutelage of Stig Bengmark, an academician of the European Academy of Sciences and President of the World Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association. He conducted research as a postdoctoral fellow at Harvard University in the United States and completed his clinical training with the Division of Surgical Oncology at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH).369

Sung Xinting, the current deputy director of the liver surgery department and master’s degree advisor, studied at the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden as a visiting scholar from 1993 to 1995.

In June 2006, the liver surgery department received funding of one million U.S. dollars from the China Medical Board in New York (CMB). This fund has been used to assist in the establishment of transplant standard and registration systems, domestic laws and regulations regarding transplantation in China, strengthening professional training, and expanding liver transplant-related research achievements. This project has the Peking Union Medical College Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences as the main body, in cooperation with the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University and Tianjin First Centre Hospital. Professor Huang Jiefu, former Vice Minister of Health, served as the project director. The department is also responsible for a number of National Natural Science Foundation projects and cooperates with the United States, Canada and other countries for research-related projects.370

Its official website has removed all its liver transplant quantity figures and shows there are only 28 beds. However, in 2013, Guangzhou Daily reported that Huang Jiefu said, “I did 500 liver transplants last year.”371 These beds cannot accommodate even Huang Jiefu’s liver transplant recipients (or those performed by the team he oversaw).

Its urological surgery department started kidney transplants earliest, and has advanced technology and significant effect. It ranks second in a composite score in the Beijing area.   In the field of kidney transplantation, it is on an internationally advanced and domestically leading level.372

There are currently 67 staff members and 80 beds in the urological surgery department. It has 37 doctors and 26 nurses, including 9 professors, 6 associate professor, and 11 attending surgeons / physicians, among whom are 3 doctoral advisors and 8 master’s advisors. It has 12 postdoctoral fellows or doctorates, and more than 10 people who have gone to Europe and other developed countries for further study. Each year, these PhD and master’s degree programs recruit 6 to 8 students and 12 in-service graduate students.

The hospital’s website shows that since the first kidney transplants were carried out in the 1970s, the hospital has completed nearly 1,000 kidney transplants. However, this number has not been updated in years.

2.

China-Japan Friendship Hospital
  • National-Level Civilian
  • City, Province:  Beijing
  • Capacity:   1,600 beds
  • Certified transplant types:
    • liver
    • lung
  • Types of transplants actually conducted:
    • kidney
    • lung
    • liver
  • Thoracic Surgery
    • 57 beds (6 ICU)

This hospital was established collaboratively by the Chinese and Japanese governments and receives subsidies from the Japanese government. It provides medical care for foreigners from a number of countries and regions, and for leaders in the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee. In 2001, it was listed as the base hospital for medical care of leaders in the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee. It has 1,600 beds, over 500 staff with associate senior professional titles or above, and over 1,000 staff with master’s degrees or above.373 It ranked 43rd among the 100 most competitive hospitals in China in 2015.374

The hospital’s urologic surgery department operates a kidney transplant centre. “Since it began to perform kidney transplants in 1986, it has accumulated rich clinical experience, standardized perioperative management practices, a high long-term survival rate, and low medical costs. It has achieved a leading position nationally and received good reviews from domestic and international patients.” In 2011, the department had 7 chief physicians (including 3 master’s advisors), 4 associate chief physicians, 3 attending physicians, and 2 residents. It serves as a training base for urology specialists in Beijing.375

Liu Naibo, director of the urologic surgery department, has rich experience in kidney transplant surgery and postoperative complications. He was one of the earliest in China to begin work on laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy and kidney transplantation. He has led multiple national and hospital-level research programs. In 1989, he studied at Kyushu University in Japan.376

Jiang Yongjin, former director of the urologic surgery department, served as a health expert for senior cadres in 2002. He is a member of the Chinese Medical Association Organ Transplant Subcommittee. He studied kidney transplantation at Addenbrooke’s Hospital in England for two years. Jiang has published 40 articles in domestic and international journals. He has won one National Science and Technology Research Achievement Award and enjoys special government allowances.377

The hospital has a nationally ranked thoracic surgery department, which performed the first two lung transplants in China in the 1970s. It is now mature in conducting single lung, double lung, and lobar lung transplants, and has a relatively large impact domestically. The department has first-class equipment and has a large group of highly skilled thoracic surgery specialists, most of whom have medical PhDs and master’s degrees. All of its physicians have research or study experience overseas. Some of its professors serve as visiting professors at overseas institutions and have long-term academic exchanges. The department has named honorary professors from the United States, United Kingdom, Japan, and other countries. The department has 5 professors, 4 associate professors, and 7 attending physicians and residents. It has 57 beds, including 6 dedicated ICU beds.378 379

Its liver transplant recognition is nearing the international level.380 In 1995, the hospital achieved preliminary success with its first liver transplant. It bills itself as “[having] a team with strong capabilities in liver transplantation and strength in integration.” It “welcomes late-stage and end-stage liver disease patients who need liver transplants to come receive their surgeries; we would give them preferential treatment.”381

Funded by the Ministry of Education, it formed a panel to study liver transplantation in Melbourne and Sydney in 1995, followed by Pittsburgh in the U.S. in 1996. This was the first hospital whose liver transplantation training of this kind was funded by the Ministry of Education.

3.

Fuwai Cardiovascular Disease Hospital affiliated with Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
  • National-Level Civilian
  • City, Province:  Beijing
  • Heart Transplants
    • most in the country
  • Capacity
    • 2 operating rooms
    • 12 regular beds
    • 6 ICU beds
  • Costs
    • Heart: 250,000 RMB

This is the largest hospital for cardiovascular disease treatment, research, and education in China. It began its clinical practice in heart and lung transplantation in 1994. It began performing heart transplants as a routine procedure in 2004 with a specialized team, and has performed the most heart transplants in the country. It is also one of the largest heart transplant centres in the world.382

The hospital’s website states that it has refined a set of conventions for heart transplantation. Most patients successfully recover after surgery, can begin walking after 2~3 days, and can be discharged after 2~3 weeks.383

Its website also publicly lists the costs of a heart transplant. Based on current figures, the perioperative cost for each patient average around 250,000 RMB. Fees for postoperative immunosuppressants average 3,000~5,000 RMB per month.384

The transplant centre has strong capabilities: 385

The hospital president Hu Shengshou is a PhD advisor, a chief scientist under the National 973 Program, and one of the hospital’s three primary lead surgeons in heart transplantation.

Song Yunhu, chief surgeon in charge of the heart transplant centre, is also one of the hospital’s three main lead surgeons in heart transplantation. He studied cardiac surgery at St. Vincent’s Hospital in Sydney, Australia in 1998. He also received training at various heart centres in the United States, Canada, Germany, and other countries.

Wang Wei is a chief surgeon of the transplant centre, a PhD advisor, and one of the hospital’s three main lead surgeons in heart transplantation. He is currently involved in key heart transplant research projects under the Ministry of Science and Technology’s “Eleventh Five-Year Plan” Support Program.

Huang Jie, chief of the heart transplant ward and chief physician, is responsible for selection, targeted

Pre-operative treatment, and postoperative follow-up and management of heart transplant patients. She studied heart and lung transplantation at St. Vincent’s Hospital in Sydney, Australia in 2006.

Its official website says the transplant centre has only 2 dedicated transplantation operating rooms, 6 postoperative ICU beds, 12 regular beds, a team of 3 renowned cardiac surgical specialists, 2 trained full-time transplant doctors, relatively dedicated ICU nurses, and 15 ward nurses.386

Based on its two to three-week hospitalization period, even if the figures of 12 beds and 6 ICU beds were not underreported, the centre can accommodate about 300-450 heart transplants per year. Thus, even one operating room would have been more than enough, and a second one would not be needed.

However, Song’s profile indicates that the Fuwai Cardiovascular Hospital Heart Transplant Centre completed 440 heart transplants between June 2004 and July 2014, and that it performed 60 in 2010, 52 in 2011, 46 in 2012, 65 in 2013,387 and 81 in 2014.388

If these numbers are true, then five beds, one operating room, and one doctor would have been more than enough.

We have observed that the main heart transplant centres in China all have records of performing multiple transplants in one day. For example, two doctors at Xi’an Jiaotong University each has a record of performing 3 heart transplants in one day. Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University has a record of carrying out 4 transplants in one day. Fuwai Hospital’s online figure implying one heart transplant every 4 to 5 days does not match its claim of having “performed the most heart transplants in the country.”

4.

Peking University First Hospital

National level renal transplant centre

Urologic Surgery Research Institute

In 2008, Peking University First Hospital became the base for medical care of officials in the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee. The hospital pioneered a number of professional disciplines in China, such as kidney transplantation.389

Its Institute of Urologic Surgery is the both the birthplace and leader of urology in China, and is known to have made the majority of “firsts” in China’s field of urology. For example, Wu Jieping’s team carried out China’s first renal transplant in 1960.390

It has developed into a urologic surgery centre that is both well-known internationally and at leading level domestically, with two generations of Academicians, including Wu Jieping and Guo Yinglu. As of December 2009, it had 121 medical staff, including 2 academicians, 7 doctoral advisors, 5 master’s advisors, 26 professionals with senior titles, and 33 with intermediate titles.

A new hospital ward building was commissioned in 2002. The urologic surgery centre has expanded to 105 beds.

In October 10, 2001, its surgical liver transplant group worked with other hospitals affiliated with Peking University to establish the largest organ transplant centre in China. The number of liver transplants completed by the centre has reached an advanced level domestically.391

The centre has established long-term academic relationships with the world’s leading liver transplant centres in the U.S., including the Southwestern University Hospital, University of Pittsburgh (UPMC) Hospital, University of Minnesota Hospital, University of Hong Kong Queen Mary Hospital, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan, etc. Its liver transplant doctors hold master’s and PhD degrees in medicine. Many have completed further study in internationally renowned transplant centres in the U.S., Germany, Denmark, Hong Kong, and other regions.

Professor Wan Yuanlian, director of liver transplantation centre, has studied liver transplantation in the United States. He completed the first liver transplant at Peking University.

The vice president of the hospital and deputy director of the liver transplant centre, Professor Liu Yucun, has studied liver transplantation in Denmark and participated in Peking University’s first liver transplant.

Professor Zhao Jianxun, deputy director of the transplant centre has studied hepatobiliary surgical techniques in Japan and participated in Peking University’s first liver transplant.

Professional transplant team leader and associate professor Wu Wunhan has worked in Pittsburgh and Hong Kong under the guidance of internationally renowned organ transplant experts Professor John Fung and Professor Fan Shangda (ST Fan). He systematically studied liver, pancreas, and small intestine transplantation. In particular, he became skilled in a variety of surgical techniques in liver transplantation.  In 2009,the cost of a liver transplant at this centre was around 160,000-200,000 RMB at that time, including fees for surgery, monitoring, and pharmaceutical and examination fees for around three weeks after the operation.

5.

Peking University People’s Hospital

National level liver, renal, and small intestine transplant centre

The Peking University Organ Transplant Centre was founded on October 10, 2001. It incorporated related departments from five medical institutions, including Peking University First Hospital, Peking University People’s Hospital, and Peking University Third Hospital. The centre specializes in transplantation of liver, kidney, pancreas, heart, cornea, bone marrow, and other organs. It claims to be the largest and most academically advanced in China, with its liver transplant capabilities in a leading position in the Beijing region. 392

In September 2013, Zhu Jiye, director of the Peking University Organ Transplant Institute and director of the hepatobiliary surgery department at Peking University People’s Hospital, told China Economic Weekly, “Our hospital conducted 4,000 liver and renal transplant operations within a particular year, and all of the organs were from prisoners sentenced to death.” 393

The hospital’s Hepatobiliary Surgery website claims that the quantity and quality of its liver transplants rank first among medical units in the northern region. It also ranks first in the success rate of liver transplants in Beijing.394

However, its current website shows that it has completed just over 600 total liver transplants since 2000, when the liver transplant program was started under the leadership of Professor Zhu Jiye and Lin Xixing, with an annual average of fewer than 40 cases. But according to its renal transplant website as of July 2014, the centre has conducted nearly 510 kidney transplants since April 1991.395 There is a large discrepancy between the total of 1,100 liver and kidney transplants in the past decade and the above-mentioned annual figures stated by Zhu Jiye. It also does not match its own status of “ranking first in quantity among medical units in the northern region.”

Its website also claims that this department has held a position of renown in the field of hepatobiliary surgery for a number of years. It belongs to the national 211 Project under the Ministry of Education and is a key specialist discipline of the Ministry of Health, a key discipline in Beijing, the National Board of Education doctoral discipline, Beijing key laboratory, Peking University Institute of Organ Transplantation, and Liver Cancer Research Centre of Peking University.

The department has 8 professors, 6 associate professors, 4 attending physicians, and 1 resident. It includes two doctoral advisors and 5 master’s advisors. It has undertaken a number of Ministry of Health professional programs, the national research projects of 863, 973 and 985 Programs, the National Key Technology Research and Development Program of China during the 9th to 12th Five-Year Plan, National Key Technology Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China, the National Natural Science Foundation, etc.

The department has a number of experts who participate in   national organ transplant legislation. Its director Zhu Jiye represented China several times in the World Health Organization’s Organ Transplantation conferences. The department has also organized a number of international and national academic transplant conferences. It has held four national workshops on liver transplantation and trained a large number of liver transplant specialists across the country.

The Peking University Organ Transplant Centre has advanced liver and kidney transplantation at the Health Science Centre’s three general hospitals. As a result, its liver transplantation has remained in a leading position in the Beijing area.

To date, the Centre has received more than 1.5 million RMB in funding from the 973 Program, the National Natural Science Foundation, the Ministry of Education Doctoral Station Foundation, and other national and provincial-level science and technology funds. These hospitals have published a batch of high-caliber clinical basic research papers domestically and internationally, and they rank among the top transplant centres in China.396

6.

Peking University Third Hospital

National level liver, renal, pancreas, and small intestine transplant centre

This hospital ranked 14th among the top 100 hospitals in China in 2015.397 It averages 5,900 outpatients per day and had been the top hospital in Beijing for 8 consecutive years (1998-2005).398 It claims that its organ transplant capabilities have led the country continuously.399

The hospital began conducting liver transplant research in the 1970s. Several of its liver transplant team members have studied abroad. It officially launched clinical liver transplantation in May 2000 and subsequently began performing kidney and combined kidney-pancreas transplants. Organ transplantation has become a routine operation at this hospital. Under the support of academician Han Qide, director of the Peking University Health Science Centre and vice chairman of the National People’s Congress, its organ transplant centre was formally established in October 2001.400

Liver Transplantation

In December 2005, its liver transplant centre moved to the new surgical building with 470 beds, enabling greater development opportunities. 401 402 Liver transplantation has become routine surgery for treating end-stage liver diseases at the hospital. The liver transplant centre has become an important part of the hospital; its effectiveness and number of liver transplants lead the country.403

Team members:

·       12 liver surgeons, including 2 professors, 2 associate professors

·       6 attending physicians, including 5 with doctorate degrees and 4 with master’s degrees

·       6 transplantation anesthesiologists, including 2 with advanced titles and 4 with intermediate titles

·       4 transplant ICU doctors, including 2 with advanced titles and 2 with intermediate titles

·       2 ultrasonography doctors

·       2 radiological intervention doctors

The team also includes pathologists, internists, clinical laboratory physicians, and a coordinator responsible for communications between the doctors and patients.404 405

 

Professor Zhang Tonglin, director of the general surgery department and a PhD advisor,406 407 performed more than 200 liver transplants between 1999 and 2006. He studied organ transplantation at Ochsner Foundation Hospital. After returning to China, he conducted clinical transplantation research. By 2006, he had finished multiple projects under the National Natural Science Foundation and the Ministry of Education “211” Engineering Program. He had published more than 60 articles and mentored 8 master’s’ and 9 doctoral graduates.408 His profile on the hospital’s website has not been updated since 2006.

Kidney Transplantation

The hospital performed its first successful kidney transplant in 1998.409 In 2001, its number of kidney transplants ranked third in Beijing, making it one of the largest kidney transplant centres in China. Its transplant volume has increased year over year. In 2004, its kidney transplant volume ranked first in Beijing.410 Its kidney transplantation has a “high success rate and standardized postoperative management” and has attracted patients from all over China.411

Transplant Volume

Its transplant centre’s website stated that, in 2001, it exceeded 100 kidney transplants per year and ranked third in Beijing.412 In 2004, it performed 185 kidney transplants, ranking first in Beijing and citing “widespread organ donor sources.”413 As of December 2009, it had reached a total of more than 1,200 kidney transplants.414 Based on the Third Hospital’s scale and qualifications, it should be fairly close to Peking University People’s Hospital (the two ranked 14th and 9th, respectively, in the top 100 hospitals in China in 2015).

According to Zhu Jiye, director of the Peking University People’s Hospital’s organ transplant centre, the People’s Hospital had performed 4,000 kidney transplants that year. The Third Hospital, with its “widespread organ donor sources,” most likely performed well over its claimed 100 kidney transplants per year (a figure for which one surgeon would more than suffice).

Ma Lulin, director of its urologic surgery department, standing member of the Chinese Medical Association Urologic Surgery Subcommittee, and leader of its Kidney Transplantation Study Group, has worked in kidney transplantation for a long time. Ma has completed over 1,200 kidney transplants and dozens of combined pancreas-duodenum-kidney transplants.415

Professor Ma Lulin and associate chief physician Hou Xiaofei studied at the world’s earliest and most prolific hospital for pancreas transplants—University of Minnesota in the United States. They began performing combined pancreas-kidney transplants in 2001. The hospital is among those with the highest quantity and best results of such transplants domestically.416 417

The department has 8 chief physicians/professors (including one PhD advisor), 8 associate chief physicians/associate professors, and 5 attending physicians.418

Between 2002 and 2004, the department conducted three national-level organ transplant training classes (including kidney, pancreatic, liver, and other types of transplants) and trained a large number of clinical transplant professionals.419

7.

Beijing Chaoyang Hospital (affiliated with Capital Medical University)

National level liver, renal, lung, pancreas, and small intestine transplant centre

This hospital operates the Beijing Organ Transplant Centre and performs the largest variety of transplants in China. It claims to be the only one that can carry out liver, heart, kidney, lung, small intestine, pancreas and other large organ transplants. It has always ranked at the forefront nationally in the area of kidney, pancreas-kidney, islet cell, and related kidney transplantation.420

The Hepatobiliary Surgery Department claims that its liver transplantation is leading in the country. It also contains the Beijing Organ Transplant Centre’s liver transplant division. The department performed the first liver transplant in the Beijing area in July in 1999. It can carry out almost all types of liver transplant procedures. Its quantity, success rate, and patient survival rate are at a leading level domestically.421

However, its website states, “To date, this department has completed more than 500 liver transplants.” This volume, less than 30 cases per year on average, amounts to less than a fraction of that of Tianjin Oriental Transplant Centre; it is likely that the number is a major discount on the actual volume of transplant activity. Its kidney transplant discipline was founded in the early 1990s, and is one of the largest renal transplant centres in China. It has a high reputation in the Beijing area as well as across the entire country. The renal transplant team carries out a comprehensive laboratory evaluation of transplant-related organ acquisition, transplant surgery, perioperative support, and postoperative follow-ups, etc.422

Guan Delin is an organ transplant specialist. According to an advertisement published in Beijing Business Today on Sept. 7, 2005, Guan had experience in “over 2,700 kidney transplants, over 40 kidney transplants from relative donors, and close to 20 combined kidney-pancreas transplants.”  Yet, in May 2006, an introduction was posted on Chaoyang Hospital’s website stating that Guan joined this hospital after having personally completed over 1,000 kidney transplants.423 The 2006 figure was 1,700 lower than that published in the previous year.

It was reported that this hospital conducted 21 transplant surgeries within one day around 2000-2001.424

Yet, the hospital’s website states that it has performed more than 3,000 kidney transplants in total, purportedly one of the highest among transplant institutions in China.425 This figure translates to less than 200 per year, far below its capacity and national ranking as a leading kidney transplant centre, and is therefore likely falsified.

9.

Beijing YouAn Hospital (affiliated with Capital Medical University)

National level liver transplant centre

This is the largest hospital specializing in clinical hepatobiliary disease in China. Its liver transplant centre was established in 2003 and serves as a PhD student training base in surgery for Capital Medical University. The centre jointly founded the Sino-American Liver Transplantation Centre with the University of Pittsburgh Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute. It also established collaborative relationships with a dozen well-known liver transplant centres in China.426

The centre has 86 medical staff, including 2 doctoral advisors, 4 master’s advisors, 14 PhDs, and 14 with master’s degrees. Liver transplantation is its most significant specialty. It has become the largest liver transplant centre in Beijing and leads in the country in its annual liver transplant volume and survival rate.427

In June 2014, Zang Yunjin, president of the Armed Police General Hospital, joined the medical team at YouAn Hospital. YouAn Hospital stated that it would build a first-class liver transplant centre in Beijing with the help of Zang Yunjin. By then, Zang already conducted 1,570 kidney transplants and 22 kidney-liver transplants.428

Lu Shichun, former director of the hospital’s liver transplant centre and a doctoral advisor, claimed to have led over 700 liver transplants.429 In 1995, he received a PhD in abdominal surgery and organ transplantation from the University of Freiburg in Germany. In 2004, he moved from West China Hospital of Sichuan University to YouAn Hospital and became the director of its hepatobiliary surgery department, liver transplant centre, and the China-U.S. Cooperative Liver Transplant Centre. He is currently the director of the hepatobiliary surgery department under the People’s Liberation Army No. 301 General Hospital’s clinical surgery division.

He stated in a media interview in 2012 the fee for liver transplants differs among transplant units and averages around 400,000 to 500,000 RMB. Patients who recover relatively quickly can be discharged in two weeks; those who develop complications or experience otherwise unsuccessful recoveries may need to stay longer.430

President Li Ning is a leader of the liver transplant discipline in the Beijing area. China News reported in 2010 that he has led over 500 liver transplants over the past 10 years.431 432 However, at the time this report was written, the hospital’s website claimed that he has led 200 liver transplants,433 300 fewer than the 2010 figure.

10.

Beijing Anzhen Hospital

National level heart and lung transplant centre

Anzhen Hospital, one of China’s largest cardiac surgery centres, employs a number of domestically and internationally renowned heart surgeons. The hospital was among the first batch approved by the Ministry of Health to carry out heart and lung transplants.434

This hospital has over 4,000 employees, including 600 personnel with senior professional titles and over 900 with intermediate titles. The hospital has 1,500 beds, including 211 intensive care beds. It has 31 operating rooms equipped with one hundred, one thousand, and ten-thousand-level laminar flow clean air technology.

Anzhen Hospital leads the cardiovascular field in China and is one of the country’s largest cardiac surgery centres.435 It employs a number of domestically and internationally renowned heart surgeons. It has carried out heart, lung, and combined heart-lung transplants for many years, with the number of transplants increasing year on year.

The Thoracic Surgery Department successfully conducted the first single-lung transplant in 1995 and the first double-lung transplant in 1998. It grew tremendously after 2000, increasing the number of lung transplants performed and the postoperative survival rate.436

Qu Songlei,437 head of the Thoracic Surgery Department, studied thoracic surgery and lung transplantation in the United States in 1999 and 2000. With rich experience from performing clinical work in the subject for more than 20 years, he can perform many complex procedures, including lung transplants. He has published a number of academic papers and participated in the writing and editing of multiple monographs and textbooks. He has won first prize of the Beijing Science and Technology Progress Award.

The Cardiac Surgery Department includes the Beijing Heart Transplant Centre and specializes in treating severe valvular heart disease and end-stage heart disease. It has 50 beds and performs 1,000 surgeries per year. The department is among the top in the country in the heart transplant field, including its development of new surgical procedures, research programs, and number of clinical cases. It also holds the record in northern China for the longest patient survival time. In 1992, the department performed China’s second heart transplant (the first took place in Shanghai in 1978). Fourteen years later, it started a nationwide period of development in heart transplantation. The department performed the world’s first four combined heart, bone marrow, and stem cell transplants as an innovation in the knowledge and techniques of improving immune tolerance. Transplant recipients experienced less rejection of the donor heart while maintaining resistance against viruses and bacteria. Thus, lesser quantities of immunological drugs were needed. This result can potentially be extended to the fields of lung and other actual organ transplants.438

Xu Meng is the founder of the Beijing Heart Transplant and Valvular Surgery Treatment Centre, vice director of the Heart Surgery Department, and a PhD advisor. He studied as a senior visiting scholar at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and is a member of the Chinese Medical Association’s Beijing Organ Transplant Society.  One of his specialties is in heart transplants for the treatment of end-stage heart failure. He has independently completed nearly 10,000 surgeries, with over 800 operations every year.  He has published more than 100 papers in SCI and China’s core medical journals. He is in charge of more than 10 research projects at or above the provincial and ministerial levels. Meanwhile, he is involved in multiple projects under the National Natural Science Foundation and the Twelfth Five-Year Plan.439

47.

Shanghai General Hospital

National level liver, kidney, pancreas, and small intestine transplant centre

Built in 1864, this hospital is one of the first comprehensive hospitals of Western medicine in China. It has 2,350 beds, 62 doctoral advisors, and 122 master’s advisors. There are 25 doctorate programs, 25 postdoctoral fellow research stations, and 36 master’s programs.440

The hospital conducts the most variety of organ transplants in Shanghai, spanning 12 categories. Its quantity of transplantations performed ranks first in Shanghai. In August 2001, the Shanghai Clinical Centre for Organ Transplantation was established at the hospital. Built upon the “Shanghai Organ Transplantation Research Centre” and the “Shanghai Tissue Typing Centre,” the Centre is based on kidney transplants.441

Kidney transplantation traditionally has been a strength of the Urologic Surgery Department and a core component of the Shanghai Organ Transplantation Centre (at Shanghai General Hospital). Its website claimed it has performed a total of more than 2,200 kidney transplants. Its comprehensive capabilities are leading domestically and have reached an advanced level internationally.442

In 2001, the Shanghai General Hospital Liver Transplant Centre became part of the first batch of clinical medical centres built in Shanghai. With the support of higher departments, its clinical scale, quantity, quality, research, hardware, software, and overall capabilities in liver transplantation grew rapidly. In 2001, it performed Shanghai’s first combined liver-kidney transplant. It performs the most combined liver-kidney transplants in China. In 2006, it helped other units in Shanghai perform re-transplants; the hospitalization time for re-transplants averaged 25 days. It performs the most liver transplants among hospitals in Shanghai.443

The liver transplant centre has separate patient ward with a total of 58 beds. The liver transplant medical team currently has 14 surgeons and physicians, 13 of whom hold doctoral degrees. In addition, it has trained and dispatched more than 10 PhD and master’s students to other centres.

The hospital emphasizes the spread of its work in liver transplantation for use at other medical institutions. It helped drive the development of liver, combined liver-kidney, and combined pancreas-kidney transplants at sister institutions (university-affiliated and provincial hospitals) in eleven provinces and two cities.

Peng Zhihai, director of the Shanghai Organ Transplantation Centre, director of the Shanghai Jiao Tong University Organ Research Institute, and vice president of Shanghai General Hospital, serves on the Standing Committee of the Chinese Medical Association’s Organ Transplantation Society. He has completed more than 800 liver and multi-organ transplants. He has accomplished one “first in China” and four “first in Shanghai” advancements in the area of liver transplantation methods. The centre’s quality and effectiveness of transplantation have taken a leading position in the country.

He has led programs under the National Eleventh Five-Year Plan’s Science and Technology Support Program, key projects under the 863 Program, projects under the National Natural Science Foundation and the Shanghai Science Committee’s “Innovation Action Plan,” as well as multiple other national and Shanghai city-level programs. In 2002, he led the General Surgery Department to receive 7 projects under the National Natural Science Fund. He has been granted four patents.444

Tan Jianming, director of the Shanghai Research Centre for Organ Transplantation, director of the Nanjing Military Research Institute of Organ Transplantation, and simultaneously vice president of Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command, was an adjunct director of the Shanghai Clinical Centre for Organ Transplantation for six years, starting in 2001. He has led more than 4,200 kidney transplants as of 2014.445

Tan has undertaken more than ten key national, ministerial, provincial, and military projects. He has edited or participated in the editing of 7 monographs and published 56 papers in domestic and international core journals as the first author. As principal researcher, he has won one second prize of the National Science and

Technology Progress Award, one first prize and 6 third prizes of the People’s Liberation Army Science and Technology Progress Award, and the People’s Liberation Army “Ninth Five-Year Plan” Major Science and Technology Achievement Award.446

Below are transcript excerpts of a phone call between a WOIPFG investigator and the Shanghai General Hospital Liver Transplant Centre, published in September 2013:447

Doctor Dai: Let me tell you, it should be OK to have liver transplant in your case.

Investigator: I just want to know how long we have to wait.

Doctor Dai: We have supplies every day. Today for example, we are performing transplant surgery.

Investigator: Well, I mean not just a fresh one. We need one from live human body…

Doctor Dai: Sure, the organs we use are all from live persons. The donors are all alive.

Investigator: What?

Doctor Dai: They are all organs from live persons! Ours are the best.

……

Investigator: All these organs, they must come from healthy persons. We need the healthy one.

Doctor Dai: I’ll make sure that you’re satisfied after you come.…

Investigator: I heard some come from those who practice qigong. They are very healthy.

Doctor Dai: Yes, we have this type, but I cannot explain to you clearly over the phone.

Investigator: If you could find me one, I will come right away.

Doctor Dai: Of course. Just come over!

Investigator: Oh, you could. Then how do I find you? What’s your last name? I will look for you.

Doctor Dai: I’m Doctor Dai.

Investigator: Which Dai?

Doctor Dai: The ‘Dai’ as in ‘dai mao’ (=wear a hat).

29.

The Second People’s Hospital of Shanxi

Regional level kidney transplant centre

This was formerly the Shanxi Provincial Hospital of Occupational Diseases. Its Kidney Transplant and Dialysis Centre was founded in October 1997448 and has since become the largest, best-equipped, and most technologically advanced transplant centre in the province. It ranked among the top 20 in the same discipline for five consecutive years. The centre has 90 beds, plus 21 beds in its intensive care unit and claims it has performed total of 1,300 kidney transplants. 449

The founder of the centre Wu Xiaotong, often spends 12 hours a day performing transplant surgeries, one after another, and filled several gaps in the field of kidney transplantation in Shanxi Province. Wu helped formulate the Chinese Cardiac Death Organ Donation Guide. He is a standing committee member of the Chinese Medical Association’s Organ Transplant Society and chairman of the Shanxi Organ Transplantation Professional Committee. He is an editor of the Chinese Journal of Transplantation and the Organ Transplantation journal, has published dozens of articles, and manages multiple provincial and ministerial-level research projects.450

The centre’s chief surgeon Wang Zhenxing, associate chief surgeon Zhou Hua, Shi Genyu, attending surgeon Sun Yongkang, Chen Hua, Hao Xiaojun, and Yang Jun are all kidney transplant specialists with more than ten years of experience in the field. Zhou Hua has himself performed more than 500 kidney transplants.451

A paper published by deputy director Wang Zhenxing452 mentioned that the hospital performed 925 kidney transplants between 1992 and 2008.453 In another paper, he wrote that 1,263 kidney transplants were performed between 1992 and 2012.454 We call these figures into question, as conducting 100 transplants each year would require no more than 10 beds.

The cost for a kidney transplant at this centre is about 100,000 RMB. Its gross revenue in 2005 reached 250 million RMB. In August 2006, the centre recorded over 100 patients waiting for transplants at any given time. On August 15 alone, the centre conducted 11 kidney transplants.455

The centre has consistently hosted annual kidney transplantation conferences in Shanxi Province. In October 2010, it hosted the 2010 National Organ Transplantation Academic Conference. It also hosted the 2012 Chinese Medical Association’s Urologic Surgery Subconference and National Kidney Transplantation Academic Conference.

31.

Third People’s Hospital of Datong City

National level kidney transplant centre

This hospital is affiliated with Shanxi Medical University. It was established in 1958 and has 1,000 beds. It claimed to be first-class in Shanxi Province and number one in northern Shanxi. It has 192 staff with senior professional titles, 403 with intermediate titles, and 99 with PhD or master’s degrees.456

The hospital includes the Datong City Organ Transplant centre. Since 1991, the hospital has carried out bone marrow, kidney, and other types of transplants. Its transplant team is filled with well-known experts and professionals, and the program has reached an advanced level domestically. The hospital began conducting liver transplants in 2004. In September 2003, the hospital hosted the Shanxi Provincial Organ Transplantation Conference.457 458

Li Haichao is the hospital’s vice president, one of the founders of its urologic surgery department, a member of the Chinese Medical Association Urologic Surgery Subcommittee’s Kidney Transplantation Group, and vice chairman of the Shanxi Medical Association’s Organ Transplant Committee. Li Rongjun, chief surgeon of the department, began conducting kidney transplants in 1999.459 Wei Xiuju, the department’s associate chief surgeon, began performing allogenic kidney transplants in 1998.460

After widespread reports of organ harvesting crimes in 2006 and after this hospital was reported in overseas media, it deleted almost all information about its transplantation activities online. The hospital’s introduction indicates that it has begun to conduct liver transplants, but no further information is available.461

However, the Fifth People’s Hospital of Datong City, which was not approved by the Ministry of Health in 2007 to conduct transplants, was carrying out liver transplants openly. Its website stated, “Based on the foundation of our development of multiple kidney transplants in recent years, the hospital demonstrated the city’s first liver transplant to reach an internationally advanced standard in October 2004.”

46.

Huashan Hospital of Fudan University

National level liver and kidney transplant centre

Established in 1907, this institution was formerly the Chinese Red Cross General Hospital and has a high reputation domestically and internationally.462

The Fudan University Organ Transplantation Research Institute was established at the hospital in February 2002. Its director is academician Zhen Shusen, with academician Qiu Fazu as a consultant. Its main research direction is clinical and basic research in large organ transplantation.463

The institute has achieved many “firsts” in China’s transplantation field and provides effective support for the hospital’s basic and clinical research in kidney transplantation. It operates under the general surgery department, and its specializations include liver transplantation.

Ding Qiang, president of Huashan Hospital and deputy director of the Organ Transplantation Research Institute of Fudan University, specializes in kidney transplantation.464

Its urologic surgery department’s professional transplant team focuses on kidney transplantation and organ preservation as two of its development goals.465

The team, led by Qu Lianxi, has one chief physician/professor and one associate chief physician. Its kidney transplantation research projects received funding from the National Natural Science Foundation and the Shanghai Science Committee Key Projects fund. Its “kidney allograft” project received second prize in the National Science and Technology Achievement Award. Its research results have been published in over 60 papers in domestic core journals and SCI journals abroad.466

The hepatobiliary surgery department includes 5 professors (chief physicians), 3 associate professors (associate chief physicians), and 67 open beds. Wang Zhengxin, director of its liver transplant centre, specializes in complicated liver transplants, transplants involving liver cancer, postoperative management, and living-donor transplantation. He has completed nearly 800 liver transplants.467

48.

Rui Jin Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine

National level liver, kidney, heart, pancreas, and small intestine transplant centre

This large-scale general teaching hospital has a century of history.468 It has 1,800 beds and 593 professors, associate professors, or professionals with senior titles. It hosts 14 second-level doctorate research stations, 24 master’s research stations, 112 doctoral advisors, and 169 master’s advisors. It was the first in China to perform heart and liver transplants in the 1970s.469 It ranked sixth among the 100 most competitive hospitals in China in 2015.470

Rui Jin Hospital was the first in China to perform clinical liver transplants in 1977. Its Organ Transplant Centre has conducted large quantities of liver, kidney, combined liver-kidney, pancreas-kidney, and other challenging multi-organ transplants.471

The centre’s director, Peng Chenghong, has conducted in-depth research in liver transplantation. In July 2001, Peng conducted China’s first split liver transplant (SLT).472 The surgery was listed in the year’s top ten news in Chinese Medicine.

In 2004, it became the first in Shanghai to perform combined small intestine and liver transplants. In December 2004, it carried out the first combined seven-organ transplant in Asia and set many records in China.473 It was again listed in the year’s top ten news in Chinese Medicine.

The Rui Jin Organ Transplant Centre was established in February 2003, and it has a large group of top transplant experts. Hospital president Li Hongwei was named leader of the academic discipline and formed a comprehensive, capable transplant team with nationally known expert Peng Chenghong, Yin Lu, Xu Da, Wang Xianghui, and others. By 2007, the centre had 57 beds, including 14 ICU beds.474

The centre has 22 surgeons, including 16 chief and associate chief surgeons, 4 PhD advisors, and 5 master’s advisors. Each year, the department sends personnel to study in France, the United States, Germany, Japan, and other countries and bring the latest knowledge and techniques back to China.

The transplant centre cooperates closely with the Henri Bismuth Hepatobiliary Institute in France, the Beaujon Hospital Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery and Liver Transplantation Department in France, and the University of Pittsburgh Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute in the United States. Its transplantation pathology laboratory is equipped with a remote consultation system connected to the Starzl Institute, enhancing the diagnosis of difficult cases.475

51.

Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiao tong University

National level lung transplant centre

The hospital claims to be the earliest and largest chest hospital in China. It boasts the largest number of lung transplants in Shanghai and a leader in China.476 It employs over 130 chief and associate chief physicians, and 46 doctoral and master’s advisors. Over 30 of its experts receive special allowances from the State Council.477

Professor Gao Chengxin studied under the renowned Dr. Joel D. Cooper in 1985. He was the first Chinese doctor to study lung transplantation.

The lung transplant team was established in the early 1990s. Professor Gao Chengxin, Dr. Hu Dingzhong, Dr. Shi Jianxin, and two other doctors studied at Washington Hospital in the United States to master advanced lung transplant techniques. They then formulated and standardized Chinese operations based on situations in China.478

It started clinical lung transplants in 2002 and performed the first lobar lung transplant in China. It has performed the most bilateral lung transplants in China to date and assisted many hospitals in China with lung transplantation.479

The hospital’s archived web pages state its process for lung transplants:480

“If a lung transplantation suits your conditions, we will arrange necessary examinations. You will obtain the results in one or two days. A dedicated member from the lung transplant team will accompany seriously ill patients during the exam. We will then evaluate your situation: lung transplantation as soon as possible, or no transplantation at this point.”

“Once you are on the wait list, we will start preparation. The centre will customize a plan for you according to your situation. We will determine the recipients based on blood type, severity of symptoms, wait time, and donor organ size and notify recipients as soon as possible. Patients have a special passage to be admitted in the shortest time and complete paperwork for hospitalization.”

“The patient will arrive in the operating room two or three hours prior to the surgery and be transferred to the ICU afterwards. He/she will be transferred to a regular ward after his/her conditions have stabilized. The patient can leave the hospital in usually two to three weeks, barring any complications.”

The hospital announced the total expense to be between 200,000 and 300,000 RMB.

Incidentally, Dr. Han Baohui, director of pulmonary medicine at Shanghai Chest Hospital, reported her classmate Zhao Bin to the police for practicing Falun Gong. As a result, Mr. Zhao was arrested on April 27, 2012 and subsequently tortured to death at the Tilanqiao Prison in Shanghai on October 19, 2013.481

50.

Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University

National level liver transplant centre

The hospital ranks 25th among the 100 most competitive hospitals in China, according to the 2015 China Hospital Blue Book Competitiveness Report released jointly by the Hong Kong Eric Peter Hospital Management Research Centre and the Documentation Publishing House of Chinese Academy of Social Science in March 2016.482

The General Surgery Department has 240 beds and performs about 7,000 operations annually. It is staffed with 47 doctors, 3 doctoral advisors, 11 master’s advisors, 6 professors, 34 associate professors, 11 full-time doctoral students, and 15 full-time master’s students.483

Its liver surgery department has a postdoctoral fellow research centre and hosts doctoral and master’s programs. Xinhua Hospital is also one of the first liver transplant hospitals licensed by the Ministry of Health.

It was one of the first to carry out orthotopic, piggyback, and pro-donor liver transplantations. Its official website boasts its “routine operations” of living-donor liver transplants for both adults and children and that the hospital “has identified liver transplant experiences suitable for China’s conditions.”484

The hospital hosted the “Oriental Technology Forum – Liver Transplantation,” organized by the city of Shanghai, the Chinese Academy of Science, and the Chinese Academy of Engineering. It received national-level funding and funding from key research projects of Shanghai.

Dr. Quan Zhiwei, associate dean of the hospital, is a member of the Organ Transplant Committee of the Shanghai Branch of the Chinese Medical Association and an editorial member of the Chinese edition of Annals of Surgery. He has published over 40 papers in Chinese and international journals and holds several patents.

Director Chen Litian conducted over 500 liver transplants at the Oriental Organ Transplantation Centre after obtaining his PhD in 2003. He established the Liver Transplant Department at Xinhua Hospital in 2011.485 He was also involved in writing and compiling Liver Transplants in China, Liver Transplantation Manual, and A Mapping Guide to Organ Transplant Surgery, and other publications.486

Dr. Du Zhiyong received his PhD in 2008, and began post-doctorate study at Rui Jin Hospital under Professor Peng Chenghong, a domestically-renowned expert liver transplants. He joined Xinhua Hospital in July 2011, and has performed a large number of liver transplant, hepatobiliary, and pancreatic surgeries.487

The current pages of the Xinhua Hospital Liver Transplant Centre no longer contain the information regarding the number of beds and personnel.

The hospital has about 3,000 employees, 46% of whom hold senior and associate senior professional titles. It has 42 doctoral advisors, 181 master’s advisors, a clinical postdoctoral fellow research centre, 8 doctoral programs, and 25 master’s programs.488

56.

Jiangsu Province Hospital

National level liver, kidney, heart, pancreas, and small intestine transplant centre

This hospital is a key liver transplantation centre for the Ministry of Health. Its Liver Surgery Institute includes two wards with more than 110 beds. Its medical team has 62 staff, including 9 professors or those with senior professional titles, and 12 with associate senior titles. Over 90% of its doctors hold doctoral degrees. It has six surgical teams and four operating rooms, which are available for simultaneous liver transplant operations.489

In the span of three to four years, its Liver Surgery Department grew from nonexistence into one of the five largest liver transplant research centre in the country.490

Wang Xuehao, head of the Liver Surgery Institute and the Jiangsu Province Liver Transplantation Centre,491 is an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, a doctoral advisor, a well-known Chinese organ transplant and hepatobiliary surgeon, and a pioneer of living-donor liver transplantation in China. He pursued further study at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Centre’s World Liver Transplant Centre between September 1983 and October 1985.492 In January 1995, he conducted the first successful living-donor liver transplant in China. At present, he is the director of the key liver transplantation laboratory of the Ministry of Health, and the director of the Academic Committee.493

Li Xiangcheng is the deputy director of the Liver Transplantation Centre and a PhD advisor. He engages in liver surgery and clinical liver transplants and research. In 2001, he studied as a visiting scholar at the University of Pittsburgh Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute and accumulated a large amount of experience in perioperative care in liver transplantation.494

The eight members of the liver transplantation research innovation team are Sun Beicheng, Li Guoqiang, Cheng Feng, Lu Ling, Yu Yue, Chen Yun, Yao Aihua, and Gao Yun. All of its members hold at least PhD degrees, and half have studied abroad.495

The Urologic Surgery Department performed the first allogenic kidney transplant in the province in 1977. It established a Kidney Transplant Centre in 1998. Its combined pancreas-kidney and liver-kidney transplantation have won second prize of the provincial science and technology award.496 Its kidney and multi-organ transplantation are at an advanced level domestically.497

The Ophthalmology department of the Institute is also the Jiangsu Province Eye Bank.

59.

Wuxi People’s Hospital

National level lung transplant centre

As of December 2014, this nationally renowned 3A hospital had 5 postdoctoral fellows, 95 PhDs, 433 personnel with master’s degrees, and 419 with senior professional titles. Currently, it has 1,903 beds.498

Its lung transplant centre claims to be among the top three in the world,499 and claims to have completed more than half of all lung transplant surgeries in the country.500 It is a key clinical discipline and serves as the lung transplant treatment centre in Jiangsu Province. It is a nationally registered lung transplant data management unit and owns a key provincial laboratory for transplantation. Its lung transplant team consists of three chief surgeons, two associate chief surgeons, one doctoral advisor, three master’s advisors, and many staff members holding doctoral or master’s degrees.

In September 2002, Chen Jingyu returned to the hospital’s lung transplant centre in the thoracic surgery department after finishing advanced study at the lung transplant centre of Toronto General Hospital. His team performed the country’s first lung transplantation for the treatment of emphysema and has since performed single-lung, double-lung, and heart-lung transplants. It claims to have performed the most lung transplants nationwide as of December 2007 and has set nine records in Asia and China.501 Chen is thus renowned as the “No. 1 Lung Transplant Surgeon in China.”

As reported in July 2014, Chen Jingyu’s team often completed four or five lung transplants a day. He led his team to spread its advanced techniques to thirty 3A hospitals in more than ten cities and provinces, including Beijing, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Wuhan, and Jilin.502 A new era of lung transplantation in China has begun. Chen’s team has filled in many gaps in this area.503

Chen also developed pulmonary perfusion preservation solutions, which prolong lung retention time from four to six hours to nearly eight hours, reaching an internationally advanced level and taking the lead in China. In the past five years, this centre has won many medical, science, and technology awards. It has published more than 50 papers on lung transplantation in core national journals, including in SCI, and translated the monograph Lung Transplantation.

On August 13th, 2015, Chen remarked on his Sina Weibo, “Originally I thought the number of available donor lungs would decrease, since the practice of using death row prisoners as donors has been abolished. However, who would have thought that we are even busier than last year. Now we perform one lung transplant every three days.”

Chen’s lung transplant centre was destined to become even busier, as indicated by his Weibo message at the end of October: “Good morning! Our team started to work at 5:00 am. We again use an airplane to deliver the donor lung. In October, we have been continuously conducting lung transplants from the 1st to the end, and have set a new record in the number of transplants done in a single month…”

60.

The First People’s Hospital of Changzhou

(The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University)

National level kidney transplant centre

This hospital was established in 1918. It currently has 202 professors/chief physicians and 409 associate professors/associate chief physicians. It has 14 specialists receiving special government allowances from the State Council and many experts with outstanding contributions.504

Although the hospital is approved for only kidney transplants by the Ministry of Health, before 2008 it had already completed transplants of heart, lung, liver, combined pancreas-kidney, and other “firsts” in Changzhou.505

Its urologic surgery department’s website states that it began performing kidney transplants in the 1980s, and that its strength traditionally has been in kidney transplantation. Its cumulative transplant volume is near the top nationwide.506 More than half of its patients come from Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Japan, and other Asian-Pacific regions.507

The department’s web page does not contain any information about its bed count or number of medical personnel. Early articles published by its director and hospital president He Xiaozhou, a well-known kidney transplant expert, state that the hospital had completed 1,080 kidney transplants as of 2001; in early 2008, it had reportedly performed more than 1,470 kidney transplants.508 In other words, in the six years after 2001, it performed only 390 kidney transplants, or an average of less than 70 per year. This contrasts sharply with the 2001 figure and is difficult to believe.

The hospital’s website currently shows that it has completed 1,600 transplants (an average of 30 per year), yet claims that its cumulative transplant volume is among the highest in the country.509 Hospital president He Xiaozhou’s web page claims that he had personally led the department in conducting more than 1,700 kidney transplants.510 These numbers are contradictory, and the official totals and annual rates are much too low to be in a leading position in China.

The hepatobiliary surgery department completed Changzhou’s first orthotopic human liver transplant. The department is one of the biggest hepatobiliary treatment centres in southern Jiangsu Province. It has 22 physicians, including 2 professors, 2 associate professors, 4 master’s advisors, and 72 beds.511

The department’s chief physician Zhu Feng once studied under academician Li Jieshou. In 2005, he took over liver transplantation at Zhejiang University, under the guidance of academician Zheng Shusen. He has a PhD degree from overseas, studied in Italy, and has rich experience in liver transplantation. His main research projects include “Application of basic immunology research in chronic dysfunction of transplanted organs” under the National 973 Program. He has published more than 20 academic papers.512

The cardiothoracic surgery department is led by Zhang Xiaoying, a PhD advisor and specialist who receives special government allowances from the State Council. In 2001, it completed Changzhou’s first heart transplant and first lung transplant.513 514 The department has 72 beds, one PhD advisor, 10 PhD students, and 4 master’s degree holders. It has established a cooperative relationship with Lund University in Sweden.

Its ophthalmology department also conducts cornea transplants on a routine basis and has reached an advanced level in Jiangsu Province.515

62.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University

National level kidney transplant centre

This hospital was founded in 1883. For five years in a row, it ranked among the top 50 hospitals in China. It has almost 3,000 beds and 706 senior chief and deputy specialists. The hospital includes multiple provincial and ministerial-level key disciplines and key disciplines in clinical medicine. It has 42 master’s, doctoral and postdoctoral research stations.516

The hospital carried out the first kidney transplant in Jiangsu Province in 1978. The Urologic Surgery Department has a kidney transplant centre with 55 beds, 130 monthly admissions/discharges, and a 101% turnover rate.517 Professor Hou Jianquan, its PhD advisor, claimed that the hospital’s kidney transplant capabilities are leading domestically. By 2012, it had performed over 1,170 renal transplants (the claim of less than 100 cases per year seems clearly understated, because that would require no more than 10 beds).518

The department is a key clinical specialist centre of Suzhou City and Jiangsu Province and offers master’s and PhD degree programs. It currently has two doctoral advisors and 5 master’s advisors. It has established academic exchange and collaborative relationships with countries including the United States, Britain, Japan and Switzerland. The department has received 1.45 million RMB in research funding and 14 ministerial and provincial awards. It has published 14 monographs and 74 academic papers.

Its director Yan Chunyin has studied at the University of Manchester and the University of Zurich. He is a PhD advisor and vice chairman of the Organ Transplantation Professional Association of the Jiangsu Branch of the Chinese Medical Association. He conducted in-depth research in areas including kidney transplantation. He received the Suzhou Municipal Science and Technology Award for his experimental and clinical studies of “long-term survival and induction of the formation of immune tolerance in kidney transplantation.” He is currently involved in a number of provincial and ministerial-level research projects.519

The Heart and Great Vessels Surgical Department was the first one to begin to conduct orthotopic heart transplants in 2000 in Jianshu Province. This department is a provincial key discipline of medical science and a national key discipline for clinical medicine.520

Shen Zhenya, the director of the Cardiovascular Surgery Department, in May 2014 said, “We have [organ transplants] every month. Once you come, I think you should be able to find an organ donor in a little over two weeks. The donors who practice Falun Gong…we have too.” 521

64.

Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital

National level heart transplant centre

This hospital is one of the largest comprehensive hospitals in Zhejiang Province. It has 2,680 beds. Its staff includes over 506 staff with senior professional titles and 156 PhDs and postdoctoral fellows. The hospital has a Zhejiang Provincial Organ Transplantation Key Research Lab (Heart Transplantation Branch).522

Its cardiothoracic surgery department pioneered heart transplantation in Zhejiang Province. Its kidney and combined heart-kidney transplantation performance is in a leading position in China. The hospital has also started performing kidney, umbilical cord blood, bone marrow, cornea, and other types of transplants. Its bone marrow and cornea transplantation performance also plays a leading role in Zhejiang Province.523

Yan Zhikun, director of the cardiothoracic surgery department and “head of cardiothoracic surgery in Zhejiang Province,” receives special government allowances from the State Council. A video on the hospital’s website shows that he performed the province’s first heart transplant in June 1997 and first combined heart-kidney transplant in 2001. He established the Heart Centre in 2002, and has completed more than 5,000 heart surgeries of various types.524

Heart transplantation is one of Yan’s areas of focus. In 1996, he established the Zhejiang Organ Transplantation Key Laboratory Heart Transplant Branch, which has expanded to 1,000 square meters and completed more than 20 national and provincial research projects. Its project on “Homologous combined heart and kidney transplantation” received a first prize award from the Ministry of Health in 2002. He has published over 100 articles and edited the book Heart, Lung, and Related Multiple-Organ Transplantation.525

The hospital has deleted almost all information about its transplant-related activities online.

However, Yan’s papers show that, between June 1997 and June 2002, the hospital performed 12 orthotopic heart allografts, including a combined heart-kidney transplant.526 The hospital’s website states that it has carried out a total of 19 heart transplants.527 In the 14 years in which its heart transplant laboratory has continuously expanded, it is unlikely that the hospital has performed only 19 transplants.

From news reports, we have found that Xiao Jiaquan, a renowned kidney transplant expert in Zhejiang Province and formerly director of this hospital’s urologic surgery department, has become the current director of the kidney transplant centre at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, and had continued to perform kidney transplants on a large scale.528

On December 31, 2015, the Second Affiliated Hospital’s transplant team performed 8 transplant surgeries in 12 hours, from 8am to 8pm. These included 2 liver, 2 heart, and 4 kidney transplants.529 On March 10, 2016, Xiao led the transplant team to carry out 7 transplant surgeries within 16 hours, including 2 liver, 1 heart, and 4 kidney transplants.530 Considering this hospital is not a designated transplant centre, we wonder how many transplants have been conducted by the licensed Third Affiliated Hospital.

A Korean patient, who underwent a transplant operation in the hospital on June 3, 2006, stated that the hospital treated patients from all over the world. He saw Caucasians, black people, Koreans, Japanese, etc. He stated that organs used for transplantation were obtained from prisons by doctors in military uniforms.531

The hospital hosts the Zhejiang Province Eye Bank. It has improved the cornea procurement, preservation, and distribution system. It can carry out cornea transplants using its recently acquired femtosecond laser.532

52.

Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital affiliated with Tongji University

(Shanghai Occupational Disease Hospital)
National level lung transplant centre

The hospital’s Thoracic Surgery Department ranks among the top three in China533 and is a national key clinical specialty. It has 4 wards, 2 ICUs, and about 200 beds.534

This 3A specialized teaching hospital has the highest success rate for clinical lung transplants in China. In December 2002, it successfully conducted the first lung transplant for a senior patient in Asia. It has accumulated the most detailed clinical data in the country.535 Entrusted by the Organ Transplantation Society of the Chinese Medical Association, it drafted and formulated the “Technical Protocol for Clinical Lung Transplantation.”536

Jiang Gening, director of its Thoracic Surgery Department, accomplished the first lung re-transplant in Asia, and the first lung transplantation combined with bilateral lung volume reduction surgery in China. It is the only hospital in China that can perform all types of lung transplants.537 It has helped over 10 hospitals in 8 provinces and regions to develop lung transplantation, including Shanghai, Jiangsu, Shaanxi, Guangxi, Xinjiang, and Zhejiang. Jiang’s “clinical lung transplant research” project won second prize of the Ministry of Education Science and Technology Progress Award in 2006.538

Gao Wen, former president of the Shanghai Lung Hospital and vice chairman of the Chinese Medical Doctor Association Thoracic Surgeons Subcommittee, mainly conducts clinical and basic research in lung transplantation. He has led the key “clinical research in lung transplantation” project under the Shanghai Science Committee and published more than 80 articles in domestic and international journals.539

66.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University

Regional level kidney transplant centre

This hospital owns the largest medical centre in southern Zhejiang Province and has over 4,200 open beds. Its staff includes 193 professionals with senior titles, 309 with associate senior titles, 15 doctoral advisors, and 156 master’s advisors. Its abdominal surgery treatment centre claims to take a leading position in China’s large organ transplantation technology and other fields.

Since it began conducting kidney transplants in 1985, its transplant centre has performed liver, combined pancreas-kidney, liver-kidney, and heart transplants.540 It claims its number of kidney transplants performed in 2011 ranked 5th in China. Its kidney transplantation ranked 12th among 122 accredited hospitals in China and 2nd in the province in 2012.541

The hospital began performing kidney transplants in 1999. Its quantity and quality of kidney transplantation rank first in Zhejiang Province. In 2001, it became the first in its region to begin performing liver transplants. In the same year, it began carrying out pancreas-kidney, liver-kidney, and other large-organ and multi-organ transplants. It performed the region’s first heart transplant in early 2003 and first emergency heart transplant on March 3, 2004.542

Yang Yirong, director of the transplant centre, began work in the field in 1983 and developed organ transplantation in the Wenzhou area. He has completed over 1,000 kidney transplants. He is currently a member of the Kidney Transplantation Specialist Group of the Organ Transplantation Society.543

Zheng Shaoling, deputy director of the transplant centre, has rich clinical experience in the field of postoperative immunosuppressive control for kidney, liver, combined liver-kidney, and pancreas-kidney transplants. She trained in organ transplantation at the University of Cambridge in 2000.544

According to a journal article published by the hospital’s doctors, between 2001 and 2004, at least 35 donor livers came from “brain-dead” healthy adults; the warm ischemia times ranged from 3 to 7 minutes and averaged 4 minutes.545

71.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University

National level Liver, kidney, pancreas, and small intestine transplant centre

Among the largest 3A general hospitals in Fujian Province, this institution has 88 authorized master’s and doctoral degree sites. The hospital has 2,500 beds and 484 medical personnel with senior professional titles. Over 60% of its doctors hold master’s or doctoral degrees.546

Its Liver Disease Centre is the first medical facility in Fujian Province to integrate internal medicine, surgical medicine, and related disciplines in clinical liver treatment. Academician Wu Mengchao of the Chinese Academy of Sciences is an honorary director of the centre. Its academic leaders, professors Jiang Jiaji and Liu Jingfeng, took part in compiling The Clinical Operation Protocol in Liver Transplant in China. The institute’s academic standing has reached an advanced level nationwide.547

The centre maintains close cooperative relationships with advanced units in China and six well-known centres internationally. It manages multiple research programs under the National 863 Program, 973 Program, National “Eleventh Five-Year Plan,” National Natural Science Foundation, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education, and Fujian Province Key Research Projects. Some of its results are at a leading or advanced level. The centre’s research has won several provincial science and technology progress awards. It has published more than 100 articles (with more than 10 listed in SCI). The centre has edited 10 monographs and national surgical textbooks.548

The centre has 7 chief surgeons/professors, 10 deputy chief surgeons/associate professors, 2 doctoral advisors, and 7 master’s advisors. Among its professional staff, 74% hold doctoral degrees. The centre has 120 beds and claims that its annual quantity of liver surgeries ranks among the top 6 in China. Its liver transplantation capabilities have reached an advanced level in the nation.

Professor Liu Jingfeng, the founder of the department, is the provincial academic lead in liver disease and liver transplantation. He established a system of refined liver transplant techniques for end-stage liver disease. He studied at the Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital in Shanghai and the Tongji Hospital Liver Surgery Department, under Academician Wu Mengchao and Professor Chen Xiaoping, respectively. He completed post-doctorate training at the Texas Liver Centre in the United States in 2000.549 The team treats the most cases in the province, the fifth most nationwide, and changed the long-term situation of most patients going to Shanghai, Wuhan, Beijing, and other places to seek treatment.550

72.

Fujian Medical University Union Hospital

National level heart, lung transplant centre

This hospital was formerly the Willis F. Pierce Memorial Hospital. It has 2,200 beds and more than 400 staff members with senior (chief and deputy chief) professional titles. Over 65% of the staff holds master’s or doctoral degrees. Its number of allogeneic heart transplants performed leads the nation. Its pediatric heart transplantation and heart re-transplantation fill a gap in this field in China. Its technology in liver transplantation heart re-transplantation and bilateral lung transplantation lead the nation.551

Since its Heart Surgery Department conducted the first orthotopic heart transplant in Fujian Province in 1995, it has successfully performed heart transplants for patients with advanced heart disease from more than 30 cities and regions of China. Its specialty ranks among the best in allogeneic heart transplantation, holds 16 “first in the country” titles, and serves as the base for heart transplantation in China.

It helped more than 40 large hospitals in large cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Chongqing, Wuhan, etc. to do heart transplantation; and at the same time, helped hospitals in local cities of Fujian Province such as Xiamen, Quanzhou, Zhangzhou, Jianou, Butian, Longyan etc. to start their own heart transplantation operation. Its Union Hospital Heart Transplant Manual has become one of the most important guides in the field of heart transplantation in China.552

The hospital has recently made breakthroughs in immunosuppressive treatments and post-operative management. All of its transplant recipients are able to walk within 1 to 2 days after surgery. They leave the isolation ward after 2 weeks, and are discharged within 2 to 3 weeks, fully recovered.

The hospital currently has 120 doctors and nurses, 5 chief surgeons/professors, 5 deputy chief surgeons/associate professors, 13 staff members with doctoral degrees, 6 with master’s degrees, 6 Cross-Century Talents, 2 doctoral advisors, and 6 master’s advisors.

73.

Zhongshan Hospital of Xiamen University

National level heart transplant centre

Established in 1928, this hospital has 465 experts with associate senior titles or above and 509 medical professionals with master’s or doctoral degrees. Among them, over 60 serve as master’s or doctoral advisors. The hospital has 2,500 beds.553

The Organ Transplant Research Institute at Xiamen University was approved by the Ministry of Health to perform heart transplants. It was also the first hospital in the city to perform liver and kidney transplants.

The Organ Transplant Research Institute in 2007. Targeting practical issues in clinical organ transplantation, the institute leads this field in China.554

The head of its Organ Transplant Research Institute and president of Medical College of Xiamen University Qi Zhongquan is a world-famous organ transplant expert. He and Professor Henrik Ekberg from Sweden co-edited The Practical Protocol for Living donor kidney transplantation (Chinese and English version), which was highly appraised by The Transplantation Society (TTS) and published globally as an industry standard.555 He has participated in more than 500 transplant surgeries, including more than 100 living-donor kidney transplants and more than 50 islet cell transplants.556

The hospital’s Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery was established in 1995 and currently has 9 members with senior professional titles, 7 with intermediate professional titles, 2 postdoctoral fellows, 10 doctorates, and 6 master’s degree holders. Deputy Director Yin Zhenyu studied under the well-known surgeon Professor Li Jieshou and trained at the University of Pittsburgh Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute and Cleveland Clinic’s transplant centre.557

The hospital’s personnel and speed of development reflects its strong clinical and academic skill. Because most of its transplant-related information has been deleted, we do not know the scale of its transplant operation. However, a fee schedule for medical services on its website indicates that the hospital performs nearly all types of transplants. Below is a portion of the fee schedule:558

  • Bone marrow transplant: 3,500 RMB
  • Cornea transplant: 1,500 RMB
  • Heart transplant (not including donor): 20,000 RMB
  • Lung transplant (not including donor or organ extraction, preservation, and transportation): 10,000 RMB
  • Heart-lung transplant (not including donor): 20,000 RMB
  • Allogeneic spleen transplant (not including donor): 3,200 RMB
  • Small intestine transplant (not including donor): 20,000 RMB
  • Liver transplant (not including donor): 30,000 RMB
  • Combined organ transplant: no price listed
  • Allogeneic donor liver excision: 2,300 RMB
  • Allogeneic donor pancreas excision: 2,300 RMB
  • Pancreas transplant (not including donor): 15,000 RMB
  • Allogeneic kidney transplant (not including donor or donor organ excision): 3,000 RMB

The hospital’s heart centre was established in 2001 and began to operate independently on April 28, 2011.559 In 2014, it became the Xiamen Cardiovascular Hospital. Its new site has 600 beds. Many of its medical professionals have received training and conducted research in other countries. More than 90% of its physicians hold master’s degrees or above. More than 50% of its nurses hold bachelor’s degrees.560

Liao Chongxian, former director of the heart centre’s cardiovascular surgery department and leader of the academic discipline, is one of the best-known heart transplant experts in China. He has been named “China’s top person in heart transplantation.”561 On August 21, 1995, he performed the first heart transplant in Fujian Province and the first pediatric heart transplant and first heart-kidney transplant in China.

Based on his experience in the United States, Liao created the “mobile heart transplant hospital” model and travelled around the country to instruct and personally participate in heart transplants. He toured places including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chongqing, Nanjing, Yantai, Wuxi, Wuhan, Lanzhou, Xining, Xi’an, Zhengzhou, Taiyuan, Shijiazhuang, Weihai, and Shenyang.562

In 2001, he established the Xiamen Heart Centre Cardiovascular Surgery Department at Zhongshan Hospital and started his mobile heart transplant hospital model.563

Its website says that the department performs heart transplants on a large scale and has helped more than 20 Class 3 Grade A hospitals to perform heart transplants in the past 10 years, including Jiangsu Province Hospital, the Third Xiangya Hospital in Hunan Province, the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, and the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University.

Liao stated to the media that as of August 2008, China had about 600 heart transplant recipients in total, 564including more than 150 who had received their transplants from this hospital.565

The hospital’s hepatobiliary surgery department is the largest hepatopancreatobiliary surgery centre in the province. It had 72 beds by 2006. The hospital appointed Li Jieshou from the People’s Liberation Army General Surgery Research Institute as chief scientist and has great technical strength. The department was one of the earliest in Xiamen to conduct allogeneic liver transplants. It has the longest survival time for liver transplants in the Xiamen region.566

The department’s director Yin Zhenyu studied under Li Jieshou; he studied as a senior visiting scholar at the University of Pittsburgh Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute. In 2006, he conducted post-graduate research in transplant immunology and received clinical training at Cleveland Clinic. His mentor was Professor John J. Fung, an internationally renowned transplant immunologist. He participated in Asia’s first small intestine transplant in 1994 and first combined liver-intestine transplant in 2003.567

He has systematically mastered multiple transplant procedures, anti-rejection drugs and treatment, and transplant immunology. He has pioneered research in small intestine, liver-intestine, liver, and islet cell transplants.

Hospital president Wang Xiaomin is the academic leader of the hepatobiliary surgery department. His team performed Xiamen’s first liver transplant in 2002 and first transplant involving liver cancer in 2003, filling a gap in the city.

81.

Shandong Provincial Hospital

National level liver, kidney, lung, pancreas and small intestine transplant

The ophthalmology department

Founded in 1897, the hospital now has 3,456 open beds and over 5,000 employees, including 4 Academicians, 13 Shandong Provincial “Taishan Scholars” as specially invited distinguished experts, two experts belonging to the national “Ten Million Talent” (Tier 1) project, and 25 provincial-level Distinguished Young Scholars. There are 800 senior technical personnel, including 47 who receive special government allowances from the State Council, 104 doctoral advisors, and 229 master’s advisors.568

Its general surgery department has 387 beds, with 44 professionals with senior medical titles, 6 PhD advisors, and 18 master’s advisors. Organ transplantation is one of its specializations, and has nationally leading capabilities in liver and multi-organ transplantation. This department also serves as Shandong University’s doctoral site for surgery and a postdoctoral mobile station. Its clinical diagnosis, treatment, and research are at a nationally advanced level.569

In April 2004, its general surgery department conducted 4 complicated liver transplants for elderly patients consecutively, including Shandong’s first liver transplant for a foreigner (Korean) and China’s fourth combined liver-kidney transplant. It then began carrying out a large number of kidney transplants.

Liu Jun, director of the hospital’s organ transplant and hepatobiliary surgery department, is recognized as the founder of liver transplantation in Shandong Province. Liu established Qilu Hospital and the organ transplant centre of Shandong Provincial Hospital. Liu studied as a post-doctorate fellow under Professor Wang Xuehao, a pioneer of China’s living-donor liver transplantation. Liu successfully carried out Shandong’s first independent liver transplant and combined liver-kidney transplant in December 2003.

Its urologic surgery department currently has 240 beds and a subordinate kidney transplant department. It was among the first batch of urological research centres in the country. It was also among the first PhD sites in urology approved by the State Council. It has 7 chief surgeons/professors, 5 deputy chief surgeons, 5 attending surgeons, 3 master’s advisors, and 3 PhD advisors. The staff includes 9 PhDs and 3 with master’s degrees. All the surgeons have studied overseas.570

A minimally invasive kidney transplantation team was established in May 2003 under the new urology department. There are over 160 beds, 7 professors /chief surgeons, 8 associate professors/deputy chief surgeons, and 36 PhDs, amongst whom 12 are post-doctorates. There are one doctoral advisor and 9 master’s advisors.571

The hospital began conducting lung transplants in 2005. It performed the first bilateral lung transplant in Shandong Province in 2007.

Its thoracic surgery department is the only certified lung transplant department in Shandong Province. It was the first in the province to carry out allogeneic lung transplants and has performed the most such procedures. It has 96 open beds, 7 chief physicians, 6 deputy chief physicians, 8 attending doctors, 9 residents, 5 PhD advisors for Thoracic Surgery Department of Shandong University, and five master’s advisors. Most of its doctors hold PhDs, and 5 have postdoctoral research experience.572

Its ophthalmology department currently has 96 beds, 18 chief physicians, 8 associate chief physicians, 10 attending physicians, 2 residents, 5 full-time special prosecutor physicians, 8 master’s advisors, and 3 PhD advisors. The staff also includes 22 PhDs, 8 with master’s degrees, and 18 who have studied abroad in the United Kingdom, United States, and Australia. Its professional cornea team has adopted deep lamellar keratoplasty, penetrating keratoplasty, and microkeratome-assisted lamellar keratoplasty for cornea diseases. It has modern eye bank equipment and can preserve corneas and other eye tissues for medium to long terms.

79.

Qilu Hospital of Shandong University

National level liver, kidney, pancreas and small intestine transplant centre

Established in 1890, this hospital was one of the four major church-affiliated hospitals in China. It has 682 senior professionals, including 174 doctoral advisors and 208 master’s advisors. It has 3,300 beds.573

The hospital’s general surgery department started conducting liver transplants in the 1980s. Such operations became routine at this hospital in May 2005, two years after its liver transplantation department was established. The hospital has edged into the top ranks in China and leads in quantity and quality of transplantation in Shandong Province. It has accomplished two “national firsts” and five “provincial firsts.”574

The transplantation department currently has over 170 open beds and 49 physicians, including 17 professors, 11 associate professors, 5 doctoral advisors, and 14 master’s advisors. More than 80% of its physicians hold PhDs.575

Professor Hu Sanyuan, vice president of the hospital and director of surgery, performed the hospital’s first liver transplant. He currently manages one subproject of the National High-Tech R&D Program of China (863 Program) and one project under the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC). He has received nine provincial awards, published over 30 SCI papers, received two patents, and published or translated 16 books and 5 multimedia textbooks.576

Xu Kesen, director of the Hepatobiliary and Vascular Surgery Institute, doctoral advisor, and member of the Shandong Medical Association Organ Transplant Professional Committee, has received many provincial science and technology progress awards. Recently, he has received research funding from the Ministry of Education Doctoral Fund, provincial Natural Science Fund, and provincial Programs for Science and Technology Development Fund. He has published over 40 papers in domestic core journals, including 9 in SCI.577

Professor Chen Yuxin is a doctoral advisor and an expert in liver transplantation. He has engaged in academic research and exchange in Japan, Singapore, the Philippines, and South Korea. He has published over 60 papers (including 10 in SCI), completed many projects funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), foreign cooperation, and the provincial Natural Science Foundation.

He is also a committee member of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC).578

This hospital also leads the province in kidney transplantation. Its blood purification centre was founded in 1978 and performed its first kidney transplant in the same year, becoming one of the earliest in the province to do so. In 2000, it was renamed to Qilu Hospital Blood Purification and Organ Transplantation Centre. It has performed high-volume kidney transplantation since 1987. It currently has 52 beds.579

The hospital’s website lists answers to the question, “Why come to Qilu Hospital for a kidney transplant?”580

  • Qilu Hospital has adopted Harvard University’s standard treatment procedure for kidney transplants;
  • The diagnostic group consists of doctors who studied kidney disease pathology at Harvard University;
  • It has an organ transplant team meeting international standards;
  • American-style treatment while accepting Chinese currency (RMB);
  • Synchronized with the latest global transplant experience and technology;
  • Holds the records of the oldest (age 74) and the youngest (age 4) kidney recipients in the province

Tian Jun, director of the Blood Purification and Organ Transplantation Centre and an academic leader, is the chairman of the Shandong Province Medical Association Transplantation Subcommittee and vice chairman of the Chinese Medical Association Transplantation Subcommittee in Shandong. He has led five provincial research projects and received two national patents. In the past few years, he has published over 30 papers (including five in SCI) in domestic and international journals and edited nine books. He manages one project under the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and two provincial research projects. He has received many provincial science and technology progress awards.581

This hospital was also the first in the province to begin cornea, joint, heart, and other types of transplants.582

80.

The Second Hospital of Shandong University

National level kidney transplant centre

This hospital is affiliated with Shandong University and currently has 4 Taishan Scholars, 29 doctoral advisors, 68 master’s advisors, and 18 doctorate degree programs. It serves as a teaching and clinical hospital for a dozen universities within and outside of Shandong Province.583

Its kidney transplant department, which is its specialty discipline, was established in 2003 as the first professional transplant centre in Shandong Province. The department has an independent organ cross-matching laboratory. It started researching DNA microarray tissue matching technology in 2003, achieving strict gene pairing between donor and recipient prior to transplantation. Transplant quality has increased substantially, since the majority of the patients have reached ideal amino acid residue matching. Its transplant quantity and quality rank first in Shandong Province, while its kidney transplant capabilities are at the forefront both in the province and in the country.584 585

Professor Zhao Shengtian, head of the urologic surgery discipline, president of the hospital, and doctoral advisor, has a team of well-known experts, including Liu Yuqiang and Wang Hongwei. The team has 7 chief surgeons, 10 associate chief surgeons, 12 attending surgeons, 4 doctoral advisors and 6 master’s advisors.586

Professor Wang Hongwei,587 deputy director of the Institute of Urology at Shandong University, director of the kidney transplant department, has participated in nearly 2,000 kidney transplants over the course of 20 years. His team once successfully completed ten kidney transplants in one day. Wang was formerly a kidney specialist at the Department of Urology at the General Hospital of Jinan Military Command. In 2003, he was recruited to set up the first professional organ transplant department in the province at the Second Hospital Shandong University. The department’s kidney transplant technology is at the forefront both in the province and in the country. Wang has won a number of science and technology achievement awards in the provincial research projects he led and participated in. He has published more than 50 papers.588

Deputy director Tian Chuan, an associate chief surgeon and member of the Organ Transplant Branch of the Shandong Province Medical Association, has participated in nearly 1,000 kidney transplants.589

The hospital’s ophthalmology department performs allogeneic cornea transplants and claims to have abundant organ sources and a cornea bank.

82.

Shandong Qianfoshan Hospital

National level liver, kidney, heart, pancreas and small intestine transplant centre

This hospital has over 2,300 beds and 420 staff with associate senior titles or above, including 250 doctoral and master’s advisors and over 90 adjunct professors at Shandong University.590 It was approved by the Ministry of Health to conduct heart, liver, and kidney transplants. It has also carried out heart-kidney, liver-kidney, heart-lung, cornea, and other types of transplants. Its transplant capabilities have reached an advanced level nationally.

Kidney Transplantation

The hospital performed its first kidney transplant in 1991. Its second urologic surgery department is a key clinical transplant discipline in the province, a provincial solid organ transplant science and technology innovation unit, and a provincial key organ transplant and kidney disease laboratory. It is also a national training base for clinical transplant pharmacists and transplant doctors as designated by the National Health and Family Planning Commission. The department maintains active academic exchanges and has hosted multiple international, national, and provincial academic conferences. In recent years, uremia patients from across China have received kidney transplants here.591

The department has 8 active surgeons and one re-employed expert after retirement, including 3 chief surgeons/ professors, 2 associate chief surgeons/associate professors, 2 attending surgeons, and 2 residents. It also has more than 10 surgeons who are currently pursuing master’s and PhD degrees. The active surgeons include 5 with PhDs and 3 with master’s degrees. The academic department has one PhD advisor and 2 master’s advisors. The department currently has 34 nurses, including 6 charge nurses, 2 nurses with graduate degrees, and 21 with bachelor’s degrees.

The director of the organ transplant centre Men Tongyi is a PhD advisor at Shandong University, a national member of the Kidney Transplant Group of Chinese Medical Association Urologic Surgery Professional Committee, chairman of the Shandong Medical Association Organ Transplantation Professional Committee, chief of the Shandong Solid Organ Transplantation Science and Technology Innovation Alliance, director of the Shandong Organ Transplantation and Kidney Disease Laboratory, and director of an international kidney transplantation association. He studied at Harvard University’s Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), Tokyo Women’s Medical University, and Seoul National University.592

The department’s website does not list its bed count. It claims that, since it performed its first kidney transplant in 1991, it has carried out a total of more than 1,500 to date.

This figure is equivalent to around 100 per year, yet the hospital leads the province and is at an advanced level nationally. This scale can be achieved by one lead surgeon and would not require more than 10 beds.

Liver Transplantation

Its hepatobiliary surgery department claims that its surgical volume and success rate have consistently led the province. Its liver transplant capabilities have reached an advanced level in the country.593

Since the hospital led the province in performing a liver transplant in 2000, it has accomplished the following provincial “firsts:”594

  • modified piggyback orthotopic liver transplant
  • reduced-size liver transplant
  • non-bypass orthotopic liver transplant
  • second liver transplant (for the same patient)
  • liver transplant without blood transfusion
  • living-donor liver transplant

The department’s website does not list bed or personnel count, yet claims that it had completed 115 liver transplants (including one relative-donor case) as of June 2009. This scale of 12 liver transplants per year, on average, does not match its claim of “consistently leading the province” or the abovementioned clinical breakthroughs. The website’s transplant data have not been updated in 7 years.

The hospital collaborated with Tianjin Oriental Organ Transplant Institute early on to establish the “Shandong Liver Transplant Centre of the Oriental Organ Transplant Institute.” Shen Zhongyang was appointed to be in charge of the Centre’s overall planning and guidance. Shen regularly comes to do rounds and surgeries and give lectures. The facility has become the largest liver transplant centre in the province and is advanced in the nation.595

Zang Yunjin of the Tianjin Oriental Organ Transplant Centre was dispatched to help establish this hospital’s liver transplant department and the Shandong Liver Transplant Centre of Oriental Organ Transplant Institute. He studied liver transplantation as a visiting scholar under Professor John J. Fung at the University of Pittsburgh (UPMC) Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute between September 1999 and December 2000.596

Doctors from the hospital were unable to explain the source of their donor organs. Below is an excerpt from a transcript of an investigative phone call made to the hospital:597

Investigator: Do you have disease-free kidneys from Falun Gong practitioners?

Doctor: Hmm…Anyway, in April there will certainly be more of such donors…

Investigator: Why will there be more in April?

Doctor: I can’t tell you that, because this involves…No need to explain these things to you. This issue cannot be explained…

On April 14, 2006, an individual identifying himself as a healthcare worker who worked in this hospital for more than 20 years wrote to the Falun Gong website Minghui.org, “the Shandong Qianfoshan Hospital and the Police General Hospital of Shandong Province colluded with the prisons and forced labor camps in a large-scale operation to conduct live organ harvesting for transplants. The bodies of Falun Gong practitioners were used for hospitals’ interns to conduct experiments. The hospital obtained directives from the Central and was fully involved.”598

“This hospital cooperated with Oriental Organ Transplant Centre to establish the Shandong Liver Transplant Institute. It boasted the largest transplant volume and the most advanced technology in liver transplantation in the province. The centre also performed kidney, testicular, lung, and cornea transplants.”

A full-page report by the Jinan Times on March 12, 2015 covered transplantation at this hospital:

Attending physician Liu Tianqi described, “After starting heart transplants in 2003, we established the ‘Shandong Heart Transplant Centre’ in November 2011. So far, we’ve completed 58 heart-lung and heart-kidney transplants, as well as 55 heart-only transplants. In the past two years, we’ve completed 28 heart transplants. We were ranked 6th nationwide for two consecutive years.”

The director of the first hepatobiliary surgery department, Teng Mujian, stated that, since the hospital performed the first liver transplant in the province in 2002, it has completed more than 300 to date.

Men Tonyi, director of the second urologic surgery department, said that it has completed more than 1,500 kidney transplants since 1991. It performed 103 kidney transplants in 2014.

Wang Xu, chief physician of its ophthalmology department, stated that the department performs an average of 30 cornea transplants per year.

Since the publication of the Matas/Kilgour report in 2006, the hospital has deleted almost all of its transplant volume and related information online. The numbers given to media by its doctors have also been sharply deflated.

84.

Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital

National level kidney transplant centre

This was formerly a church hospital founded in 1890. It has 3,000 beds, 485 personnel with senior professional titles, 184 professors and associate professors, 262 PhDs and postdoctoral fellows, 835 staff with master’s degrees, 118 doctoral and master’s advisors, and 14 experts who enjoy special government allowances from the State Council and have made outstanding contributions recognized by the Ministry of Health and the provincial government. Organ transplantation is one of its key areas.599

After 2004, the hospital rapidly developed its organ transplantation operations, making breakthroughs in kidney, heart, liver, pancreas-kidney, and other types of transplants. The hospital’s annual transplant volume ranked first in the province.

Its 100-bed Urologic Surgery Department has 29 doctors, including 13 with senior professional titles, one doctoral advisor, and 3 master’s advisors. Its kidney transplantation is at an advanced level domestically.600

Its 92-bed Hepatobiliary Surgery Department completed the first liver transplant in the eastern Shandong area in 2000. It has 37 medical staff, including 10 chief surgeons and associate chief surgeons, one postdoctoral fellow, 6 members with PhDs, and 8 with master’s degrees.601

Liu Dongfu, deputy director of the Organ Transplant Centre, was among the first in China to work on organ transplantation. He has engaged in kidney transplantation for over 30 years. Liu specializes in kidney transplant surgery and postoperative management, and has completed over 3,000 kidney transplants. He has won provincial and municipal science and technology progress awards, published more than 10 articles in SCI and core journals, and published 3 monographs related to kidney transplantation.602

Professor Gao Zhenli is the hospital’s vice president, director of the Urologic Surgery Department, and director of the Organ Transplant Centre. He enjoys special government allowances from the State Council and is a PhD advisor at Shandong University. He has been invited to demonstrate surgeries on multiple occasions at the People’s Liberation Army No. 301 Hospital in Beijing, Shanghai General Hospital, and the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University. He manages

6 national and provincial-level research projects and has won provincial and municipal science and technology progress awards in recent years. He has published more than 50 papers and edited 4 monographs.603 604

Below is a conversation between an investigator (posing as a relative of a patient) and nurse Fang Yanli (#0264) at the hospital:605

Q: “Hello doctor, what’s your last name?”

A: “My last name is Fang, what’s the matter?”

Q: “I heard there are hospitals in Yantai doing kidney transplantation. Is it your hospital?”

A: “Yes.”

Q: “We found it! How much does it cost to do a kidney transplantation?”

A: “If everything is smooth, 70-80 thousand yuan should be enough.”

Q: “How long does it take?”

A: “Need to check patient’s blood type first. If it is type O, it takes longer. Other blood types are very quick. Once the blood type is matched, we can do the surgery immediately. It only takes eleven days to stay in the hospital.”

Q: “Now we all need to have some connections. Can you recommend a chief surgeon?”

A: “Kidney transplantation is not a big surgery. All of our doctors are good at it.”

Q: “We still feel more assured with your help.”

A: “OK.” (Then he handed me a brochure from the bookshelf and opened it to the page of outstanding doctors on the organ transplantation team. We found a doctor called Yang Diandong (Medical master).

Q: “How much does it cost to match blood type?”

A: “Matching blood type costs 4,500 yuan. Just ask for me once the patient comes.”

Q: “Is the kidney you provide made of plastic?”

A: “No. They are all from live people.

83.

The Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Qingdao University

National level liver, kidney, pancreas, and small intestine transplant centre

National level liver, kidney, pancreas, and small intestine transplant centre

The hospital has a history of over 100 years. Its 4 locations have a total of 3,579 beds and over 5,000 personnel, including over 730 senior technical staff, 78 doctoral advisors, over 400 PhD degree holders, over 1,200 staff with master’s degrees, and over 100 staff who have studied abroad.606

The hospital began performing kidney transplants in May 1993 and was one of the first hospitals in China to conduct kidney transplantation. After establishing kidney transplantation as an independent department, it developed rapidly, with the number of transplants completed increasing year by year. It has already formed an integrated system of kidney transplantation for medical treatment, teaching and research. Its kidney transplant patients come from Shanxi, Shandong, Inner Mongolia, Henan, Hunan, Shanghai, Zhejiang, and other regions.607

Liver transplantation is a routine surgery for its hepatobiliary surgery department. In 2012, the flight inspection group on organ transplantation of the Ministry of Health highly commended this department for its excellent work.608

In February 2014, the Organ Transplant Centre was established. A top organ transplant team, led by Professor Zang Yunjin, the former deputy Director of the Institute of Liver Transplantation at Beijing Armed Police General Hospital, will focus on liver, heart, kidney, and pancreas transplants.

Zang Yunjin is the vice president of the Qingdao University Hospital Group and the director of its Organ Transplant Centre. Its website claimed that, in less than half a year, the centre had risen to a leading position in China, especially in liver transplants, and predicted that the organ transplants conducted at this hospital would rank among the top 10 in the country in 2014.609

In 2004, the department completed the first lung transplant in Shandong Province.610

Its ophthalmology founder Professor Pan Zuoxin is a well-known ophthalmic specialist. Professor Xie Lixin, the current leader of this discipline, is the only academician of both the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering in the field of ophthalmology. The hospital’s technique in preserving corneas and the construction of its eye bank are leading the field in China. It has carried out more than 10,000 cornea transplants so far.611

85.

Linyi People’s Hospital

National level kidney transplant centre

This facility was formerly a Gospel Hospital founded in 1891. It has 3,600 beds and 5,800 staff. It is a teaching hospital serving over ten medical colleges, including Shandong University.612 It has 526 senior staff, 10 staff with PhDs, and 176 with master’s degrees.613 The hospital’s Urologic Surgery Department is a key medical and health discipline in Shandong Province and has a work station for postdoctoral fellows from Shanghai Jiaotong University.

Its kidney transplant centre is known as one of the units to perform the most kidney transplants nationwide. The centre has 46 medical staff, including a master’s advisor, 13 chief and associate chief surgeons/physicians, 9 attending physicians, and 10 doctoral and graduate students.614

Director Guo Fengfu is the vice chairman of the Shandong Organ Transplantation Society and began his involvement in kidney transplantation in 1993. He has led three provincial-level research projects, including one that was designated nationally advanced by the Shandong Province Science and Technology Department and won a first-prize science and technology progress award from the city. He has published nearly 10 papers at the centre as the first author and co-edited three books.615

Guo Fengfu, chief physician Wang Jianming, deputy chief physicians Tan Shanfeng, He Xiangfei, and Wang Guangjian, and others had studied at VU University in Amsterdam. The department also employs a number of well-known domestic and foreign experts as visiting professors.616

Linyi People’s Hospital’s Fraternity Ophthalmology Unit takes the lead in the province in deep lamellar keratoplasty and cornea transplantation.617 It has 116 open beds, 7 chief surgeons, 11 deputy chief surgeons, 4 PhDs in ophthalmology, 22 master’s students, three professors, one associate professor, three lecturers, and a postgraduate advisor.618

The hospital is known to charge the country’s lowest fee for kidney transplants.619

92.

Henan Provincial People’s Hospital

(People’s Hospital of Zhengzhou University)
National level kidney, lung transplant centre

This facility was formerly a Gospel Hospital founded in Kaifeng in 1904. It is now one of the largest provincial general hospitals in Henan Province, with 3,900 beds, 720 senior staff, 142 doctoral and graduate advisors, and 62 outstanding provincial experts and experts who enjoy special government allowances from the State Council.620

Its Urologic Surgery Department was established in 1963 and currently has over 150 beds, 64 medical staff, including 7 chief surgeons/physicians, 5 associate chief surgeons, 4 attending physicians, one post-doctoral fellow, 5 staff members with PhDs, and 9 staff members with master’s degrees. It began developing kidney transplants in the early 1980s and is now capable of carrying out allogeneic and living-relative-donor kidney transplants.621

Its Hepatobiliary Surgery Department carried out the province’s first liver transplant surgery in 1995.622 It now has 7 chief surgeons/physicians, 11 associate chief surgeons/physicians, one associate chief nurse, 13 nurses-in-charge, 32 nurses, 16 staff members with PhDs, and 10 staff with master’s degrees. It has over 200 beds.623

Xue Huanzhou is known as the top kidney transplant expert in Henan Province. Xue’s skill in bloodless hepatectomy is the state-of-the-art domestically, and he performs over 1,000 surgeries annually.624

Its Chest Tumor Diagnosis and Treatment Centre carries out routine lung transplant surgeries. The Centre has 26 medical staff, including 3 chief surgeons, 2 associate chief surgeons, 4 attending physicians, and 7 staff members with master’s degrees. It has 41 beds.625

Deputy Director Wei Li of the Centre studied lung transplant technique in Kyoto University in Japan from 2006 to 2008. After returning to China, Wei led his team to successfully complete Henan Province’s first bilateral sequential lung transplant surgery.626 The Centre has regular academic exchanges with Kyoto University Respiratory Surgery Department and Toronto Organ Transplant Centre.

Its Department of Ophthalmology became Henan Eye Hospital in March 2012627. It has performed at least 6,000 cornea transplants.628 It has 196 beds, 27 researchers and chief surgeons, 30 research associates and associate chief surgeons, 23 staff with PhDs, and 39 with master’s degrees, including one doctoral advisor and 7 master’s advisors.629 The hospital’s eye bank is state-of-the-art in the country and hosts the Henan Province Eye Bank.

93.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University

National level liver, kidney, pancreas and small intestine transplant centre

This is the nation’s largest hospital by bed count. Public information shows that the hospital’s annual revenue increased from 680 million RMB in 2008 to 6 billion RMB in 2013 and to 7.5 billion RMB in 2014. It has 7,000 beds and serves as many as 21,600 outpatients a day, four times that of a similar type of hospital in Henan Province. In 2014, the hospital saw 4.26 million outpatients and 310,000 inpatients. 630 It has 445 senior staff, 550 associate senior staff, 1,025 intermediate staff, 723 staff with PhDs, and 1,479 staff with master’s degrees.631 Its quantity of liver transplantation and kidney transplantation performed both rank it among the top five in China.632

The hospital started performing kidney transplants in 1978. Its kidney transplant centre is acknowledged as highly skilled, with low fees and the best treatment outcomes, and remains in a leading position in the nation. It has ranked first in Henan Province for many consecutive years in the number of kidney transplants completed.633

The hospital’s vice president Zhang Shuijun has performed in-depth research on liver transplants and combined pancreas-kidney transplants. In 1994, Zhang led a team to set up the only liver transplant laboratory in Henan Province, and completed Henan Medical University’s first clinical liver transplant surgery successfully in 1997,634 moving the development of liver transplantation into the “fast lane.”635

According to a report published on the Henan Daily’s website on April 19, 2006, Zhang Shuijun, the hospital’s vice president, chairman of the Henan Organ Transplant Society, and an organ transplantation pioneer, commented that organ transplantation was flourishing throughout the province.

On April 3, the website of Liver Transplant Centre of Henan Province reported that this centre performed 4 successful liver transplants for 2 hepatocirrhosis patients and 2 liver cancer patients within the same day. Because of the doctors’ skillful operation and the patients’ minimal bleeding, all of the patients were transferred from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) to regular units on the same day of their surgery. Zhang also said that between the Lunar New Year (January 31, 2014) and April 3, 2014, the hospital had completed 30 liver transplants.636

In early September 2014, the centre carried out liver transplants for two male patients on the same day; one of whom needed only one day to achieve a successful match. The patients’ family paid 600,000 RMB in cash, and the surgery was done the next day.637

99.

Union Hospital of Huazhong University of Science and Technology

(Wuhan Union Hospital)
National level liver, kidney, heart, pancreas, and small intestine transplant centre

New surgery building

This hospital was founded in 1866 and currently has 4,800 beds, 230 senior staff, 344 associate senior staff, including 94 experts who enjoy special government allowances from the State Council and 2 academicians.638

Its Urologic Surgery Department enjoys a high academic status in the country and has 11 professors and chief surgeons/physicians, 6 associate professors and associate chief surgeons/physicians, 11 attending physicians, including 9 doctoral advisors and 17 master’s advisors. In 1977, it carried out the first kidney transplant surgery in central south China and has now become one of the largest kidney transplant centres in the region. 639

Its Liver Transplant Centre is a main component of its General Surgery Department, which has been designated a national key discipline. It began developing liver transplantation in 2003 and has matured in this now-routine capability. It offers low transplant costs of only about 150,000 RMB. It has a group of experts, with the majority of its doctors holding PhD degrees. It currently has 6 professors, including 2 doctoral advisors and 4 associate professors.640

Its Cardiovascular Surgery Department was established through approval of the State Council in 1980. Its heart transplantation and combined heart-lung transplantation are state of the art. It once completed 4 heart transplants simultaneously on the same day. It claimed to have completed the largest number of heart transplants in the country in 2014.641

Dong Nianguo, the director of cardiovascular surgery department and organ transplant centre, has successfully completed the first combined heart-liver transplantation, heart transplant for the youngest recipient (3 months old) and oldest recipient (76 years old) in China. His team has set a national record of completing four heart transplants simultaneously on the same day. Dong has studied in the United States and Switzerland, and made outstanding achievements in heart and lung transplantation.642

The hospital has also carried out a large number of cornea transplants.

100.

People’s Hospital of Wuhan University

National level kidney transplant centre

This hospital was founded in 1923. It currently has 4,000 beds and 580 senior staff.643

The hospital was one of the earliest in China to perform organ transplantation and has expanded into various types of transplants.644 In particular, its kidney transplantation is state-of-the-art in the country. It has accumulated a wealth of experience in the management, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with postoperative and other complications. It also conducts liver and heart transplants.645 646

In October 2003, it completed the first combined liver-kidney transplant in Hubei Province.647 Heart transplantation is one of the featured procedures of its Cardiovascular Surgery Department.648 Its capabilities in heart transplantation have reached a first-class level domestically.649

The organ transplant department focuses its research on the mechanics and prevention of perfusion injury, as well as immune tolerance. It has undertaken more than 20 projects under the National Natural Science Foundation and provincial and city-level science and technology funds. It has published more than 100 papers in SCI and domestic journals.650

According to its website, Director Zhou Jiangqiao has “a wealth of clinical experience and in-depth knowledge in the field of kidney transplantation. Through his kidney transplants, he has saved the lives of nearly a thousand patients who had uremia.” He has engaged in multiple academic exchanges overseas. He is a committee member of the Organ Transplant Branch of the Chinese Medical Association, standing committee member of the Transplant Surgeons Branch of the Chinese Medical Doctors Association, and vice chairman of the Organ Transplant Branch of the Hubei Medical Association. He also served on the editorial boards of journals, including the Chinese Journal of Transplantation (electronic version) and the Organ Transplant journal’s editorials. He has published over 30 papers, including 6 listed in SCI. He has co-edited 7 monographs and managed or participated in more than 10 provincial and city-level research projects. He is currently working on 3 research projects and has won one second prize of the Hubei Province Science and Technology Progress Award.651 652

The department’s chief surgeons (Liu Xiuheng, Hu Yunfei, Zhu Hengcheng), deputy chief surgeons (Chen Zhiyuan, Ge Minghuan), and surgeons (Qiu Tao, Chen Hui, Hu Shengguo, etc.) are all involved in kidney transplants.

The hospital’s website states that the organ transplant department has 25 beds and performs nearly 100 surgeries per year. Based on a conservative hospitalization duration of 30 days, 25 beds would enable at least 300 operations per year. Furthermore, if the department performs only 100 transplants per year, one transplant surgeon and 8 beds would be more than enough.

Professor Ding Youming, director of the hepatobiliary endoscopic surgery department and liver transplant specialist, studied in France and has performed clinical liver and liver-kidney transplants. He has managed 8 provincial and ministerial-level research projects, received one national award, published more than 100 papers domestically and internationally, and edited 2 monographs.653

The hospital’s Eye Centre also conducts a variety of cornea transplants.

105.

Xiangya Hospital of Central South University

National level liver, kidney, pancreas and small intestinal transplant centre

Xiangya Hospital ranked 16th among the 100 most competitive hospitals in China in 2015.654

In the 1970s, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University became one of the earliest hospitals in China to carry out organ transplantation. It is a leader in the field in Hunan Province. In 1979, it conducted the first allogeneic kidney transplant in the province. In 1985, it performed China’s first heterotopic liver transplant. In 1987, it began carrying out pancreas transplants. In 1994, it conducted the first heart transplant in central and southern China.

The Hunan Organ Transplant Research Institute was established in 1995, and its organ transplant centre was founded in September 2004.655

According to its 2001 yearbook records, Xiangya Hospital was the site of the Ministry of Health’s Hepatobiliary and Enteric Surgery Research Centre, a key clinical site for the Ministry. The Centre currently has 129 medical, teaching, and research personnel, among whom 12 hold professorships or equivalent titles and 26 are associate professors or equivalent. The Organ Transplant Centre is subordinate to the Research Centre.656

Since 2002, the hospital has performed 38 liver transplants for severe acute hepatitis and liver failure patients.657 Patients with severe hepatitis live for an average of three days after hospitalization, for which “the only solution is an emergency liver transplant.” Emergency liver transplants require procuring livers on demand.

According to Xianya Hospital’s website, on May 26, 2005 it completed one liver, 6 kidney, and 8 cornea transplants.658 On September 3, 2005, it performed 7 heart, liver, and kidney transplants.659 In early February 2006, it completed two liver transplants within a 72-hour period.660

On April 28, 2006, the organ transplant centre conducted 17 transplants in one day, including seven advanced-stage uremic patients simultaneously. On the same day, it also completed two liver transplants and 8 cornea transplants. The hospital claimed, “Heart, liver, kidney and other major organ transplants have become routine surgeries, signifying that Xiangya Hospital’s transplantation has moved towards a new stage.”661

The hospital has close connections with the military and employs Academicians Li Leishi and Liu Zhihong from the Nanjing General Hospital Kidney Transplant Centre of the Nanjing Military Command.662

Its ophthalmology department was one of China’s earliest institutions to conduct cornea transplants; it has established an eye bank.663

106.

Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University

National level liver, kidney, heart, lung, pancreas and small intestinal transplant centre

Ophthalmology Building

The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University ranked 19th among the 100 most competitive hospitals in China in 2015.664 It employs 631 senior professionals, 108 doctoral advisors, and 248 master’s advisors. The hospital has 3,500 registered beds.665

The hospital began performing multi-organ transplants relatively early in China, and has reached an advanced level domestically. It is one of the seven hospitals approved to carry out the most types of organ transplants—liver, kidney, heart, lung, pancreas, and intestine.666

The hospital performed the first cadaveric kidney transplant in Hunan Province in 1985. Its organ transplant centre was established in September 2001. During a half-year period in 2002, the centre conducted more kidney transplants than it had in total in all previous years. 667

Its urological transplant department was established in 2003. The number of kidney recipients also increased each year. As of January to May 2015, its number of DCD kidney transplants ranked second in the country; it ranked fourth in the total number of kidney transplants.668

The department has 52 beds, 11 ICU beds, and 11 specialists, 7 of whom hold more senior titles than attending surgeons, 9 of whom hold PhDs and two who are pursuing PhD degrees. 669

The director of the urological transplant department, Peng Longkai, has completed more than 2,000 kidney transplants.670 He served as a member of the Chiidney Transplant Science Registration System Management

Committee, a member of the Chinese Medical Doctor Association Organ Transplant Subcommittee’s Kidney Transplant Professional Committee, and head of the Hunan Province Human Organ Procurement Organization Expert Group. Under his leadership, this hospital’s kidney transplant work gradually entered a standardized, scaled-up development track and reached an advanced level domestically.

A media report in 2005 stated, “The donor organ network has gradually extended to the north and south, and has established resource sharing relationships with more than 10 domestic organ transplant centres.”671 Its website stated that the kidney transplant department has been in close contact with other organ transplant organizations. It has built a nationwide organ source sharing network and maintains close relationships with other major organ transplant centres in the country.672

One could observe the volume of transplants from how busy the doctors were: “transplant surgeons often have to work for over 20 consecutive hours performing surgeries. They will start another round of operations after they rest for three or four hours. The surgeons are still at the operating table, while the scrub nurses have changed several shifts. They often conduct a dozen operations over a period of 2 ~ 3 days. They once performed 9 kidney transplants in one day.”673

The organ transplant division under the General Surgery department was established in July 2005, which passed the assessment by the Ministry of Health in 2007 to get approval to become a national level liver transplant centre. It has various groups to carry out liver transplants and other combined organ transplants. It assumes a leading role in the province. It has three professors, one associate professor, one doctoral advisor, and two master’s advisors.674

Department head Qi Haizhi began conducting basic research in liver transplantation in 1994. He has engaged in organ transplantation research and clinical work for more than 20 years. His team performed Hunan Province’s first orthotopic whole liver transplant, the first pediatric liver transplant, the first transplant for an acute liver failure patient, the province’s first combined liver-kidney transplant, the first pancreas-kidney transplant, and the first liver-pancreas transplant. In December 2010, he and his team successfully completed a combined transplant of 8 intraperitoneal organs, including liver, pancreas, spleen, and stomach; this was a first in China and the second case in the world, creating a sensation.675

The hospital’s cardiothoracic surgery department was recognized as a key clinical discipline by the Ministry of Health in 1992, and was approved by the Ministry of Education as a national key discipline in 2001. It has successfully implemented heart, lung, as well as heart-lung combined transplantation, and has set the record for the longest survival time for its heart-lung transplant recipients. Its heart-lung transplantation capabilities are said to lead the country.676

This department has conducted systematic research on key issues regarding the protection of the heart and lung and the prevention of long-term complications, in order to ensure the success of heart, lung, and heart-lung transplants.

With more than 230 beds, it is the largest thoracic and cardiovascular medical centre in central China. Currently, the centre conducts more than 4,000 heart surgeries annually. Its surgical volume and clinical scale rank first among general hospitals in China.

It has 40 teaching and research staff, including 11 professors, 12 associate professors, 15 lecturers, and 7 doctoral advisers.   More than 60% of its instructors hold doctoral degrees.

Previously head of the Cardiothoracic Surgery Department for 18 years, Hu Jianguo completed Hunan Province’s first combined heart-lung transplant and set a record for the longest survival time in Asia.677

Yin Bangliang, former hospital president and director of the organ transplant centre, studied in Germany and the United States on multiple occasions. He has engaged in clinical research in heart and heart-lung transplantation.678

The hospital’s ophthalmology department was one of the earliest units in China to perform cornea transplants. It is a key discipline at Central South University. Currently, the department has 50 staff members, including surgeons / physicians, technicians, and nurses. Among them, 17 are associate professors or above. The department has one PhD advisor, 12 master’s advisors, and more than 80 open beds.679

107.

Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University

National level liver, kidney, pancreas and intestinal transplant centre

New Surgery ward building

This hospital is a national research base in central and southern China for transplantation technologies on human organ, tissue and cellular levels. The hospital has the capacity to conduct major organ transplants on a large scale and now leads the country in the total number of solid organ transplants performed, including liver, kidney, combined liver-kidney, combined heart-lung, and intestinal transplants.680681

In 1998, the hospital successfully conducted its first kidney transplant operation. In August 2001, the hospital invested nearly one billion RMB to build the Hunan Transplant Medical Centre, including a dialysis centre, laboratory, laminar flow operating rooms, an ICU ward, and 150 transplantation beds. Meanwhile, the centre became the Hunan Province Transplantation Medical Centre.682 Organ transplantation became a trump card of the hospital’s development.683

The hospital experienced tremendous growth. Its new surgery building became operational on April 9, 2008. The 98-metre-tall building represents 600 million RMB in investment and has 1,000 beds.684

In October 2002, Ye Qifa, a well-known transplant medical specialist in China, led a team of eight fellow transplantation experts to join the Third Xiangya Hospital. In July 2003, Ye successfully performed a highly complex piggyback combined liver-kidney transplant. This was the first such case in China.685

On September 18, 2003, the Hunan Transplantation Medical Engineering and Technology Research Centre was established in this hospital. The centre arranged seven liver and kidney transplants on that day. Huang Jiefu, then Deputy Minister of Health, attended the inaugural ceremony and was said to have performed a liver transplant.686

In August 2004, the Changde Branch of the Central South University Xiangya Transplantation Medical School was established in Changde Third People’s Hospital. The kidney transplant centre was established in this branch.687

In 2005, the Transplant Medicine Engineering and Technology Research Centre affiliated with Ministry of Health was officially established in this hospital. Its mission was to build an important national base specializing in clinical transplantation medical research and related industry development. The centre also collaborated with the World Health Organization and the International Xenotransplantation Association to develop xenograft international norms (the Changsha Standard).688

In 2006, hospital president Huang Zufa said in an interview, “Our hospital once performed 2 liver and 5 kidney transplants at the same time. We already have the ability to do 6 or 7 transplant surgeries at the same time. In short, our hospital’s overall strength in transplant medicine is at an advanced level nationwide.”689

This centre carries out combined liver-kidney, liver-pancreas, liver-intestine, pancreas-kidney, spleen, pancreas, heart, thyroid, parathyroid, split liver, and relative-donor liver transplants, as well as that of other solid organs. Its piggyback liver transplant surgery leads the field in China, while kidney transplantation has become a routine surgery at the hospital.

Ye Qifa, a doctoral and postdoctoral advisor, is the current director of the Laboratory of the Transplantation Medicine Engineering Research Centre under the Ministry of Health. He was previously the deputy director of the Tongji Organ Transplant Institute. His transplant team at Xiangya consists of more than 20 professors and associate professors and about 100 staff members. All of its researchers in basic and applied research hold doctoral degrees.

Huang Zufa, the dean of the Xiangya Transplant Medicine Research Institute of Central South University and the director of the Hunan Transplant Medical Centre, specializes in liver and kidney transplantation.690

111.

First People’s Hospital of Changde

Regional level kidney transplant centre

This hospital was established in 1898 as the first hospital practicing Western medicine in Hunan Province. It serves as a training base for master’s degree students, an experimental base for continuing education for several universities, and a training base for national residency standardization. It is a National Natural Science Foundation support unit and a nationally designated clinical drug trial institution. It has over 2,200 open beds, 434 personnel with senior and associate senior titles, and 438 intermediate-level professional personnel.691

In 1994, the hospital became one of the earliest in Hunan Province to start performing kidney transplants. It claims to perform the most transplants in the province, and its relative-donor kidney transplantation capability assumes a leading role in the country.

Its current website no longer lists the Urologic Transplant Department. However, the introduction to Urology Ward No. 2 shows its predecessor as the Urologic Transplant Department and claims that the key medical professionals have many years of experience in renal transplantation as routine procedures, and its mature technology in kidney transplantation reflects the highest standards of urology. It has 24 staff members, including a chief physician, a deputy chief physician, 3 physicians with master’s degrees, two attending physicians, two head nurses and 3 senior nurses.692

Its website reported the hospital has completed only nearly 1,000 kidney transplants in the past ten years. In addition, the profile of expert Zhu Huachen, director of organ transplantation, had all of its content removed, with only a photo remaining. In a national ranking of recommended public hospital doctors (http://m.120bst.com/), Zhu was ranked fourth among kidney transplant surgeons in Hunan Province.693

Zhou Jianhui, director of urology and an adjunct professor at Xiangya Hospital, has worked in this field for more than 30 years. He studied at the Institute of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, and Nanfang Hospital. In 1996, he successfully completed the first allogeneic kidney transplant in Hunan Province at a municipal hospital.694

According to the hospital’s website, the following quality transplant services are provided:695

  1. Maximum reduction of hospitalization costs for the patient; the average cost for a kidney transplant between family members is about 60,000 RMB with no complications, or about 80,000 RMB from a cadaveric donor.
  2. Strict donor and recipient tissue compatibility and cross-matching, to guarantee maximum survival time of the donor organ and the recipient.
  3. Strict control of warm and cold ischemia times of the donor organ.
  4. Strengthened detection of AIDS virus (HIV), various hepatitis viruses, syphilis and other infectious diseases in the donor organ.

In addition to kidney transplants, its treatment techniques for heart, liver, and other types of transplants have also reached an advanced level in the province and nationwide.696 It started performing liver transplants in 2001697 and heart transplants in 2004.698 It performs cornea transplants as a routine procedure and has sufficient sources of corneas. Its cornea transplantation leads the province.699

108.

Second Hospital of University of South China

Regional level kidney transplant centre

This hospital has 1,850 registered beds, 210 personnel with senior professional titles, over 20 PhDs, over 300 master’s degree holders, and nearly 50 master’s advisors.

Its kidney transplant centre conducted the first successful kidney transplant with ABO/Rh-incompatible blood types. Its capabilities lead the field in clinical, technological, and academic areas. It was the first in Hengyang to perform cornea, liver, hematopoietic stem cell, and other types of transplants.700

Its Urologic Surgery Department is the oldest, largest, and only urology department certified to perform kidney transplants in the City of Hengyang. It has 130 beds and over 20 specialized physicians, including 3 professors and chief physicians, 7 associate professors and deputy chief physicians, one post-doctorate, and 4 PhDs.701

The kidney transplant centre has 5 professors, associate professors and directors, 10 personnel with Intermediate technical titles, 2 PhDs, and 7 master’s students.702

Professor Luo Zhigang is the centre’s academic lead, a master’s advisor, and the first to earn an MD from overseas. He is the lead urology professional in Hengyang and the only member from Hunan Province on the China Dialysis Transplantation Research Committee. He has made outstanding achievements in the field of urology and organ transplantation and enjoys a high reputation and significant academic status in the health sector in the province and even the whole country. In Hunan Province, he took the lead in carrying out routine kidney transplants. He takes transplant patients from Gansu, Xinjiang, Guangzhou, Hainan, Sichuan, Changsha, Xiangtan and other regions. He has completed 3 provincial and departmental-level research projects and published many papers in major medical journals in China. His research in renal transplantation achieved a Hunan Science and Technology Progress Award. He has co-edited two books and published more than 60 papers.

Wang Yi, MD is a chief physician, professor, master’s advisor, and member of the Hunan Province Organ Transplant Professional Committee. He studied urology at Hokkaido University in Japan and Cleveland Clinic in the United States. Wang majored in kidney transplantation and performed kidney transplants for ABO-incompatible blood types and ABO/Rh dual incompatible blood types between family members, which filled two relevant gaps in the country’s transplantation capabilities. He managed multiple research projects under the National Natural Science Foundation of China and a number of provincial-level research projects. He has trained nearly 30 graduate students, published more than 40 papers (many of which were collected by SCI), co-edited 5 monographs, and translated a monograph.

Luo Zhigang, Deputy Director of the Hunan Province Professional Organ Transplant Committee, obtained his medical PhD overseas and was among the first in Hunan Province to perform routine kidney transplants. His extends his services to patients from Gansu, Xinjiang, Guangdong, Hainan, Sichuan, and Malaysia.

Liu Zuguo, a professor of ophthalmology at the hospital, completed a variety of difficult keratoplasty transplants in over 2,000 cases as lead surgeon. He is the only Distinguished Professor of Ophthalmology in China under “the Ministry of Education Cheung Kong Scholars Program.” He also served as a visiting professor at Baylor College of Medicine in the U.S. He has led over 20 research projects, published more than 100 papers, finished 5 monographs as chief editor or associate editor, compiled 9 monographs, won 14 research awards, and has been granted 4 patents for provincial and ministerial-level inventions.703

112.

First People’s Hospital of Yueyang

Regional level kidney transplant centre

This hospital collaborates with the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, serves as a postgraduate clinical training base for Central South University Xiangya School of Medicine, and provides clinical teaching for 12 other medical schools. It has 326 personnel with senior and associate senior titles, 9 medical PhDs, 215 master’s degree holders, one specialist eligible for special allowances from the State Council, and 12 master’s advisors. It has 1,429 registered beds.704

The hospital started organ transplants as early as in 1997 and established a dedicated organ transplant division in 2003. It collaborated with Tongji Hospital and many other hospitals to provide remote consultation for patients with complicated diseases. Meanwhile, the hospital has set up an organ information sharing network with many hospitals inside and outside the province, enabling the sharing of organ resources and complementing transplant capabilities.

In 2004, it collaborated with Tongji Medical University to perform the first heart transplant in Yueyang City.705 In December 2006, it performed the first liver transplant in Yueyang.706 Later, the division relied on its own strength and cooperation with other divisions in the hospital to carry out a heart transplant and a combined liver-kidney transplant.707

Wen Dingjun, the academic lead in organ transplantation and director of the renal transplant division, was a board member of the Hunan Province Organ Transplant Committee and was named chief expert of Yueyang City in 2009.708 He tackled complex problems of kidney transplants, making them a routine procedure at the hospital.

One of the founders of the urology department, Professor Zhang Guofu, who serves as an adjunct professor at Central South University, specializes in kidney transplantation, and is one of the top ten doctors in the city. Professor Tang Xiuying once studied at the Organ Transplant Institute of Wuhan Union Hospital.709 Yang Dengfeng, Peng Shibo, Wang Xinyu and others all specialize in kidney transplant.710

The hospital’s website showed that it had completed over 2,000 allogeneic kidney transplants. As of July 2014, it had performed 5 transplants with voluntary organ donations. This leads to the question: even if the figure of 2,000 cases is assumed not to be purposely reduced, then from where did all the organs in the non-donation cases come?711

Its ophthalmology department also performs cornea transplants,712 including non-penetrating and penetrating keratoplasty.713

114.

Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University

National level liver, kidney, pancreas and small intestinal transplant centre

The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University operates a liver transplant centre under the Organ Transplant Research Institute of Sun Yat-Sen University, with which the Guangdong Organ Transplantation Research Centre is affiliated. It claims to represent the best skills in China in liver transplantation and is one of the top hospitals in the nation in the total number of liver transplants performed. It is one of the fastest-growing and most promising centres nationwide.714

The hospital’s Liver Transplant Centre and the Sun Yat-Sen University Organ Transplant Research Institute are a national key specialty under the Ministry of Education and a national key clinical specialty under the Ministry of Health. It is also the Guangdong Province Organ Transplant Research Centre and a key specialized medical unit under the Guangdong Province “Eleventh Five-Year Plan.” The Centre is a leading institution in southern China and an internationally influential clinical and research centre in the Hong Kong, Macau, and Southeast Asia region. The Centre has five wards and sets its focus on liver, pancreas, small intestine, combined, and complicated transplants. It currently has 113 open beds.715

Chen Guihua, hospital president and director of the Sun Yat-Sen University Organ Transplant Research Institute, is the director of the Guangdong Medical Association Organ Transplantation Subcommittee, vice director of the China Organ Transplant Association Liver Transplant Group, and director of the Guangdong Province Organ Transplant Research Centre. His liver transplant team has another 8 experienced doctors and 28 therapists, including 3 chief and deputy chief surgeons/physicians and 5 attending physicians. All of the surgeons/physicians hold doctoral degrees.716

The centre’s official website stated in 2006 that “director Chen Guihua has served as lead surgeon for more than 1,000 liver transplants in recent years.” 717After the exposure of organ harvesting crimes, Chen’s personal webpage showed that he undertook only over 100 liver transplants. 718 On the night of February 10, 2004, Director Chen oversaw 4 liver transplant operations simultaneously. Chen conducted 246 liver transplants in 2005.719

The liver transplant team has undertaken multiple research projects under the National 973 Program, Ministry of Health key projects, and the Guangdong Province Science Research Foundation. Its grants total to nearly 10 million RMB.720

The hospital began work in kidney transplantation in the 1990s and was one of the earlier units to do so. Its kidney transplant discipline is subordinate to the Guangdong Province Organ Transplant Centre and the Sun Yat-Sen University Organ Transplant Research Institute.721

The department is among the top in China and in Guangdong Province for kidney transplants. It has 8 kidney transplant clinical doctors, among whom 4 hold senior titles and 3 hold intermediate titles. It has 6 PhDs, 2 master’s degree holders, and 3 people who have studied abroad. Its lead surgeons have had experience in hundreds of surgeries.

Aside from providing clinical care, the department also conducts clinical research. In recent years, it has published over 200 papers (with 40 in SCI) in the kidney transplantation clinical field in core academic journals inside and outside of China. The department has received more than 20 research grants from international, national, provincial, and city-level foundations. It has received four awards from the American Society of Transplantation and other international transplantation organizations, and some Ministry and provincial Science and Technology Progress Awards.722

Sun Qiquan, director of the kidney transplant department and PhD advisor, studied under the tutelage of kidney disease pioneer and academician Li Leishi. He received post-doctorate training at the Ohio State University Organ Transplant Centre in the United States. He previously served as vice president of the Nanjing General Hospital Organ Transplant Centre (under the Nanjing Military Command). He has published more than 60 papers (20 in SCI journals). He has participated in the editing of 4 books, including Primer on Transplantation, the official textbook of the American Society of Transplantation. Sun served as the sole East Asian representative on the International Society of Nephrology (ISN)’s Young Nephrologist Committee. He was chairman of the transplantation conference at the 2013 World Congress of Nephrology. In recent years, he has presented his work more than ten times at the World Transplant Conference, the American Transplant Congress, and other venues.723

Professor Hong Liangqing is a kidney transplant expert well-known in Guangdong Province. He is currently on the Guangdong Province Organ Transplant Society Standing Committee and an executive editor of the Organ Transplantation journal.724

115.

Guangdong General Hospital

National level kidney and heart transplant centre

This is the largest general hospital in Guangdong Province and one of the strongest in China. It has 3,926 medical professional personnel, including 685 with senior titles, 32 doctoral advisors, and 116 master’s advisors. It has 2,729 beds and an annual surgical volume of 105,000.725

Its urologic surgery department was established in 1947 and was one of the earliest. The hospital’s kidney transplant success rate has reached over 98%. It has carried out a number of successful combined pancreas-kidney and liver-kidney transplants. Its extensive clinical experience has attracted not only domestic patients, but also many more from Asia, the United States, Germany, Britain, Canada, Australia, Mexico, and other countries. About 70% of its staff holds senior titles, including 10 chief surgeons and associate chief surgeons. It has 70 beds.726

The hospital’s cardiac surgery department has developed into the largest treatment centre for cardiovascular surgery in southern China and enjoys a high reputation. The department has 45 personnel with senior professional titles, 26 PhDs, and 30 with master’s degrees. It has 3 doctoral advisors and 9 master’s advisors.727

In 1998, the department carried out the first heart transplant in the province. In 2006, it completed the first combined heart-lung transplant. It has 205 beds and 10 operating theatres.

Professor Wu Ruobin, the department’s director and a doctoral advisor, led the first heart transplant and the first heart-lung transplant in Guangdong Province. He has published nearly 20 articles. His current research project is the provincial key project “Heart-Lung Transplantation.”728

The hospital does not have approval to perform liver transplants, but its website shows that it has been conducting liver transplants and was one of the first in China to begin clinical transplants and has continued to develop clinical transplants over the years.729

In 2001, the kidney transplant team published a paper titled “Multiple Organ Transplantation.” It stated that they extracted multiple organs from 6 donors and transplanted them into 2 end-stage heart disease patients, one patient with late-stage cirrhosis and chronic renal failure (liver-kidney transplant), 3 late-stage cirrhosis patients (liver transplants), and 11 end-stage uremia patients (kidney transplants). All of the donor organs were obtained using heart-kidney or liver-kidney removal techniques.730

Its website states, “On January 16, 2001, the doctors of our gastrointestinal surgery and urology departments successfully conducted the first pancreas-kidney transplant in province. The success is a sign that our hospital’s organ transplantation has reached a new level.”731

116.

Guangdong No.2 Provincial People’s Hospital

National level kidney transplant centre

Staff photo in the Organ Transplant Department

Formerly known as the People’s Liberation Army No. 177 Central Hospital, this comprehensive hospital combines medical care, emergency treatment, education, research, prevention, and rehabilitation under one roof. It has 1,500 beds and over 400 postdoctoral fellows, PhDs, Master’s degree holders, and senior professionals.732

The hospital’s organ transplant division was established in July 1999. It ranked among the top 10 in a comprehensive score based on kidney transplant data stored in the national organ transplant registry.733 The hospital’s website states that it has 31 medical staff, including 10 surgeons and 35 beds in its transplantation ward.

Liu Dong, a chief physician, is the director of the Division. He obtained his PhD from Sun Yat-sen University under Professor Zheng Keli, a well-known organ transplant specialist in China. Zheng’s webpage states that he has overseen over 3,000 kidney transplants.734 735

In October 2015, the webpage of Organ Transplant Division stated that Director Liu himself has participated in more than 2,000 kidney and liver transplant operations,736 including as chief surgeon in over 800 renal transplants from cadaver donors, and more than 20 cadaveric liver transplants.737

The same website claims the Organ Transplant Division has completed more than 1,000 transplant surgeries since 1999. This volume, about 100 cases per year, on average, does not match the staffing level and ward configuration in this division. Conducting 100 cases per year only needs fewer than 10 beds and far fewer surgeons, but the division claims to have 35 beds and 10 surgeons, among whom 8 hold senior and associate senior professional titles. The volume of claimed transplantation is also inconsistent with ranking among the top 10 in a comprehensive score based on kidney transplant data stored in the national organ transplant registry.

In 2006, deputy director Wu Jiaqing said that before August 3, an average of over 10 organ transplants were performed there every day, and that 6 transplants were carried out on August 4;738 between July and August, the Division received transplant patients from 8 to 9 countries, including Singapore, Cambodia, and France. This information was relayed by an insider to Minghui.org.

In October 2015, the web page of the Organ Transplant Division showed that the unit has 4 chief surgeons, 4 associate chief surgeons, 4 PhDs, and 2 Master’s degree holders.739 740

Liu Dong, director of Organ Transplant Division, co-edited Clinical Kidney Transplant and published more than 40 academic papers in national and international journals.741

Wu Jiaqing, the chief surgeon and associate director of the Organ Transplant Division, is a standing member of the Chinese Medical Association and a member of the Guangzhou Organ Transplant Subcommittee. He has 20 years of experience in kidney transplantation and urology surgery. He led one research project supported by a scientific research foundation of Guangdong Province, and led another research project supported by the natural science foundation of Guangdong. He has published more than 10 papers in core medical journals.

Zheng Keli, chief surgeon, is the former director of the urology surgery department, former director of the surgical department, former executive vice president of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, former president of Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, and former associate director of the Guangdong Organ Transplantation Association. He currently works at the Second Affiliated People’s Hospital of Guangdong. Zheng invented the testing of extracorporeal circulation which prohibited hyperacute rejection after transplantation. Treatment after kidney transplant surgery has reached international advanced level.

Li Cheng, a chief surgeon, participated in the planning and establishment of the hospital’s organ transplant department in 1999. He led and was involved in more than 10 national and provincial research projects on organ transplantation, co-edited 3 books, and published more than 20 papers in national and provincial core journals. 742

119.

Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University

National level kidney transplant centre

This hospital has 1,428 beds and over 400 senior experts.743 It began to perform kidney transplants in 1987. Its volume of living-donor kidney transplants ranks among the top both in Guangdong Province and nationwide.744

Professor Pan Guanghui, chairman of the Guangzhou Organ Transplantation Society, established the hospital’s organ transplant centre in 2001. He served as the centre’s director and a member of the Guangdong Organ Transplantation Society. Having worked in the field for nearly 30 years, he provides technical support in kidney transplantation to nearly 20 hospitals in China. He has personally completed more than 1,000 kidney transplants.

Liao Dehuai, head of the centre’s kidney transplant ward, has worked in the transplantation field for 24 years. In addition to a large number of kidney transplants, he has also carried out liver, liver-kidney, and pancreas-kidney transplants. He has performed nearly 800 kidney transplants.745

Chen Zheng holds a PhD in medicine and serves as a master’s advisor, a member and current secretary of the Guangdong Organ Transplantation Society, and a member of the Guangdong Medical Doctor Association Organ Transplantation Subcommittee. He has worked in kidney transplantation for 17 years. He studied kidney transplantation at Charité Hospital in Germany and at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) in the United States in 2010 and 2011, respectively. He has conducted more than 600 kidney transplants, including nearly 300 living-donor kidney transplants. He has accumulated rich experience in the areas of transplant rejection responses and immune tolerance. In addition to managing a Ministry of Health research project, he has participated in one project funded by the National Natural Science Foundation and two provincial-level research projects.

In the middle of April 2006, the hospital received eight kidneys for transplants, transported by air.746

120.

First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University

National level lung transplant centre

Built in 1903, this hospital is one of the first 13 National Clinical Research Centres. It has 1,500 beds and 480 senior professionals, including 20 doctoral advisors and 115 master’s advisors, one member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, 3 health experts serving central government officials, 8 members who enjoy special allowances from the State Council.747

Its thoracic surgery department is a national key specialty discipline. It completed the first clinical allogeneic lung transplantation in southern China, and is the only unit in the country to successfully carry out a clinical allogeneic trachea and lung transplant. It is one of the hospitals to have completed the most lung transplants in China.748 749

Professor He Jianxing, president of the hospital and director of its thoracic surgery department, has worked in thoracic surgery for 30 years. In 1996, as an academic lead, he led his research team to study lung transplant surgery. In 1999, he successfully completed the first clinical tracheal allograft transplant in the Asia-Pacific region. In January 2003, he completed the first successful allogeneic lung transplant in southern China. He has published 79 articles in SCI journals, including The Lancet. He is a member of the Chinese Society of Organ Transplantation, Guangdong Society of Organ Transplantation Committee, and vice chairman of Guangzhou Organ Transplantation Society.750

The deputy chief physician in minimally invasive general surgery, Wang Ping, has a good mastery of liver transplantation surgery and successfully launched allogeneic liver transplantation in the hospital.751

Liu Guochang, associate chief physician of ophthalmology, specializes in cornea transplant surgery and had studied cornea transplantation in the Ophthalmology Division of Zhongshan Medical University.752

121.

Shenzhen Sunyixian Cardiovascular Hospital

National level heart transplant centre

This is the only hospital in southern China specializing in cardiovascular diseases and authorized to perform heart transplants. Its core professionals are from Beijing Fu Wai Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, People’s Liberation Army No. 301 Hospital, and experts in cardiovascular disease who were trained overseas in the United States, Britain, Germany, Belgium, Australia and Japan. Since it conducted its first heart transplant surgery in 2002, heart transplantation has become routine at the hospital.753

Its staff includes 39 professors and chief surgeons, 61 associate chief surgeons, two post-doctoral fellows, 6 PhDs, and 41 with master’s degrees.754 The hospital’s business has developed rapidly; its new building with 500 beds will be put into use by the end of 2016.755

Its end-stage heart disease clinic (specializing in heart transplantation) is among the top ten clinics of excellence in Shenzhen. The clinic completed its first heart transplant in October 2002. Its longest survival time for transplant recipients has reached 10 years, an advanced level domestically. It has six chief surgeons and two associate chief surgeons.756

In the past ten-plus years, the hospital has done in-depth exploration and has gained extensive experience in myocardial protection, postoperative anti-rejection, and isolated postoperative care. Its heart transplantation technique has reached an advanced level in China.757

On September 30, 2003, chief surgeon Ji Shangyi and Yang Jian’an completed two heart transplants in six hours, taking turns as lead surgeon.758

Former hospital president Ji Shangyi was the academic leader of heart transplantation, deputy director of Guangdong Medical Thoracic Surgery Society, and an editor of the Chinese Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. He did postdoctoral research at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine in 1988, pursued further study at the Delaware Medical Centre from 1992 to 1998, where he was appointed director of a surgery laboratory. He participated in heart transplant surgeries and accumulated extensive experience in the field.759

Current hospital president Yang Jian’an took the lead in heart transplantation, and filled a gap in this field in the province. The success and survival rate of his heart transplant surgery has achieved an advanced level domestically. He is currently undertaking three national research projects under the “863 Program,” one national major technological research project, and four technological research projects in Shenzhen. He has won many medical achievement awards in Guangdong Province and published over 60 papers.760

125.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University

(Guangzhou Overseas Chinese Hospital)
National level kidney transplant centre

Jinan University was established in 1906 as the Highest Institution for Overseas Chinese. Due to the needs of Chinese overseas and in Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan who return to China for medical treatment, the government specially approved the construction of Guangzhou Overseas Chinese Hospital, which is also the First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University. The hospital has 241 senior professional staff, including 50 PhD advisors, 149 master’s advisors, 511 staff with master’s degrees and PhDs, and over 160 who have studied abroad. It has 2,000 beds.761

The urologic surgery department performed its first kidney transplant in 1993, established a kidney transplant department in 1997, and changed its name to the ‘Organ Transplant Centre’ in 2003. It specializes in kidney, liver, pancreas, and other types of transplants. Its kidney transplantation leads the province. 762 763

On December 9, 2012, the hospital’s new 19-story, 1,300-bed ward building became operational. It contains the organ transplant centre, urologic and cardiothoracic surgery departments, and the VIP ward. It has 20 laminar-flow operating rooms meeting international standards.764 765

Its VIP patient rooms mirror hotel standards and have various high-end medical facilities to satisfy the expectations of high-end patients from within China and other countries. The hospital has an international medical department and can provide medical treatment, health care, and rehabilitation services for personnel of state agencies, foreign guests, VIPs, and patients from Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan.766

The hospital’s website does not currently contain information about its organ transplant centre. According to an introduction from March 2009, the department had 62 beds and 14 senior, 7 intermediate, and 26 junior technical personnel. They include 3 doctoral advisors, 5 master’s advisors, 8 in-service PhDs, and 7 members with master’s degrees. In the five years prior, it had undertaken two research projects under the National Natural Science Foundation that total to 510,000 RMB. Its “Basic and Clinical Research in the Application of Organ Transplantation” won a second-prize science and technology development award from the Ministry of Education.767

Professor Su Zexuan at the centre is the vice chairman of the Guangdong Medical Association Organ Transplant Subcommittee. His team have conducted a series of basic and clinical research in kidney, liver-kidney, and pancreas-kidney transplantation. The team has explored the modeling of liver-kidney-pancreas cluster transplants in animals, establishing a solid foundation for multi-organ transplantation. He has published 103 articles in domestic and international journals and edited 3 monographs, including Modern Transplantation.768

Chief physician Chen Jie is a member of the Guangdong Medical Association Organ Transplant Subcommittee. He pursued a PhD and studied clinical transplantation in the transplant surgery department at Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin. He then studied kidney transplantation at Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University. His specializations include allogeneic kidney transplants and postoperative follow-up and treatment of infections. He has also conducted research in increasing the quality and long-term survival and function of organs from brain-dead donors.769

Ding Hongwen has been engaged in organ transplantation since July 1997. Ding had studied at the Department of Kidney Transplantation at Nanfang Hospital of the First Military Medical University and the Organ Transplantation Centre at First People’s Hospital of Tianjin. Ding specializes in prevention and treatment of postoperative complications following liver and kidney transplants.770

126.

The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University

National level kidney transplant centre

Hospital Ward Building
Hospital Outpatient Building

Built in 1899 and formerly known as Rouji Hospital as established by an American church, the hospital now has 235 staff with senior titles or above, and over 389 staff with master’s degrees and PhDs. It has 1,000 beds. Organ transplantation is a key discipline at the hospital.771

In 1986, it performed the first kidney transplant in Guangzhou City. In April 2004, it became part of the first batch of institutions to be given a Grade A rating in the kidney transplant quality assessment by the Guangdong Medical Association. In 2008, it passed a quality assessment review by the Guangdong Medical Association.772

Its organ transplant department’s website states that it has completed the most kidney transplants in the province in recent years. The department gradually grew into a comprehensive, specialized unit offering medical care, academic research, and education. It has 6 personnel with associate senior titles or above, including 2 graduate advisors, 4 staff members with PhDs, one post-doctoral fellow, and 3 staff members with master’s degrees. Three doctors with senior titles have each completed over one hundred kidney transplants.773 Associate director Lin Minzhuan has participated in around 2,600 kidney transplants, 25 liver transplants, and 3 pancreas-kidney transplants. 774

Although this hospital has approval to perform only kidney transplants, its organ transplant department has successfully carried out complicated transplants of ovaries, kidneys, livers, bone marrow, corneas, hearts, lungs, and other types.775 776 777In 2000, its general surgery department completed the first liver transplant in the municipal healthcare system. Its thoracic surgery department performed its first two heart transplants and first lung transplant in 2006. The hospital is also capable of carrying out penetrating keratoplasty.

Huang Xiaoting, chief surgeon, has carried out more than 400 kidney transplants. He has published over 30 research articles and receives funds from China’s National Natural Science Foundation. 778

Lin Minzhuan, associate chief surgeon and associate director of the organ transplant department, used to be the associate director of organ transplant department at Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University. He has participated in around 2600 kidney transplants, 25 liver transplants, and 3 pancreas-kidney transplants. He has 25 years of experience in kidney transplantation and has published over 30 research articles and won multiple awards from the military. 779

128.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University

National level liver transplant centre

The majority of the hospital’s clinical care and medical technology are leading the field in Guangxi Province and are at the forefront of the country. It now has 5,631 staff, including 322 senior professionals and 440 associate senior professionals. It has 3,491 beds.780

It began allogeneic kidney transplantation in 1979. Its organ transplant centre was established in 2002.781 It was the first in province to apply HLA tissue typing technology in organ transplantation and begin performing allogeneic kidney transplants, kidney transplants from living relative donors, combined liver-kidney, pancreas-kidney, and allogeneic adrenal transplants, as well as other types of transplants.

The organ transplant centre is mainly developing allogeneic kidney transplantation. Its medical personnel mainly came from the urologic surgery department. The department has three chief physicians/professors and two associate chief physicians/associate professors.782

Its Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery was the first in Guangxi to begin performing liver transplants, and completed the first liver re-transplant combined with a kidney transplant in Asia. Its liver transplant capabilities are at the forefront of the country. Liver transplantation has become one of the regular treatments for end-stage liver diseases.783 It has two wards and 110 open beds.

Minhao Peng, a member of Chinese Society of Organ Transplantation, a member of the National Liver Transplantation Team, and Chairman of the Guangxi Branch of the Chinese Society of Organ Transplantation of the Chinese Medical Association, had studied organ transplantation in Australia. In 1999, Peng carried out the first secondary liver transplant combined with a kidney transplant in Asia and made significant contributions to organ transplantation.784

This department has published over 400 articles in SCI journals, and other professional journals in China and abroad. It also participated in writing 6 monographs and undertook over 30 national, provincial, and departmental research projects. It is currently working on 15 national, and provincial -level research projects with over 10 million RMB in research funding. It has won 12 provincial and ministerial-level science and technology awards.

It has trained more than 100 master’s, over 30 PhD students, and 2 post-doctoral fellows. It also has academic and personnel exchange programs with institutions in the United States, Japan, Australia, Singapore, South Africa, Thailand, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and other countries and regions.

152.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University

National level liver and kidney transplant centre

This was the earliest institution to conduct kidney transplants in northwestern China and one of the earliest in all of China. Its website claims that since 1999, the hospital has witnessed a period of “glorious development” in kidney transplantation. As early as June 2000, it said it had completed over 1,140 kidney transplants.785

The Organ Transplant Research Institute of Xi’an Jiaotong University was founded in 2001 and has become one of the largest organ transplant centres in China combining the functions of treatment, education and research. Its transplantation capabilities are at an advanced level internationally and a leading level domestically. Its kidney transplant department is a national key discipline authorized to grant doctoral degrees. Liver transplantation has become a routine surgery in its Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery.786

Xue Wujun is the director of the kidney transplant department at this hospital and the current director of the Organ Transplant Research Institute. All of the team members hold PhD degrees; among them, 9 are professors and PhD advisors, who have trained 85 PhD students and 156 master’s students.787 As of April 2015, his team had conducted at least 4,023 kidney transplants788 (although the actual number may be larger than this official figure).

This hospital performs organ transplants on a large scale and was tracked by overseas media after the publication of the Matas/Kilgour report in 2006. It has since tried to hide the number of transplants performed, and lists on its website only that it has 48 beds. However, when our investigator called the transplant department under the guise of introducing a patient on behalf of another hospital and inquired whether the department had enough beds, its medical personnel indicated that there was no need to worry, and that they could add beds if needed and even appropriate beds from other wards.

On January 20, 2016, Shaanxi Daily published a report on the 60th Anniversary of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University. It reviewed the history of this hospital, as detailed below.789

In 1979, this hospital performed the first kidney transplant in northwestern China. Today, its kidney transplantation ranks first in northwestern China and third in the country. All of its transplant quality, scale, and level have taken a lead in the country. In addition, the number of liver transplants conducted in this hospital and the quality of surgery always rank first in northwestern China. “In particular, we have completed four kinds of transplants on the same day, including liver, lung, and kidney transplants, creating a new chapter in the history of organ transplantation at this hospital.”

The centre’s organ tissue matching capabilities and other research have reached an advanced level internationally.

In 2003, in collaboration with a lab at the Terasaki Research Institute in the U.S., the centre established the Training Centre for Organ Transplant Tissue Matching Technology in northwestern China.790

By December 2012, this centre had guided 23 hospitals from 13 provinces in carrying out more than 10,000 kidney transplants, leading the development of liver, heart, lung, intestine, and other types of transplants and serving as a model for organ transplantation in mid-western China. The centre has trained more than 500 core technical personnel for other transplant centres; some of the graduates have become academic leads.791

The hospital’s official website claimed in 2006 that a national program for continuing medical education (CME) for kidney transplantation has been organized annually since 2000. The students came from large general hospitals in 14 provinces and autonomous regions in China. “After learning from the program, the students went back to their hospitals and conducted a larger number of high-quality kidney transplants, having achieved a remarkable outcome from that continuing medical education.”792

The kidney transplant department has published more than 500 papers in well-known journals inside and outside of China, including more than 100 in SCI journals. It has received 6 provincial and ministerial-level science and technology progress awards. The department has also received research projects under the National 973 Program and Eleventh Five-Year Plan Support Program, as well as 11 projects under the National Natural Science Foundation and 20 under provincial and ministerial key research foundations. It has edited and co-edited 12 monographs and presented the most papers at national academic organ transplantation conferences for 10 consecutive years. It has also hosted 9 international and national academic conferences.

The main experts of the organ transplant research institute are:

Xue Wujun: First class chief physician, professor, medical PhD, and PhD advisor. Director of the organ transplant research institute. Dean of the kidney disease hospital. Member of the Chinese Medical Association Organ Transplant Subcommittee Standing Committee. Member of the Chinese Human Organ Donation Expert Committee. Director of the Shanxi Province Organ Transplant Quality Control Centre. Receives special government allowances from the State Council as an Outstanding Expert.

Tian Puxun: Chief physician, professor, medical PhD, PhD advisor. Deputy Dean of the kidney disease hospital. Director of the kidney transplant department. Member of the Chinese Medical Association Organ Transplant Subcommittee. Vice chairman of the Shanxi Medical Association Organ Transplant Subcommittee.

Ding Xiaoming: Chief physician, professor, medical PhD, PhD advisor. Deputy director of the kidney transplant department. Youth member of the Chinese Medical Association Organ Transplant Subcommittee. Standing member of the Shanxi Medical Association Organ Transplant Subcommittee.

Pan Xiaoming: Associate chief physician, associate professor, medical PhD, master’s advisor. Member of the Shanxi Medical Association Organ Transplant Subcommittee.

Yan Hang: Associate chief physician, associate professor, medical PhD, master’s advisor. Member of the Shanxi Medical Association Organ Transplant Subcommittee.

Feng Xingshun: Associate chief physician, associate professor. Member of the Shanxi Medical Association Organ Transplant Subcommittee.
In 2006, a WOIPFG investigator spoke with Doctor Wang, who was working at this hospital:793

Investigator: We heard that you have healthy donors who are 20 to 30 years old?

Doctor: Yes, yes.

Investigator:   Are they living-donor kidneys?

Doctor: There are living-donor livers as well.

Investigator: They are taken from living people, right?

Doctor: Right! Right!

Investigator: A number of Falun Gong practitioners are detained in labor camps, and the organs are taken from living people…

Doctor: Yes, yes! We care about the quality of an organ, rather than its source, what do you think? Now thousands of liver transplants have been done in China, and all of them are about the same. Then, you know, it’s not possible that everyone would stop doing organ transplants just because some information got out …

Footnotes

242 Bring the hope of life by transplant tast.org.cn 1/5/2015
http://www.tast.org.cn/2015/1-5/15151628325.html
https://archive.is/vbxy4
用移植带来生命的希望 天津市科学技术协会 1/5/2015

243 Brief Introduction of the Oriental Organ Transplant Centre
http://ootc.net/CentreContent.aspx?newsID=51
https://archive.is/bJ7kL
东方器官移植中心简介

244 Shen Zhongyang – Ho Leung Ho Lee Foundation
http://www.hlhl.org.cn/news/findnews/showsub.asp?id=1251
https://archive.is/KpBC5
沈中阳 -何梁何利基金

245 Shen Zhongyang – Ho Leung Ho Lee Foundation
http://www.hlhl.org.cn/news/findnews/showsub.asp?id=1251
https://archive.is/KpBC5
沈中阳 -何梁何利基金

246 Armed Police General Hospital – Expert Team – Director – Shen, Zhongyang
https://web.archive.org/web/20110811154539/http://www.wj-lti.com/ZhuanJiaTuanDui/2006-02/41.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20060911004348/http://www.wj-hospital.com/expert/wk/gyzzx/173.htm
武警总队医院-专家团队-所长-沈中阳

247 Shen Zhongyang – Ho Leung Ho Lee Foundation
http://www.hlhl.org.cn/news/findnews/showsub.asp?id=1251
https://archive.is/KpBC5
沈中阳 -何梁何利基金

248 The National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program)   Baidu Encyclopedia
http://baike.baidu.com/view/4785616.htm?fromtitle=863%E8%AE%A1%E5%88%92&fromid=114257&type=syn
https://archive.is/T0ds4
国家高技术研究发展计划(863计划)

249 Brief Introduction of the Oriental Organ Transplant Centre
http://ootc.net/CentreContent.aspx?newsID=51
https://archive.is/bJ7kL
东方器官移植中心简介

250 Shen Zhongyang – Ho Leung Ho Lee Foundation
http://www.hlhl.org.cn/news/findnews/showsub.asp?id=1251
https://archive.is/KpBC5
沈中阳 -何梁何利基金

251 Precautions and Related Issues Analysis of Quick Liver Extraction
Source: Tianjin Medical Journal       p.793-794, Issue 9,  Volume 37, 2009
Authors: Cheng Litian, Shen Zhongyang, Zhu Zhijun, Zheng Hong, Deng Yonglin, Pan Cheng, Zang Yunjin
https://web.archive.org/web/20160116183241/http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/cn/images/nationalcriminalreports/488.pdf
“供肝快速切取术中应注意的相关问题分析”《天津医药》2009年37卷09期 793-794页
作者:陈立天, 沈中阳, 朱志军, 郑虹, 邓永林, 潘澄, 臧运金

252 Shen Zhongyang – Ho Leung Ho Lee Foundation
http://www.hlhl.org.cn/news/findnews/showsub.asp?id=1251
https://archive.is/KpBC5
沈中阳 -何梁何利基金

253 Shen Zhongyang – Ho Leung Ho Lee Foundation
http://www.hlhl.org.cn/news/findnews/showsub.asp?id=1251
https://archive.is/KpBC5
沈中阳 -何梁何利基金

254 Investigation on tens of thousands of foreigners going to China for organ transplants,
China has become the world’s organ transplant centre    Source: Phoenix Weekly    2006-02-22
http://web.archive.org/web/20100611090330/http://news.ifeng.com/phoenixtv/83932384042418176/20060222/751049.shtml
数万外国人赴华移植器官调查   大陆成全球器官移植新兴中心 来源:《凤凰周刊》 日期:2006-02-22   谌彦辉

255 Introduction to Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University
http://www.nfyy.com/aboutus/index.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160118002420/http://www.nfyy.com/aboutus/index.html
南方医科大学南方医院简介

256 Progress of China’s Clinical Kidney Allografts
Source: Medical Journal of the Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces     Vol. 15, No. 06, June 2004
Author: Yu Lixin, Organ Transplant Centre of Nanfang Hospital Affiliated with First Military Medical University (now Southern Medical University)
http://qikan.9med.net/upload/pdf/160/1653/98377_3634.pdf
https://archive.is/Z8mpv
我国临床同种肾脏移植进展   《武警医学》杂志2004年6月15卷6期   第一军医大南方医院器官移植中心 于立新

257 Investigation on tens of thousands of foreigners going to China for organ transplants,
China has become the world’s organ transplant centre    Source: Phoenix Weekly    2006-02-22
http://web.archive.org/web/20100611090330/http://news.ifeng.com/phoenixtv/83932384042418176/20060222/751049.shtml
数万外国人赴华移植器官调查   大陆成全球器官移植新兴中心 来源:《凤凰周刊》 日期:2006-02-22   谌彦辉

258 The Oriental Organ Transplant Center   Source: web.archive.org/web
http://web.archive.org/web/20060104005901/http://www.ootc.net/AboutUS/ootc_intro.aspx
天津东方器官移植中心网站,原网页被删 , 来源:国际互联网档案中心

259 Previous Hard Work Sees Renewed Glory Today – Well-Known Transplant Specialist Professor Shen Zhongyang
Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine in Intensive and Critical Care. February 2006.
http://www.cccm-em120.com/zhongxiyiguokan/cccm/pdf/2006-2/1%E6%98%94%E6%97%A5%E6%8B%BC%E6%90%8F%E8%BF%9B%E5%8F%96%20%E4%BB%8A%E6%97%A5%E9%87%8D%E5%BB%BA%E8%BE%89%E7%85%8C%E2%80%94%E2%80%94%E8%91%97%E5%90%8D%E7%A7%BB%E6%A4%8D%E5%AD%A6%E4%B8%93%E5%AE%B6%E6%B2%88%E4%B8%AD%E9%98%B3%E6%95%99%E6%8E%88.pdf
https://web.archive.org/save/_embed/http://www.cccm-em120.com/zhongxiyiguokan/cccm/pdf/2006-2/1%E6%98%94%E6%97%A5%E6%8B%BC%E6%90%8F%E8%BF%9B%E5%8F%96%20%E4%BB%8A%E6%97%A5%E9%87%8D%E5%BB%BA%E8%BE%89%E7%85%8C%E2%80%94%E2%80%94%E8%91%97%E5%90%8D%E7%A7%BB%E6%A4%8D%E5%AD%A6%E4%B8%93%E5%AE%B6%E6%B2%88%E4%B8%AD%E9%98%B3%E6%95%99%E6%8E%88.pdf
昔日拼搏进取 今日重建辉煌 – 著名移植学专家沈中阳教授  《中国中西医结合急救杂志》 2006年第二期

260 Oriental Organ Transplant Center Put into Use Yesterday
Source: Tianjin Daily News Online – Daily News, September 5th , 2006,  Xu Yang
http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2006-09-02/09019916538s.shtml
https://archive.is/PC0hS
东方器官移植中心昨天投入使用  《中国器官移植网》     [2006-09-05]    来源:天津日报网-每日新报 -徐杨

261 Oriental Organ Transplant Center Put into Use Yesterday
Chinese Organ Transplant Website / Source: Tianjin Daily Website – Daily News   September 5, 2006   Xu Yang
http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2006-09-02/09019916538s.shtml
https://archive.is/PC0hS
《中国器官移植网》东方器官移植中心昨天投入使用  [2006-09-05] 来源:天津日报网-每日新报 -徐杨

262 Tianjin First Central Hospital renovation project    Source: China Construction Transformation Network    October 21, 2009
http://www.chinabrn.cn/material_detail.aspx?id=358
https://archive.is/yAz3W
天津市第一中心医院改造项目  [2009-10-21] 来源: 中国建筑改造网

263 Tianjin First Center Hospital
Source:  enorth.com.cn         June 25th , 2014
http://news.enorth.com.cn/system/2014/06/25/011973313.shtml
https://archive.is/H1D8F
天津市第一中心医院   北方网   2014-06-25

264 Tianjin First Center Hospital   enorth.com.cn   June 25, 2014
http://news.enorth.com.cn/system/2014/06/25/011973313.shtml
https://archive.is/H1D8F
天津市第一中心医院   北方网   2014-06-25

265 A research project conducted by He YongJin has passed the appraisal
http://www.tj-fch.com/sitecn/magazineInfo.aspx?id=7813&cid=7792
https://archive.is/m0n8T
疼痛科贺永进主任开展一项课题研究通过验收

266 China Calls to Halt Organ Transplant Tourism   infzm.com   December 20, 2007
http://www.infzm.com/content/9556
https://archive.is/js308
中国叫停器官移植旅游   《南方周末》   December 20, 2007

267 Brief Introduction of Tianjin First Central Hospital     enorth.com.cn   April 24, 2009
http://health.enorth.com.cn/system/2009/04/08/003951582.shtml
https://web.archive.org/web/20151226090038/http://health.enorth.com.cn/system/2009/04/08/003951582.shtml
天津市第一中心医院器官移植中心    《北方网》     2009-04-20

268 Brief Introduction of the Oriental Organ Transplant Centre
http://ootc.net/CentreContent.aspx?newsID=52
https://archive.is/bJ7kL
东方器官移植中心简介  http://ootc.net/CentreContent.aspx?newsID=51   https://archive.is/bJ7kL

269 Oriental Organ Transplant Centre Put into Use Yesterday
Chinese Organ Transplant Website / Source: Tianjin Daily Website – Daily News   September 5, 2006   Xu Yang
http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2006-09-02/09019916538s.shtml
https://archive.is/PC0hS
《中国器官移植网》东方器官移植中心昨天投入使用  [2006-09-05] 来源:天津日报网-每日新报 -徐杨

270 WOIPFG Releases List of 7371 Medical Personnel from 765 Non-Military Medical Institutions Suspected of Harvesting Organs from Living Falun Gong Practitioners
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/45858
http://www.upholdjustice.org/node/351
追查国际发布中共765家非军队系统医疗机构涉嫌活摘法轮功学员器官的7371名医务人员的追查名单

271 Shen Zhongyang – Baidu Encyclopedia
http://baike.baidu.com/view/1577731.htm
https://archive.is/gXqoe
沈中阳_百度百科

272 Bring the hope of life by transplant   tast.org.cn   1/5/2015
http://www.tast.org.cn/2015/1-5/15151628325.html
http://web.archive.org/web/20150329030610/http://www.tast.org.cn/2015/1-5/15151628325.html
用移植带来生命的希望   天津市科学技术协会   1/5/2015

273 Pioneer first: Shen Zhongyang promote voluntary organ donation legislation
Source: China Science and Technology Daily, dated: Dec 10, 2014
http://digitalpaper.stdaily.com/http_www.kjrb.com/kjrb/html/2014-12/10/content_286091.htm?div=-1
https://archive.is/CEEQ9
先驱先行:沈中阳推动自愿捐献器官立法       科技日报   2014-12-10

274 Biography of Zhu Zhijun, Vice President of Tianjin First Central Hospital    Tianjin ENORTH NETNEWS
http://news.enorth.com.cn/system/2011/08/09/007096368.shtml
http://web.archive.org/web/20151228010601/http://news.enorth.com.cn/system/2011/08/09/007096368.shtml
天津市第一中心医院副院长朱志军简历     《北方网》

275 Cai Jinzhen, Division of Liver Transplantation, Tianjin First Central Hospital    haodf.com
http://400.haodf.com/haodf/caijz
http://web.archive.org/web/20150316195400/http://400.haodf.com/haodf/caijz
天津市第一中心医院_肝移植外科-蔡金贞- 好大夫在线

276 Pan Cheng, Division of Liver Transplantation, Tianjin First Central Hospital    Guahao.com
http://web.archive.org/web/20160123044527/http://www.guahao.com/expert/80ac3668-156c-4c9f-9689-a50ce7d2a9cb000?hospDeptId=22742504-d294-486f-afa7-1cedfd2d4a7c000&hospitalId=c6b99af3-7ac3-403c-bc5c-346fd03d358e000
天津市第一中心医院 – 肝移植外科 – 潘澄   挂号网

277 Song Wenli, Division of Liver Transplantation, Tianjin First Central Hospital    Guahao.com
http://web.archive.org/web/20160123052832/http://www.guahao.com/expert/0db3c13d-ef80-4901-a234-512ae0f7b466000?hospDeptId=b55dd752-651b-4e06-88b6-bf61d43ba3ec000&hospitalId=c6b99af3-7ac3-403c-bc5c-346fd03d358e000
天津市第一中心医院 – 肝移植外科 – 宋文利   挂号网

278 Mo Chunbai, Division of Liver Transplantation, Tianjin First Central Hospital    Guahao.com
http://web.archive.org/web/20160123052944/http://www.guahao.com/expert/0040fb37-4d35-44c4-8481-3912ce723108000?hospDeptId=b55dd752-651b-4e06-88b6-bf61d43ba3ec000&hospitalId=c6b99af3-7ac3-403c-bc5c-346fd03d358e000
天津市第一中心医院_肾移植外科-莫春柏   挂号网

279 Gao Wei from the Liver Transplantation Department of Tianjin First Central Hospital    haodf.com
http://400.haodf.com/haodf/gggwei
http://web.archive.org/web/20140122083953/http://400.haodf.com/haodf/gggwei
天津市第一中心医院 – 肝移植外科 – 高伟     好大夫在线

280 Organ transplantation, a scientific pioneer technology
Source: Zhongshan Hospital Journal, dated October 6, 2007
http://www.zs-hospital.sh.cn/newseveryday/zs_yb/2007-14/184_05_03.htm
https://archive.is/dpK4z
器官移植 科技先锋  《中山医院报》 2007年10月6日

281 Introduction to Fudan University Organ Transplant Centre
http://www.transplantation.com.cn/About.Asp
https://web.archive.org/web/20140726202428/http://www.transplantation.com.cn/About.Asp
复旦大学器官移植中心简介

282 Zhongshan Hospital partnered with world’s largest organ transplant institute, bringing its organ transplantation to a higher level
http://www.biosino.org/news-2003/200312/03121008.htm
https://archive.is/QGm9Z
中山医院与世界最大器官移植机构携手 器官移植更上一层楼

283 Zhongshan Hospital partnered with world’s largest organ transplant institute, bringing its organ transplantation to a higher level
http://www.biosino.org/news-2003/200312/03121008.htm
https://archive.is/QGm9Z
中山医院与世界最大器官移植机构携手 器官移植更上一层楼

284 Zhongshan’s Ironman and his fans    PLA Daily
http://newspaper.jfdaily.com/jfrb/html/2015-03/30/content_79584.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160117162324/http://newspaper.jfdaily.com/jfrb/html/2015-03/30/content_79584.htm
“中山铁人”和他的粉丝们       解放日报

285 Introduction to Fudan University Organ Transplant Centre
http://www.transplantation.com.cn/About.Asp
https://web.archive.org/web/20140726202428/http://www.transplantation.com.cn/About.Asp
复旦大学器官移植中心简介

286 Introduction to Fudan University Zhongshan Hospital Liver Surgery
http://www.zs-hospital.sh.cn/keshi/detail.aspx?id=100001093&cid=150&kid=218
https://web.archive.org/web/20160128222634/http://www.zs-hospital.sh.cn/keshi/detail.aspx?id=100001093&cid=150&kid=218
复旦大学中山医院-肝外科-简介

287 Fudan University Zhongshan Hospital Liver Surgery, profile of experts
http://www.zs-hospital.sh.cn/zhuanjia/list.aspx?dept=2420
https://web.archive.org/web/20160128231932/http://www.zs-hospital.sh.cn/zhuanjia/list.aspx?dept=2420
复旦大学中山医院-肝外科-专家名录

288 Fudan University Zhongshan Hospital Liver Surgery, profile of experts, Fan Jia
http://www.zs-hospital.sh.cn/zhuanjia/detail.aspx?id=10774
https://web.archive.org/web/20160129005201/http://www.zs-hospital.sh.cn/zhuanjia/detail.aspx?id=10774
复旦大学中山医院-肝外科-专家-樊嘉

289 Zhongshan’s Ironman and his fans    PLA Daily
http://newspaper.jfdaily.com/jfrb/html/2015-03/30/content_79584.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160117162324/http://newspaper.jfdaily.com/jfrb/html/2015-03/30/content_79584.htm
“中山铁人”和他的粉丝们       解放日报

290 Introduction to Fudan University Organ Transplant Centre, kidney transplantation
http://www.transplantation.com.cn/Kidney.Asp
https://web.archive.org/web/20140726162951/http://www.transplantation.com.cn/Kidney.Asp
复旦大学附属中山医院器官移植中心

291 Zhu Tongyu, Chief Physician of Fudan University Zhongshan Hospital Urology Department
http://www.haodf.com/doctor/DE4r08xQdKSLBTYZIXGvdhaHfIMj.htm#
https://web.archive.org/web/20150323014644/http://www.haodf.com/doctor/DE4r08xQdKSLBTYZIXGvdhaHfIMj.htm#
朱同玉-复旦中山医院泌尿外科主任医师

292 Key Laboratory of Organ Transplant     Medical Planning and Research Office  at  Fudan University
http://yxky.fudan.edu.cn/6299/list.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160213050102/http://yxky.fudan.edu.cn/6299/list.htm
复旦大学器官移植重点实验室    医学规划与科研办公室

293 Introduction to Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated with Fudan University Thoracic Surgery
http://www.zs-hospital.sh.cn/keshi/detail.aspx?id=100000143&cid=555&kid=238
https://web.archive.org/web/20160128225151/http://www.zs-hospital.sh.cn/keshi/detail.aspx?id=100000143&cid=555&kid=238
复旦大学附属中山医院胸外科-科室介绍

294 Shanghai’s major project, Zhongshan Hospital East Branch officially launched
http://www.360zhyx.com/home-research-index-rid-35963.shtml
https://web.archive.org/web/20160213235804/http://www.360zhyx.com/home-research-index-rid-35963.shtml
上海市重大工程:上海中山医院东院区正式启用

295 Shanghai Key Laboratory of Organ Transplantation
http://www.zs-hospital.sh.cn/detail.aspx?id=100001042&cid=954
https://web.archive.org/web/20160117155619/http://www.zs-hospital.sh.cn/detail.aspx?id=100001042&cid=954
上海市器官移植重点实验室

296 BLOODY HARVEST  Appendix 14. Transcript of Telephone Investigations
http://organharvestinvestigation.net/report0701/report20070131.htm#_

297  Conversation with Dr. Tan Yunshan, investigation report by WOIPFG 2015-11-27
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/50795
Excerpt of phone recording: http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/50795#_Toc16
Phone Recording: http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/report/2015/50795_4-1-2015nian_2yue_8ri_shang_hai_fu_dan_da_xue_fu_shu_zhong_shan_yi_yuan_gan_cang_bing_li_ke_zhu_ren_tan_yun_shan_yuan_tou_na_qi_guan_bu_guan_shi_bu_shi_fa_lun_gong_du_yong_-pub.-ms.mp3

298 Breaking: Chinese doctor disclosed that organ harvesting still going on, with its source controlled by the military,
Source: NTDTV,   March 21, 2015
http://ca.ntdtv.com/xtr/gb/2015/03/21/a1184409.html
重磅:陆医证实活摘仍在进行 〝源头〞受军队控制    新唐人2015年03月21 日讯

299 Birds-eye view of the First Hospital Affiliated with Zhejiang University Medical College, Yuhang Branch
http://www.news.zju.edu.cn/news.php?id=40939
https://archive.is/6wdlg
浙大医学院附属第一医院余杭院区东南角鸟瞰图

300 Brief Introduction of The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University
http://www.zy91.com/yyjjyyjs.jhtml?139
http://archive.is/VhB6M
浙江大学附属第一医院介绍

301 The Urology Surgery Department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University
http://www.zy91.com/nkxt/491.jhtml
https://web.archive.org/web/20160214003301/http://www.zy91.com/nkxt/491.jhtml
浙江大学附一院-肾脏病中心

302 Division of Hepatopancreatobiliary at The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University
http://www.zy91.com/wkxt/518.jhtml?131?518
https://web.archive.org/web/20150630024407/http://www.zy91.com/wkxt/518.jhtml?131?518
浙大一院肝胆胰外科

300 Zheng Shusen, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University
http://www.cmm.zju.edu.cn/chinese/scholar.php?uid=436
https://web.archive.org/web/20150613180948/http://www.cmm.zju.edu.cn/chinese/scholar.php?uid=436
浙大一院院长郑树森

304 Clinical Evaluation of Emergency Liver Transplantation for Treating End-Stage Liver Diseases
Chinese Medical Journal   2005, Volume 85, Issue:49,  Page 3460-3463, by Wang Weilin and Zheng Shusen
http://zhyxzz.yiigle.com/CN112137200549/124960.htm
https://archive.is/J6ITv
急诊肝移植治疗良性终末期肝病的临床分析     《中华医学杂志》2005年85卷49期 3460-3463页,
作者:王伟林, 郑树森,  徐骁, 梁廷波, 金晶, 沈岩, 张珉, 吴健
单位: 浙江大学医学院附属第一医院肝胆胰外科, 卫生部多器官联合移植研究重点实验室

305 Brief Introduction of The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University
http://www.zy91.com/yyjjyyjs.jhtml?139
http://archive.is/VhB6M
浙江大学附属第一医院介绍

306 Zheng Shusen     Ho Leung Ho Lee Foundation
http://www.hlhl.org.cn/news/findnews/showsub.asp?id=1311
https://archive.is/kGcS7
郑树森   何梁何利基金

307 Liver Transplantation Innovation Team of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University
Science Technology Department of Zhejiang Province
http://www.zjkjt.gov.cn/news/images/zss.pdf
http://web.archive.org/web/20160119045936/http://www.zjkjt.gov.cn/news/images/zss.pdf
浙江大学附属一院肝移植创新团队    浙江省科学技术厅

308 The Urology Surgery Department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University
http://www.zy91.com/nkxt/491.jhtml
https://web.archive.org/web/20160214003301/http://www.zy91.com/nkxt/491.jhtml
浙江大学附一院-肾脏病中心

309 WOIPFG Releases List of 7371 Medical Personnel from 765 Non-Military Medical Institutions Suspected of Harvesting Organs from Living Falun Gong Practitioners
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/45858
http://www.upholdjustice.org/node/351
WOIPFG Releases List of 2098 Medical Personnel in 100 People’s Libertion Armyand Armed Police Hospitals Suspected of Live Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/45100
《追查国际发布中共765家非军队系统医疗机构涉嫌活摘法轮功学员器官的7371名医务人员的追查名单》
《追查国际发布中共军队和武警系统100家医院涉嫌活摘法轮功学员器官的2098名医务人员的追查名单》

310 The Urology Disease Centre, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University – Chen Jianghua
http://www.zy91.com/zjxq/673.jhtml
https://web.archive.org/web/20160125190723/http://www.zy91.com/zjxq/673.jhtml
浙江大学附一院-肾脏病中心-陈江华

311 Expert Introduction: Xiaoshun He        The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University – Official Website
http://hexiaoshun.u.yynet.cn/intro.php
https://archive.is/G9MNi
中山大学附属第一医院-专家介绍:何晓顺

312 The organ transplant centre, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University
http://www.gzsums.net/zhuanke_6448.aspx
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124020440/http://www.gzsums.net/zhuanke_6448.aspx
中山大学附属第一医院器官移植科

313 The Organ Transplant Center at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University
http://www.gzsums.net/tese_9300.aspx
https://web.archive.org/web/20160614033840/http://www.gzsums.net/tese_9300.aspx
中山大学附属第一医院大器官移植科

314 Renewed Life after Organ Transplant, Source: Huangzhou Daily,  Date: March 14, 2006
http://gzdaily.dayoo.com/gb/content/2006-03/14/content_2439521.htm
https://archive.is/ZhPn3
器官移植重续生命乐章   《广州日报》2006年3月14日

315 Introduction to Peng Chenghong, Ranking List of Top 100 Famous Doctors in China – Top10DR
http://www.top10dr.com/mingyi/201511/infos2201.html
http://archive.is/3byRy
中国名医百强排行榜-何晓顺

316 The organ transplant centre, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University
http://www.gzsums.net/zhuanke_6448.aspx
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124020440/http://www.gzsums.net/zhuanke_6448.aspx
中山大学附属第一医院器官移植科

317 Zhongshan University Ophthalmic Centre Cornea Specialist
http://www.gzzoc.com/ylfw/lcks/jmbk/
https://archive.is/3gk3J/
中山大学中山眼科中心 – 角膜病专科

318 Affiliated Hospitals of Capital Medical University
http://www.ccmu.edu.cn/art/2012/4/26/art_6444_35358.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20150504163850/http://www.ccmu.edu.cn/art/2012/4/26/art_6444_35358.html
首都医科大学简介

319 Full view of Beijing Friendship Hospital
http://42.62.54.12:6910/UpLoad/Image/2015/11/19/ea1f12af-bf86-4934-ad3b-0716b6f341a5.jpg
https://archive.is/AgERc
友谊医院全景

320 Profile of Urology Department, Beijing Friendship Hospital
http://www.bfh.com.cn/Html/Departments/Main/Index_150.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160302015409/http://www.bfh.com.cn/Html/Departments/Main/Index_150.html
北京友谊医院泌尿外科简介

321 Progress of China’s Clinical Kidney Allografts
Medical Journal of the Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces  Vol. 15, No. 06, June 2004
Author: Yu Lixin, Organ Transplant Centre of Nanfang Hospital Affiliated with First Military Medical University (now Southern Medical University)
https://web.archive.org/web/20160131013506/http://qikan.9med.net/upload/pdf/160/1653/98377_3634.pdf
我国临床同种肾脏移植进展  《武警医学》2004年6月15卷6期, 作者:广州南方医院器官移植中心主任于立新

322 Full view of The First Hospital of China Medical University
http://z.jgaoxiao.com/Uploads/news/TbSchool/533299f27e0ec.jpg
https://archive.is/cIEte
中国医科大学第一医院全景

323 Professor Liu Yongfeng’s Achievements   Baidu Library
http://wenku.baidu.com/view/f0f8bc234b35eefdc8d3332a.html
https://archive.is/4wTUC
刘永锋教授先进事迹   《百度文库》

324 China International Transplantation Network Assistance Centre (CITNAC)   Archived web page
http://web.archive.org/web/20050213101222/www.zoukiishoku.com/cn/CHINA/index.htm
https://archive.is/R5APH
国际移植(中国)网络支援中心-介绍 (备份网页)

325 The archived web of China International Transplantation Network Assistance Centre (CITNAC),  which has been removed
http://web.archive.org/web/20050213101222/www.zoukiishoku.com/cn/CHINA/index.htm
国际移植(中国)网络支援中心-被删掉的中文网址的备份

326 China International Transplantation Network Assistance Centre (CITNAC) – Question and answer Archived web page
https://web.archive.org/web/20041023193430/http://zoukiishoku.com/cn/wenda/index.htm
国际移植(中国)网络支援中心-在线回答备份

327 China International Transplantation Network Assistance Centre (CITNAC) – Price list   Archived web page
http://web.archive.org/web/20060422143018/en.zoukiishoku.com/list/cost.htm
中國國際移植網 – 公開的價錢表

328 Japanese Flock to China for Organ Transplants
The Asia-Pacific Journal, Japan Focus-Clifford Coonan, David McNeill, Vol. 4, Issue 4, No. 0, April 2, 2006,
http://www.japanfocus.org/-Clifford-Coonan/1818/article.html
http://archive.is/ORM7p

329 China International Transplantation Network Assistance Center (CITNAC) – Actual situation
Archived web page
https://web.archive.org/web/20041023185232/http://zoukiishoku.com/cn/shixiang/index.htm
237-2《国际移植(中国)网络支援中心》中国脏器移植实际情况

330 China International Transplantation Network Assistance Centre (CITNAC) – Doctor Profile – Liu Yongfeng
Archived web page:
http://web.archive.org/web/20041023155134/http://zoukiishoku.com/cn/07/index.htm
国际移植(中国)网络支援中心  –  名医一览表   国际互联网备份网页

331 Professor Liu Yongfeng’s Achievements   Baidu Library
http://wenku.baidu.com/view/f0f8bc234b35eefdc8d3332a.html
https://archive.is/4wTUC
刘永锋教授先进事迹   《百度文库》

332 China International Transplantation Network Assistance Centre (CITNAC) – Expert  List
Archived web page
https://web.archive.org/web/20041023155134/http://zoukiishoku.com/cn/07/index.htm
国际移植(中国)网络支援中心-名医一览   国际互联网备份网页

333 1000th Transplant Patient Successfully Recovered and Discharged from the First Hospital of China Medical University
http://jiankang.nen.com.cn/system/2016/04/12/019011408.shtml
https://archive.is/5lSv8
中国医大一院第1000例移植病人顺利康复出院 2016-04-12 09:31 来源: 东北新闻网

334 The Psychological Research On-Site Centre of the Public Security Bureau in Jinzhou City
Source: Ministry of Commerce of the People’s Republic of China – Official Website
https://web.archive.org/web/20120220014110/http://csn.mofcom.gov.cn/fwhy/display.php?e_id=50894
锦州市公安局现场心理研究中心        中华人民共和国商务部网站

335 The Speech of Secretary-General Ren Jinyang at the Award Ceremony of “China Guanghua Science and Technology Development Foundation Special Innovation Contribution Award”
Beijing Guanghua Science & Technology Development Foundation official website     September 19, 2006
https://web.archive.org/web/20090203134248/http://ddfchina.org/71/109-2008-07-07-03-11-47.html
任晋阳秘书长在光华创新特别贡献奖”颁奖仪式上的讲话   光华龙腾网   2006年9月19日

336 The Speech of Professor Wang Lijun at the Award Ceremony of “China Guanghua Science and Technology Development Foundation Special Innovation Contribution Award”
http://www.360doc.com/content/12/0211/11/7915662_185743859.shtml
https://archive.is/obsrD/
现场心理研究中心主任王立军教授在“光华创新特别贡献奖”颁奖典礼上谈话

337 Expedited Ads: Abnormal Activities at People’s Liberation Army No. 205 Hospital
renminbao.com / Source: Western Liaoning Daily , dated:  June 15, 2006
http://m.renminbao.com/rmb/articles/2006/6/15/40772m.html
281 《辽西商报「加急广告」 解放军205医院动态异常 》- 人民报 2006年6月15日

338 The Retrospective Studies on Managing Complications After Homogeneity Variant Renal Transplantations
PRACTICAL JOURNAL OF MEDICINE & PHARMACY, page 6-7, Vol. 26, Issue 03, 2009,
Author: Chen Rongshan, GAO Chuffing, etc.
http://med.wanfangdata.com.cn/Paper/Detail/PeriodicalPaper_syyyzz200903003
https://archive.is/RiEpx
肾移植后并发症13例防治的回顾性分析   《实用医药杂志》2009年26卷03期 6-7页       作者:陈荣山, 高春芳等

339 Collection of Evidence of Live Organ Harvesting from Falun Gong Practitioners by the Chinese Communist Party
World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong (WOIPFG)    Revised on March 2, 2015
http://www.upholdjustice.org/node/241
关于中共活体摘取法轮功学员器官证据专辑-陈荣山   追查迫害法轮功国际   2015年3月2日更新
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/46728#_Toc366574829

340 Professor Liu Yongfeng’s Achievements       Baidu Library
http://wenku.baidu.com/view/f0f8bc234b35eefdc8d3332a.html
https://archive.is/4wTUC
刘永锋教授先进事迹   《百度文库》

341 East campus – Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao   tong University   ksyhwz.com
http://ksyhwz.com/mobile/5LiK5rW35LuB5rWO5Yy76Zmi5YyX6Zmi.html
https://archive.is/gAzrE
上海交通大学医学院附属仁济医院 – 东院    可视素材网    ksyhwz.com

342 Affiliated hospitals of Shanghai Jiaotong University
http://www.sjtu.edu.cn/zdh/zzjg/fsyy.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20150709133637/http://www.sjtu.edu.cn/zdh/zzjg/fsyy.htm
上海交通大学 – 附属医院

343 Introduction of Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao   tong University   haodf.com     2008-11-19
http://rjqgyz.haodf.com/zhuanjiaguandian/rjqgyz_25960.htm
https://archive.is/KKZq0/
上海交通大学附属仁济医院        好大夫在线   2008-11-19

344 Shanghai’s First Liver Transplant Demonstration Centre Listed at Renji Hospital
Shanghai Jiaotong University News Website   April 2, 2015
http://www.sjtu.edu.cn/info/1489/63388.htm
http://archive.is/p0RiV
上海首家肝移植示范中心在附属仁济医院挂牌   上海交通大学新闻网

345 Shanghai Jiaotong University President Award Network Selection
http://202.120.33.37/15xz/detail/detail_11.htm
https://archive.is/qDlBC/
上海交通大学校长奖网络评选

346 Xia Qiang: A Young General of Liver Transplantation   people.com.cn,  June 23, 2006, reporter: Huang Qi
http://scitech.people.com.cn/GB/1057/4520977.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160116202918/http://scitech.people.com.cn/GB/1057/4520977.html
夏强:肝移植学科的少帅   《人民网》 2006年06月23日   黄祺

347 The Miracle of 37 and 32   sina.com.cn / Courtesy: Xining Weekly   June 14, 2006
http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2006-06-14/143310153952.shtml
https://web.archive.org/web/20160112163108/http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2006-06-14/143310153952.shtml
《37与32的奇迹》     新浪网,   来源:新民周刊       2006年06月14日

348 Facing Many Liver Transplant Surgeries, Doctors Work Through the Night at Renji Hospital
Sina Shanghai, Source:Eastday.com,    Wen Wei Po,   August 19, 2013
http://sh.sina.com.cn/news/k/2013-08-19/085558296.html?from=sh_ydph
https://web.archive.org/web/20160112163630/http://sh.sina.com.cn/news/k/2013-08-19/085558296.html?from=sh_ydph
仁济医院肝移植手术连台 医生彻夜走不出医院    《新浪上海》, 来源:东方网-文汇报,2013年8月19日

349 Xia Qiang: A Young General of Liver Transplantation   people.com.cn,  June 23, 2006, reporter:Huang Qi
http://scitech.people.com.cn/GB/1057/4520977.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160116202918/http://scitech.people.com.cn/GB/1057/4520977.html
夏强:肝移植学科的少帅   《人民网》 2006年06月23日   黄祺

350 The team of Renji Hospital, Liver transplant centre
Chinese Organ Transplant Website / Source: Renji Hospital       June 28, 2007
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZJiaoTongDaXueYiXueYuanFuShuRenJanDui/2007-06/1587.htm
https://archive.is/lSOw2
“上海仁济医院器官移植中心肝移植团队”   《中国器官移植网》   日期:2007-06-28

351 Looking at the Stars—Biography of Xia Qiang, Winner of the Ninth Chinese Physician Award,
Director of the Liver Surgery Department at Renji Hospital   Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine   July 4, 2014
http://www2.shsmu.edu.cn/default.php?mod=article&do=detail&tid=354467
https://archive.is/f0gDz
仰望星空——记第九届中国医师奖得主, 仁济医院肝脏外科主任夏强   上海交通大学医学院,2014年7月

352 Inspired by the Airport, Renji Hospital Finds a Way to Increase Bed Turnover
Source: eastday.com  Sep 18, 2013
http://sh.eastday.com/m/20130918/u1a7667856.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160116203147/http://sh.eastday.com/m/20130918/u1a7667856.html
仁济医院新病区开启高频吞吐节奏 借机场灵感打造   《东方网》   日期:2013-09-18

353 Introduction to Fudan University Organ Transplant Center
http://www.transplantation.com.cn/About.Asp
https://web.archive.org/web/20140726202428/http://www.transplantation.com.cn/About.Asp
复旦大学器官移植中心简介

354 Introduction of Shandong Provincial Hospital Transplantation Center
Source: Shandong Liver Transplantation Online
http://www.sdgyz.com/zxjj.asp
https://web.archive.org/web/20160123070211/http://www.sdgyz.com/zxjj.asp
山东肝移植网  山东省立医院器官移植中心简介

355 Kidney Transplant at the Urologic Department of Renji Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University
http://www.renji.com/Treatment/Departments/DeptGroup.aspx?uuRowId=IyQhJDR9fUpVO09UO1MqQyxKMz1OVQ%3d%3d
https://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.renji.com/Treatment/Departments/DeptGroup.aspx?uuRowId=IyQhJDR9fUpVO09UO1MqQyxKMz1OVQ%3d%3d
上海交通大学附属仁济医院泌尿科肾移植

356 The Urology Surgery Department at Shanghai Renji Hospital
http://renji.h.yynet.cn/departments.php?section_id=605
https://archive.is/dlvHF
上海仁济医院 – 泌尿外科

357 The Urology Surgery Department at Shanghai Renji Hospital
http://yyk.familydoctor.com.cn/2/schedule_81/
https://archive.is/I9G5d
上海仁济医院泌尿外科

358 Facing Many Liver Transplant Surgeries, Doctors Work Through the Night at Renji Hospital
Sina Shanghai, Source:Eastday.com,    Wen Wei Po,   August 19, 2013
http://sh.sina.com.cn/news/k/2013-08-19/085558296.html?from=sh_ydph
https://web.archive.org/web/20160112163630/http://sh.sina.com.cn/news/k/2013-08-19/085558296.html?from=sh_ydph
仁济医院肝移植手术连台 医生彻夜走不出医院    《新浪上海》, 来源:东方网-文汇报,2013年8月19日

359 Renji Hospital Department of Liver Surgery
Source: “Good Doctors” online / haodf.com
http://m.haodf.com/touch/faculty/DE4r08xQdKSLBfLtSUNoD0ioO33P/jieshao.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160116205625/http://m.haodf.com/touch/faculty/DE4r08xQdKSLBfLtSUNoD0ioO33P/jieshao.htm
253-1仁济医院-肝脏外科   好大夫在线

360 Breaking News: Doctors from Mainland China Confirms Organ Harvesting Still Occurring, Organ Sources Controlled by Military
Source: New Tang Dynasty Television   March 21, 2015
http://ca.ntdtv.com/xtr/gb/2015/03/21/a1184409.html
https://archive.is/wXOpV
重磅:陆医证实活摘仍在进行 “源头”受军队控制  《新唐人》 2015-03-20

361 Introduction to Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital
http://www.njglyy.com/about/about.asp
https://web.archive.org/web/20160214001402/http://www.njglyy.com/about/about.asp
南京鼓楼医院介绍

362 Introduction to Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Hepatobiliary Surgery Department
http://www.njglyy.com/subject/subject-1.asp?id=88
https://web.archive.org/web/20160214001421/http://www.njglyy.com/subject/subject-1.asp?id=88
南京鼓楼医院肝胆外科

363 Introduction to Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Urologic Surgery Department
http://www.njglyy.com/subject/subject-1.asp?id=92
https://archive.is/ks5l6
南京鼓楼医院泌尿外科

364 Introduction to Peking Union Medical College Hospital
http://www.pumch.cn/Category_11/Index.aspx
https://web.archive.org/web/20160322195601/http://www.pumch.cn/Category_11/Index.aspx
医院概览- 北京协和医院

365 The Third “Happiness Inn” Successfully Held for Kidney Transplant Friends
http://www.pumch.cn/Item/6531.aspx
https://web.archive.org/web/20160322205435/http://www.pumch.cn/Item/6531.aspx
我院第三届“幸福驿站”肾友会胜利召开

366 Introduction to the liver surgery departmental – Peking Union Medical College Hospital
http://www.pumch.cn/Category_691/Index.aspx
https://web.archive.org/web/20110726090452/http://www.pumch.cn/Category_691/Index.aspx
北京协和医院肝脏外科

367 The first list of organ transplant physicians in Beijing
http://www.bjhb.gov.cn/zwfwq/wyljwsfw/zhxx/tzgg/201403/P020140319785918492034.doc
https://archive.is/SW2X8
北京市第一批器官移植医师名单

368 Introduction to the liver surgery departmental – Peking Union Medical College Hospital
http://www.pumch.cn/Category_691/Index.aspx
https://web.archive.org/web/20110726090452/http://www.pumch.cn/Category_691/Index.aspx
北京协和医院肝脏外科

369 Introduction to the doctors of liver surgery departmental – Peking Union Medical College Hospital
http://www.pumch.cn/Category_692/Index.aspx
https://web.archive.org/web/20110727105308/http://www.pumch.cn/Category_692/Index.aspx
北京协和医院肝脏外科医师介绍

370 Introduction to the liver surgery departmental – Peking Union Medical College Hospital
http://www.pumch.cn/Category_691/Index.aspx
https://web.archive.org/web/20110726090452/http://www.pumch.cn/Category_691/Index.aspx
北京协和医院肝脏外科

371 I Want to Take the Lead in Bowing to [Organ] Donors
Source: Guangzhou Daily March 13, 2013 A6 section
http://gzdaily.dayoo.com/html/2013-03/13/content_2178697.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20130512044027/http://gzdaily.dayoo.com/html/2013-03/13/content_2178697.htm
我要带头向捐献者鞠躬 来源:广州日报 2013年3月13日 A6版

372 Introduction to the Urology Surgery Departmental – Peking Union Medical College Hospital
http://www.pumch.cn/Category_643/Index_1.aspx
https://web.archive.org/web/20160322192741/http://www.pumch.cn/Category_643/Index_1.aspx
北京协和医院泌尿外科

373 China-Japan Friendship Hospital – Hospital profile, Department of Urologic Surgery , Department of Thoracic Surgery
Source: China-Japan Friendship Hospital website, 2011
http://www.zryhyy.com.cn/Html/News/Articles/100071.html
https://archive.is/QAY9n
中日友好医院- 医院简介

374 100 most competitive hospitals in China in 2015
http://health.sohu.com/20160328/n442639180.shtml
https://archive.is/FT6XC
2015中国顶级医院100强

375 China-Japan Friendship Hospital –Urology surgery department
http://www.zryhyy.com.cn/Html/Departments/Main/Detail_19.html
http://web.archive.org/web/20160605060057/http://www.zryhyy.com.cn/Html/Departments/Main/Detail_19.html
中日友好医院泌尿外科简介

376 China-Japan Friendship Hospital – Expert Liu Naibo at Urology surgery department
http://zrmnk.cnkme.com/doctors/show/2608
https://archive.is/r66Lk
中日友好医院泌尿外科主任医师刘乃波

377 China-Japan Friendship Hospital – Expert Jiang Yongjin at Urology surgery department
http://zrmnk.cnkme.com/doctors/show/2612
https://archive.is/4RPrI
中友好医院泌尿外科主任医师姜永金

378 China-Japan Friendship Hospital – The Thoracic Surgery Department
Source: China Organ Transplant Network         Date: March 2011
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZhongRiYouHaoYiYuanKuaiXun/2011-03/5577.htm
https://archive.is/maDEW
中日友好医院胸外科    中国器官移植网  2011年月

379 China-Japan Friendship Hospital – The Thoracic Surgery Department
http://www.zryhyy.com.cn/Html/Departments/Main/Detail_20.html
http://web.archive.org/web/20160605081146/http://www.zryhyy.com.cn/Html/Departments/Main/Detail_20.html
中友好医院胸外科

380 China-Japan Friendship Hospital – liver surgery departmental – Special treatment -Liver transplant
http://zrpw1k.cnkme.com/treatments/show/3003
http://archive.is/dlnCI
卫生部中日友好医院普外一科-普外科-特色医疗-普外一科特色诊疗–肝移植

381 China-Japan Friendship Hospital – liver surgery department
http://www.zryhyy.com.cn/Hospitals/Diseases/Detail/71
http://archive.is/9UFwh
中日友好医院肝脏外科治疗

382 Historical and Clinical Status-  The Fu Wai Cardiovascular Disease Centre
Source: FUWAI Hospital, 2010
http://www.fuwaihospital.org/News/Articles/Index/1756
https://archive.is/Dk64I
历史与临床现状-阜外心血管病医院

383 Introduction to heart transplant — The Fu Wai Cardiovascular Disease Centre
http://www.fuwaihospital.org/Diseases/Main/Detail/135
http://archive.is/F1yvx
中国医学科学院阜外医院-心脏移植简介

384 Transplant cost-  The Fu Wai Cardiovascular Disease Centre
http://www.fuwaihospital.org/News/Articles/Index/1761
http://archive.is/zPIbY
中国医学科学院阜外医院-移植费用

385 Expert Profiles –  The Fu Wai Cardiovascular Disease Centre
http://www.fuwaihospital.org/News/Articles/Index/1757
https://archive.is/MYaap
中国医学科学院阜外医院-中心介绍-专家

386 Historical and Clinical Status-  The Fu Wai Cardiovascular Disease Centre
Source: FUWAI Hospital, 2010
http://www.fuwaihospital.org/News/Articles/Index/1756
https://archive.is/Dk64I
历史与临床现状-阜外心血管病医院

387 Surgical Volume and Survival Rate of Heart Transplant in Fu Wai Hospital Has Reached International Level
http://www.medsci.cn/3g/shownews.asp?id=39177
http://archive.is/lDiCK
CHC 2014:阜外医院心脏移植年手术量和生存率已达国际水平

388 Specialties in the Fu Wai Cardiovascular Disease Hospital
http://baike.baidu.com/view/2663536.htm?fromtitle=%E9%98%9C%E5%A4%96%E5%8C%BB%E9%99%A2&fromid=7879800&type=syn
https://archive.is/5zmRf
中国医学科学院阜外心血管病医院-特色科室

389 Hospital Introduction: Peking University First Hospital
Source: Peking University First Hospital website, 2009-07-03
http://www.bddyyy.com.cn/yygk/yyjs/20090703/354.shtml
https://archive.is/Y6wvE
北大第一医院-医院介绍.  来源:北大第一医院2009-07-03

390 Introduction to the Urology Research Institute of  Peking University First Hospital
Source: Peking University First Hospital website
http://www.bddyyy.com.cn/ksyl/yjs/mnw/20091202/2741.shtml
https://web.archive.org/web/20160522233254/http://www.bddyyy.com.cn/ksyl/yjs/mnw/20091202/2741.shtml
北大第一医院-北京大学泌尿外科研究所介绍. 来源:北大第一医院

391 Liver transplant hospitals Introduction: Peking University First Hospital – Surgical Department – liver transplant
Source: GoodDoctor.com    Dated:  February 25, 2009
http://med.haoyisheng.com/09/0225/310006734.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160225205619/http://med.haoyisheng.com/09/0225/310006734.html
介绍一些肝移植医院 – 北京大学第一医院外科 – 肝脏移植简介   来源: 好医生   2009年02月25日

392 Peking University Organ Transplant Centre was established    BioSino.org / Source: PeopleNet,  dated: October 10, 2001
http://www.biosino.org/news-2001/200110/01101113.htm
https://archive.is/3JX4I
北大器官移植中心成立       中国生物信息网/来源:人民网    日期:2001年10月10日

393 Sharing System Moves Chinese Organ Transplantation into the Public Welfare Era
Source: China Economic Weekly, 2013, Issue 34             Author: Liu, Yanqing
http://paper.people.com.cn/zgjjzk/html/2013-09/06/content_1295101.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160116163206/http://paper.people.com.cn/zgjjzk/html/2013-09/06/content_1295101.htm
共享系统推动中国器官移植进入公益化时代   来源:《中国经济周刊》2013年第34期              作者: 刘砚青

394 hepatobiliary surgery department at Peking University People’s Hospital
http://www.pkuph.cn/html/xunzhaokeshi/waikexitong/gandanwaike/
https://web.archive.org/web/20160226011240/http://www.pkuph.cn/html/xunzhaokeshi/waikexitong/gandanwaike/
北京大学人民医院肝胆外科

395 Liver and kidney transplant at Peking University People’s Hospital
http://www.pkuph.cn/cn/tesezhenliaoxiangmu/2444.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20150218203812/http://www.pkuph.cn/cn/tesezhenliaoxiangmu/2444.html
北京大学人民医院 – 肝肾移植

396 Beijing University Organ Transplantation Centre Baidu
http://www.baike.com/wiki/北京大学器官移植中心
http://archive.is/YnvUB
北京大学器官移植中心

397 100 most competitive hospitals in China in 2015
http://health.sohu.com/20160328/n442639180.shtml
https://archive.is/FT6XC
2015中国顶级医院100强

398 Introduction of the Transplant of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University
http://www.eightbridge.com/livertx/old/Press.htm
https://archive.is/seCuM
北京大学第三医院器官移植中心简介

399 Brief Introduction of the Kidney Transplant of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University
Source: Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University; retrieved on June 16, 2015 & Feb 27, 2016
http://b3mnk.cnkme.com/treatments/show/4137
http://web.archive.org/web/20150616091950/http://b3mnk.cnkme.com/treatments/show/4137
北京大学第三医院肾移植简介来源:北京大学第三医院2015年06月16日&2016年02月27日

400 The development of the Organ Transplant Centre of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Peking University
http://www.eightbridge.com/livertx/jj02.html
https://archive.is/T0r7s
北京大学第三医院(北医三院)器官移植中心发展成立过程

401 Introduction of the Transplant of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University
http://www.eightbridge.com/livertx/old/Press.htm
https://archive.is/seCuM
北京大学第三医院器官移植中心简介

402 The Third Affiliated Hospital of Peking University relocate its surgical wards
http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2005-12-10/00437668473s.shtml
https://archive.is/eyhdc
北医三院新外科病房搬迁

403 Introduction of the Transplant of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University
http://www.eightbridge.com/livertx/old/Press.htm
https://archive.is/seCuM
北京大学第三医院器官移植中心简介

404 Members of the Liver Transplantation Centre
http://www.eightbridge.com/livertx/English/jj03.html
http://archive.is/hoqfW

405 Members of the Liver Transplantation Centre
http://www.eightbridge.com/livertx/jj03.html
http://archive.is/OLAB8
北京大学第三医院器官移植中心人员组成

406 Zhang Tonglin: Peking University Third Hospital Liver Transplantation Centre.
http://www.eightbridge.com/livertx/English/z01.html
http://archive.is/4aQuB

407 Expert Introduction –  Zhang Tonglin: Chief Surgeon, Peking University Third Hospital Liver Transplantation Centre
http://www.eightbridge.com/livertx/old/expertA-ztl.htm
http://archive.is/3vkzt
专家介绍 – 张同琳, 主任医师, 北京大学第三医院肝移植中心

408 Expert Introduction –  Zhang Tonglin: Chief Surgeon, Peking University Third Hospital Liver Transplantation Centre
http://www.eightbridge.com/livertx/old/expertA-ztl.htm
http://archive.is/3vkzt
专家介绍 – 张同琳, 主任医师, 北京大学第三医院肝移植中心

409 Brief Introduction of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University
http://www.a-hospital.com/w/%E5%8C%97%E4%BA%AC%E5%A4%A7%E5%AD%A6%E7%AC%AC%E4%B8%89%E5%8C%BB%E9%99%A2
http://archive.is/0g925
北京大学第三医院概况

410 Brief Introduction of the Kidney Transplant of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University
Source: Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University; retrieved on June 16, 2015 & Feb 27, 2016
http://b3mnk.cnkme.com/treatments/show/4137
http://web.archive.org/web/20150616091950/http://b3mnk.cnkme.com/treatments/show/4137
北京大学第三医院肾移植简介来源:北京大学第三医院2015年06月16日&2016年02月27日

411 Brief introduction to the Urologic Surgery department at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZBeiDaDiSanYiYuanKuaiXun/2011-03/5588.htm
http://web.archive.org/web/20140418012008/http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZBeiDaDiSanYiYuanKuaiXun/2011-03/5588.htm
北京大学第三医院泌尿外科简介

412 Brief Introduction of the Kidney Transplant of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University
Source: Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University; retrieved on June 16, 2015 & Feb 27, 2016
http://b3mnk.cnkme.com/treatments/show/4137
http://web.archive.org/web/20150616091950/http://b3mnk.cnkme.com/treatments/show/4137
北京大学第三医院肾移植简介来源:北京大学第三医院2015年06月16日&2016年02月27日

413 Brief Introduction of the Kidney Transplant of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University
Source: Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University; retrieved on June 16, 2015 & Feb 27, 2016
http://b3mnk.cnkme.com/treatments/show/4137
http://web.archive.org/web/20150616091950/http://b3mnk.cnkme.com/treatments/show/4137
北京大学第三医院肾移植简介来源:北京大学第三医院2015年06月16日&2016年02月27日

414 Brief introduction to the Urologic Surgery department at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZBeiDaDiSanYiYuanKuaiXun/2011-03/5588.htm
http://web.archive.org/web/20140418012008/http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZBeiDaDiSanYiYuanKuaiXun/2011-03/5588.htm
北京大学第三医院泌尿外科简介

415 Ma Lulin – Baidu Baike     Source: Baidu, 2016
http://baike.baidu.com/view/2750993.htm
https://archive.is/wcJgA
马潞林-百度百科 2016

416 Brief Introduction of the Kidney Transplant of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University
Source: Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University; retrieved on June 16, 2015 & Feb 27, 2016
http://b3mnk.cnkme.com/treatments/show/4137
http://web.archive.org/web/20150616091950/http://b3mnk.cnkme.com/treatments/show/4137
北京大学第三医院肾移植简介来源:北京大学第三医院2015年06月16日&2016年02月27日

417 Brief introduction to the Urologic Surgery department at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZBeiDaDiSanYiYuanKuaiXun/2011-03/5588.htm
http://web.archive.org/web/20140418012008/http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZBeiDaDiSanYiYuanKuaiXun/2011-03/5588.htm
北京大学第三医院泌尿外科简介

418 Brief introduction to the Urologic Surgery department at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZBeiDaDiSanYiYuanKuaiXun/2011-03/5588.htm
http://web.archive.org/web/20140418012008/http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZBeiDaDiSanYiYuanKuaiXun/2011-03/5588.htm
北京大学第三医院泌尿外科简介

419 Brief introduction to the Urologic Surgery department at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZBeiDaDiSanYiYuanKuaiXun/2011-03/5588.htm
http://web.archive.org/web/20140418012008/http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZBeiDaDiSanYiYuanKuaiXun/2011-03/5588.htm
北京大学第三医院泌尿外科简介

420 Urology Surgery Department in Beijing Chaoyang Hospital
http://www.bjcyh.com.cn/departments/unfold-305-2.html
https://archive.is/57MDI
北京朝阳医院 泌尿外科

421 Hepatobiliary Surgery Department in Beijing Chaoyang Hospital
http://www.bjcyh.com.cn/departments/unfold-308-2.html
https://archive.is/rUXxK
北京朝阳医院 肝胆外科

422 Urology Surgery Department in Beijing Chaoyang Hospital
http://www.bjcyh.com.cn/departments/unfold-305-2.html
https://archive.is/57MDI
北京朝阳医院 泌尿外科

423 Beijing Kidney Transplant Expert Guan Delin’s Special Topic – Kidney Transplant Expert Professor Guan Delin
http://www.boxun.com/forum/zongjiao/9529.shtml 《People’s Daily》 ( 5th edition January 26, 1999 )
https://archive.is/qfugM
北京肾移植专家管德林专题  京肾记肾移植专家管德林教授 《人民日报》 (1999年01月26日第5版)

424 Investigative leads: The Most Kidney Transplant Surgeries Were up to 21 Operations in one day in Beijing Chaoyang Hospital
http://www.clearwisdom.net/emh/articles/2006/7/29/76109.html
调查线索:北京朝阳医院肾移植手术最多一天达21台  明慧网14/07/2006
http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/7/14/132998.html#2006-7-13-xs-1

425 Hepatobiliary Surgery Department in Beijing Chaoyang Hospital
http://www.bjcyh.com.cn/departments/unfold-308-2.html
https://archive.is/rUXxK
北京朝阳医院 肝胆外科

426 Liver Transplantation Centre of Beijing Youan Hospital – Climbing the peak of liver transplantation
Source: The Health Newspaper July 30, 2004
http://www.hbver.com/Article/gyhjqt/gyz/200407/3051.html
http://archive.is/UU7zu
向肝脏移植的巅峰攀登—佑安医院肝脏移植中心   来源: 健康报   2004年07月30日

427 General Surgery Department of Youan Hospital affiliated with Capital Medical University – Department Introduction
http://www.bjyah.com/Html/Departments/Main/Detail_69.html
http://archive.is/wbYnc
首都医科大学附属北京佑安医院普外科 -科室介绍

428 General Surgery Department of Beijing Youan Hospital hired Zang Yunjin as the academic leader
Source:  Beijing Youan Hospital
http://www.bjhb.gov.cn/jcdt/201406/t20140630_86793.htm
http://archive.is/26aoj
北京佑安医院普通外科中心引进学科带头人臧运金    来源:北京佑安医院

429 Lu Shichun – Baidu Baike     Source: Baidu Encyclopedia, 2016
http://baike.baidu.com/view/4643306.htm;
https://archive.is/piH5V
卢实春 - 百度百科 2016

430 A special interview with Professor Lu shichun on Liver transplantation    Date: Aug 27, 2012
http://tv.ganbaobao.com.cn/shilu/84051.html
http://archive.is/Yn2KP
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/YouAnYiYuanKuaiXun/2011-08/5864.htm
肝宝宝独家访谈——卢实春教授谈肝移植 2012-08-27

431 Li Ning (President of Beijing Youan Hospital affiliated with Capital Medical University) – Baidu Baike
http://baike.baidu.com/subview/10670/9678796.htm;
https://archive.is/09fzf
Source: Baidu Encyclopedia, retrieved Jan. 17, 2016
李宁 (首都医科大学附属北京佑安医院院长)- 百度百科 2016

432 China Medical Doctor Award recipient, Li Ning has directed over 500 liver transplants 2010-11-12
http://news.china.com.cn/txt/2010-11/12/content_21328362.htm
http://archive.is/hGVjZ
主持00余例肝移植手术 记中国医师奖获得者李宁  中国网  2010-11-12

433 Doctor Li Ning, Beijing YouAn Hospital, Capital Medicine University
http://bjyah.com/Html/Doctors/Main/Detail_111.html
http://archive.is/UGP8x
首都医科大学附属北京佑安医院 李宁

434 The Hospital Introduction – The Affiliated Beijing Anzhen Hospital of Capital Medical University
http:/www.anzhen.org/Hospitals/Main/Description
http:/web.archive.org/web/20150529233727/http://www.anzhen.org/Hospitals/Main/Description
Source: Baidu Encyclopedia, retrieved May 29, 2015
医概况-首都医科大学附属北京安贞医院   2015

435 Overview of Beijing Anzhen Hospital affiliated with Capital Medical University
http://www.anzhen.org/Hospitals/Main/Description
https://web.archive.org/web/20160314161509/http://anzhen.org/Hospitals/Main/Description
医院概况-首都医科大学附属北京安贞医院

436 Introduction to the Thoracic Surgery Department at Affiliated Beijing Anzhen Hospital of Capital Medical University
http://anzhen.org/Html/Departments/Main/SearchIndex_217.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160315035733/
http://anzhen.org/Html/Departments/Main/SearchIndex_217.html
科介绍-胸外科-首都医科大学附属北京安贞医院

437 Introduction to the expert: Qu Shonglei-Thoracic Surgery Department at Affiliated Beijing Anzhen Hospital of Capital Medical University
http://anzhen.org/Html/Departments/Main/SearchIndex_217.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160315035733/
http://anzhen.org/Html/Departments/Main/SearchIndex_217.html
专介绍:胸外科-区颂雷-首都医科大学附属北京安贞医院

438 Introduction to the 9th Cardiac Surgery Department at Affiliated Beijing Anzhen Hospital of Capital Medical University
http://www.anzhen.org/Html/Departments/Main/SearchIndex_165.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160316182601/
http://www.anzhen.org/Html/Departments/Main/SearchIndex_165.html
科室介绍-心外9科(北京心脏移植及瓣膜外科诊疗中心)首都医科大学附属北京安贞医院

439 Expert: Mengxu  – The Cardiac Surgery Department at Affiliated Beijing Anzhen Hospital of Capital Medical University
http://www.anzhen.org/Html/Doctors/Main/Index_747.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160409055143/http://www.anzhen.org/Html/Doctors/Main/Index_747.html
专家介绍:孟旭-首都医科大学附属北京安贞医院

440 Overview of Shanghai General Hospital
http://www.firsthospital.cn/hospital/index.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20150512200958/http://www.firsthospital.cn/hospital/index.html
上海市第一人民医院概况

441 Shanghai Centre of Organ Transplantation Clinical Medicine
http://www.shsmu.edu.cn/default.php?mod=article&do=detail&tid=869374
https://web.archive.org/web/20160118171556/
328-上海市器官移植临床医学中心

442 Urological Surgery Centre, Shanghai General Hospital.
http://www.firsthospital.cn/Content/Detail/c179/d114
http://archive.is/lUO9Z
上海第一人民医院——泌尿外科

443 Introduction of Liver Transplant Centre of Shanghai General Hospital Organtransplantation.org 2011-03-01
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZShangHaiShiDiYiRenMinYiYuanKuaiXun/2011-03/5457.htm
http://archive.is/jdGUE
上海市第一人民医院肝脏移植中心简介 中国器官移植网 日期:2011-03-01

444 Peng Zhihai, Director of Shanghai Organ Transplantation Centre, Baidu Encyclopedia
http://baike.baidu.com/view/1805045.htm
https://archive.is/kRpzW
彭志海,上海市器官移植中心主任 -百度百科

445 Great deeds of Tan Jianming, people.cn
http://health.people.com.cn/n/2014/0604/c385611-25104541.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20150107014720/http://health.people.com.cn/n/2014/0604/c385611-25104541.html
人民网-《谭建明先进事迹》

446 Shanghai Centre of Organ Transplantation Clinical Medicine
http://www.shsmu.edu.cn/default.php?mod=article&do=detail&tid=869374
https://web.archive.org/web/20160118171556/http://www.shsmu.edu.cn/default.php?mod=article&do=detail&tid=869374
328-上海市器官移植临床医学中心

447 “Collection of Evidence of Live Organ Harvesting from Falun Gong Practitioners by the Chinese Communist Party,” World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong.
http://www.upholdjustice.org/node/241#_Toc367315083
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/files/report/2013/09/35848_8-shanghai-dai.mp3

448 Working Hard on Becoming “Kidney Transplant” Field Pioneer
http://www.sxqnb.com.cn/shtml/sxqnb/20150820/104152.shtml
https://archive.is/i8mCW
努力做好“肾移植”领域排头兵—山西青年报

449 Brief Introduction to Shanxi Provincial Second People’s Hospital
http://www.sxws.cn/UnitWeb/Web/sey/HosIntro.aspx?flag=yyjj
https://web.archive.org/web/20150406213659/http://www.sxws.cn/UnitWeb/Web/sey/HosIntro.aspx?flag=yyjj
山西省第二人民医院简介

450 Working Hard on Becoming “Kidney Transplant” Field Pioneer
http://www.sxqnb.com.cn/shtml/sxqnb/20150820/104152.shtml
https://archive.is/i8mCW
努力做好“肾移植”领域排头兵—山西青年报

451 National clinical key specialty construction projects declaration from Urologic Surgery Department
http://www.sxws.cn/UPLOADDOCS/%E6%B3%8C%E5%B0%BF%E5%A4%96%E7%A7%91%E5%85%AC%E7%A4%BA%E7%89%88.pdf
https://web.archive.org/web/20160412100836/http://www.sxws.cn/UPLOADDOCS/%E6%B3%8C%E5%B0%BF%E5%A4%96%E7%A7%91%E5%85%AC%E7%A4%BA%E7%89%88.pdf
《泌尿外科国家临床重点专科建设项目申报书》 来源: 作者:山西省第二人民医院 武小桐

452 Introduction to Specialist Wang Zhenxing from Second People’s Hospital of Shanxi Province
http://www.sxws.cn/UnitWeb/Web/sey/showHosExpert.aspx?UnitID=33506
https://archive.is/Ei76L
山西省第二人民医院专家:王振兴

453 Introduction to Specialist Wang Zhenxing from Second People’s Hospital of Shanxi Province
Source: Chinese Remedies & Clinics 2009, (04) 334-335
http://ywlc.chinajournal.net.cn/WKB/WebPublication/paperDigest.aspx?paperID=41EC2559-7D2F-4059-BD62-D6711BA92A7E
https://archive.is/DnbqB
《肾移植术后消化道出血的防治》 来源:《中国药物与临床》 2009, (04)334-335

454 Clinical analysis of 25 cases of malignant tumors of the urinary system after renal transplantation
Source: 2013 Chinese Transplant Congress Papers Series
http://cpfd.cnki.com.cn/Article/CPFDTOTAL-ZJKX201311007339.htm
https://web.archive.org/save/http://cpfd.cnki.com.cn/Article/CPFDTOTAL-ZJKX201311007339.htm
《移植术后并发自体泌尿系统恶性肿瘤25例的临床分析》
来源:《2013中国器官移植大会论文汇编》

455 Kidney Transplants in One Day at Second People’s Hospital of Shanxi Province on August 15 (2006)
http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/9/11/137584.html
https://archive.is/8zrPi
98《明慧网》山西省第二人民医院8月15日一天做肾移植11例

456 The Third People ‘s Hospital of Datong City
htp://www.sxws.cn/UnitWeb/Web/dt3y/HosIntro.aspx?type=1
htts://web.archive.org/web/20150516193215/http://www.sxws.cn/UnitWeb/Web/dt3y/HosIntro.aspx?type=1
大同市第三人民医院

457 The Third People ‘s Hospital of Datong City
http://www.baike.com/wiki/大同市第三人民医院
https://archive.is/oPPSC
互动百科 – 大同市第三人民医院

458 The Third People ‘s Hospital of Datong City
http://www.sxws.cn/UnitWeb/Web/dt3y/HosIntro.aspx?type=1
https://web.archive.org/web/20150516193215/http://www.sxws.cn/UnitWeb/Web/dt3y/HosIntro.aspx?type=1
大同市第三人民医院

459 Introduction to the Specialist Li Rongjun at the Third People ‘s Hospital of Datong City
http://www.haodf.com/doctor/DE4r0BCkuHzdeGaLDzwOXKq2IWmiF.htm
https://web.archive.org/save/http://www.haodf.com/doctor/DE4r0BCkuHzdeGaLDHgnLBKpXQJ1u.htm
大同市第三人民医院专家李荣军

460 Introduction to the Specialist Wei Xiuju at the Third People ‘s Hospital of Datong City
http://www.haodf.com/doctor/DE4r0BCkuHzdeGaLDHgnLBKpXQJ1u.htm
https://web.archive.org/save/http://www.haodf.com/doctor/DE4r0BCkuHzdeGaLDzwOXKq2IWmiF.htm
大同市第三人民医院专家魏秀举

461 The Fifth People ‘s Hospital of Datong City
http://www.dtwyy.cn/article_detail.htm?catalogId=1&itemId=11
https://archive.is/w7HZg
大同市第五人民医院

462 2013 Influence Ranking of Top 10 Hospitals in China
http://rank.jianso.com/12309.htm
https://archive.is/ZcPOG
139-2013年中国十大医院品牌影响力排行-上海华山医院

463 Fudan University Institute of Organ Transplantation
http://www.huashan-keyanchu.org.cn/changshi/html/?131.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160118173451/http://www.huashan-keyanchu.org.cn/changshi/html/?131.html
复旦大学器官移植研究所

464 Ding Qiang, Professor, PhD advisor, Department of Urologic Surgery at Huashan Hospital Affiliated with Fudan University ,
http://www.huashan.org.cn/showprofessor/14516
https://archive.is/n1GSu
复旦大学附属华山医院,泌尿外科,教授 /博导,丁强

465 Urologic Surgery Department – Huashan Hospital Affiliated with Fudan University
http://www.huashan.org.cn/roomcontent/276
http://archive.is/zo9Td
复旦大学附属华山医院-泌尿外科

466 Urologic Surgery Department – Huashan Hospital Affiliated with Fudan University
http://www.huashan.org.cn/roomcontent/276
http://archive.is/zo9Td
复旦大学附属华山医院-泌尿外科

467 Wang Zhengxin, General Surgery Department at Huashan Hospital Affiliated with Fudan University
http://www.haodf.com/doctor/DE4r08xQdKSLVibo0k6N34PvWMSU.htm#
https://web.archive.org/web/20150406204020/http://www.haodf.com/doctor/DE4r08xQdKSLVibo0k6N34PvWMSU.htm
上海华山医院普外科王正昕

468 “Rui Jin Hospital (Organ Transplant Centre).” Guangdong Province Medical and Health Information Site. http://www.medste.gd.cn/Html/dip/Class984/Class1022/22841820071212221900.html
http://archive.is/XPz09
瑞金医院(器官移植中心)

469 Shanghai Ruijin Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University      Baidu Encyclopedia
http://baike.baidu.com/view/1060775.htm
https://archive.is/L0LMj
上海交通大学医学院附属瑞金医院-百度百科

470 100 most competitive hospitals in China in 2015
http://health.sohu.com/20160328/n442639180.shtml
https://archive.is/FT6XC
2015中国顶级医院100强

471 Shanghai Ruijin Hospital – Ruijin Organ Transplant Centre      China Organ Transplantation Net        3/1/2011
http://ruijin.h.yynet.cn/departments.php?section_id=16258
https://archive.is/FRWN0
上海瑞金医院 – 瑞金器官移植中心                 中国器官移植网        3/1/2011

472 Introduction to Peng Chenghong, Ranking List of Top 100 Famous Doctors in China – Top10DR
http://www.top10dr.com/mingyi/201205/infos268.html
https://archive.is/j2zFy
中国名医百强排行榜-彭承宏

473 Shanghai Ruijin Hospital – Ruijin Organ Transplant Centre        China Organ Transplantation Net        3/1/2011
http://ruijin.h.yynet.cn/departments.php?section_id=16258
https://archive.is/FRWN0
上海瑞金医院 – 瑞金器官移植中心                 中国器官移植网        3/1/2011

474 “Rui Jin Hospital (Organ Transplant Centre).” Guangdong Province Medical and Health Information Site.
http://www.medste.gd.cn/Html/dip/Class984/Class1022/22841820071212221900.html
http://archive.is/XPz09
瑞金医院(器官移植中心)

475 “Rui Jin Hospital (Organ Transplant Centre).” Guangdong Province Medical and Health Information Site.
http://www.medste.gd.cn/Html/dip/Class984/Class1022/22841820071212221900.html
http://archive.is/XPz09
瑞金医院(器官移植中心)

476 Lung Transplantation centre at Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University
http://www.shxkyy.com/departmentsInfo.aspx?id=2551&cid=6
http://archive.is/01KMX
上海市交通大学附属胸科医院肺移植梯队

477 Overview of Shanghai Chest Hospital

http://www.shxkyy.com/yyjs/index_4.aspx
https://archive.is/RxEE4
上海市胸科医院概述

478 The Lung Transplantation at Shanghai Chest Hospital
http://www.shxkyy.com/home/news_nr.asp?wzid=544
https://web.archive.org/web/20080524010837/http://www.shxkyy.com/home/news_nr.asp?wzid=544
上海市胸科医院肺移植

479 The Lung Transplant Centre of Shanghai Chest Hospital
http://www.shxkyy.com/departmentsInfo.aspx?id=2551&cid=6
https://archive.is/01KMX
上海市胸科医院肺移植中心

480 The Lung Transplantation at Shanghai Chest Hospital
http://www.shxkyy.com/home/news_nr.asp?wzid=544
https://web.archive.org/web/20080524010837/http://www.shxkyy.com/home/news_nr.asp?wzid=544
上海市胸科医院肺移植

481 Committing Evil Doing in the Name of Reporting Suspect http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2014/9/28/%E4%BB%A5%E4%B8%BE%E6%8A%A5%E4%B9%8B%E5%90%8D%E8%A1%8C%E8%AF%AC%E9%99%B7%E4%B9%8B%E6%81%B6-298273.html
以举报之名行诬陷之恶

482 100 most competitive hospitals in China in 2015
http://health.sohu.com/20160328/n442639180.shtml
https://archive.is/FT6XC
2015中国顶级医院100强

483 Introduction to the General Surgery Department at Xinhua Hospital on the hospital’s official website
http://www.xhpuwaike.com/Article/ShowInfo.asp?InfoID= 11
https://web.archive.org/web/20160417180428/http://www.xhpuwaike.com/Article/ShowInfo.asp?InfoID=11
普外科介绍[上海新华医院—普外科]

484 Introduction to the Liver Transplant Department at Xinhua Hospital on the hospital’s official website
http://xhpuwaike.com/article/ShowInfo.asp?InfoID=47
https://web.archive.org/web/20160417175241/http://www.xhpuwaike.com/Article/ShowInfo.asp?InfoID=47
上海交大附属新华医院,肝移植外科概况

485 Doctor Chen Litian’s personal web site on haodf.com
http://litianchen669.haodf.com/
https://web.archive.org/web/20160313170727/http://litianchen669.haodf.com/
陈立天大夫的个人网站 来源:好大夫在线

486 Chen Litian, Chief Surgeon of Liver Transplant Department of Xinhua Hospital Affiliated with Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine
http://www.haodf.com/doctor/DE4r0BCkuHzdeSY-57ej6dZX-ciU9.htm
https://archive.is/HpLCu
上海新华医院肝移植科主任医师陈立天

487 Du, Zhiyong, Expert Introduction of Liver Transplant Department of Xinhua Hospital in Shanghai
http:/duzhiy.u.yynet.cn/intro.php
http:/archive.is/SCiOb
专家介绍 – 杜志勇 – 上海新华医院移植外科

488 Xinhua Hospital Affiliated with Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine
Baidu Encyclopedia
http://baike.baidu.com/view/10986516.htm
https://archive.is/s7ew8
上海新华医院-百度百科

489 Can Jiangsu Province Hospital do the liver transplantation? Who are the expert surgeons?
Famous Doctors & Master Surgeons Website
http://zixun.mingyizhudao.com/a/1944.shtml
http://archive.is/yiX3X
《江苏省人民医院肝移植手术能做吗? 专家有哪些》-名医主刀网

490 Song, Dandan. “Liver transplantation and liver cancer research innovation team.” Jiangsu Province Hospital. March 27, 2012.
http://www.jsph.net/art/2012/3/27/art_803_6484.html
http://archive.is/6p4eR
肝脏移植及肝癌研究创新团队 2012-03-27

491 Jiangsu Province Hospital – Expert Introduction – Wang Xuehao, December 15, 2008
http://www.jsph.net/art/2008/12/15/art_935_211.html
https://archive.is/HXGO0
江苏省人民医院-专家介绍-王学浩

492 Member of China Engineering Academy Wang Xuehao: The First Person in Live Liver Transplantation in China – Jianhu Culture and History Website
http://www.jhwsw.com/rwcq/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID=2601
http://archive.is/KQ1de
《王学浩院士:中国活体肝移植手术第一人》-建湖文史网

493 Jiangsu Province Hospital – Expert Introduction – Wang Xuehao, December 15, 2008
http://www.jsph.net/art/2008/12/15/art_935_211.html
https://archive.is/HXGO0
江苏省人民医院-专家介绍-王学浩

494 Can Jiangsu Province Hospital do the liver transplantation? Who are the expert surgeons?
Famous Doctors & Master Surgeons Website
http://zixun.mingyizhudao.com/a/1944.shtml
http://archive.is/yiX3X
《江苏省人民医院肝移植手术能做吗? 专家有哪些》-名医主刀网

495 Song, Dandan. “Liver transplantation and liver cancer research innovation team.” Jiangsu Province Hospital. March 27, 2012.
http://www.jsph.net/art/2012/3/27/art_803_6484.html
http://archive.is/6p4eR
肝脏移植及肝癌研究创新团队 2012-03-27

496 “Kidney Transplantation.” Jiangsu Province Hospital. December 5, 2008.
http://www.jsph.net/art/2008/12/5/art_943_4164.html
http://web.archive.org/web/20150428181457/http://www.jsph.net/art/2008/12/5/art_943_4164.html
江省人民医院泌尿外科-肾脏移植

497 “Introduction to the Jiangsu Province Hospital Urologic Surgery Department.” Transplantation.org.cn. February 28, 2011.
http://transplantation.org.cn/ZJiangSuShengRenMinYiYuanKuaiXun/2011-02/5414.htm
http://archive.is/PG1dM
江苏省人民医院泌尿外科简介 2011-02-28

498 Brief Introduction to Wuxi People’s Hospital
http://www.wuxiph.com/Info/YiYuanJianGe/20282.html
https://archive.is/GjzFB
无锡市人民医院简介

499 Chen Jingyu: Ten Years of Tempering Creates a Mythic Story in Transplant Field, Healthcare Media
http://www.cn-healthcare.com/article/20140724/content-458901-all.html
http://web.archive.org/web/20160123203459/http://www.cn-healthcare.com/article/20140724/content-458901-all.html
陈静瑜肺腑之言:十年磨砺打造移植界神话

500 Brief Introduction to the Diagnostic and Treatment Centre for Lung Transplant Treatment at Wuxi People’s Hospital
http://www.wuxiph.com/KeShi/WaiKeJiTong/165.html
https://archive.is/HNryh
无锡市人民医院肺移植诊疗中心简介

501 Brief Introduction to the Diagnostic and Treatment Centre for Lung Transplant Treatment at Wuxi People’s Hospital

http://jiuyi.ewsos.com/yiyuan/keshijieshao-FeiYiZhiZhongXin441300
https://web.archive.org/web/20160312031250/http://jiuyi.ewsos.com/yiyuan/keshijieshao-FeiYiZhiZhongXin441300

502 Chen Jingyu: Ten Years of Tempering Creates a Mythic Story in Transplant Field, Healthcare Media
http://www.cn-healthcare.com/article/20140724/content-458901-all.html
http://web.archive.org/web/20160123203459/http://www.cn-healthcare.com/article/20140724/content-458901-all.html
陈静瑜肺腑之言:十年磨砺打造移植界神话

503 Brief Introduction to the Diagnostic and Treatment Centre for Lung Transplant Treatment at Wuxi People’s Hospital
http://jiuyi.ewsos.com/yiyuan/keshijieshao-FeiYiZhiZhongXin441300
https://web.archive.org/web/20160312031250/http://jiuyi.ewsos.com/yiyuan/keshijieshao-FeiYiZhiZhongXin441300
无锡市人民医院肺移植中心科室介绍

504 Brief Introduction to The Third Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou University
http://www.czfph.com/yygk/ShowInfo.asp?InfoID=1661
https://archive.is/7Ju1Z
常州市第一人民医院简介

505 The Third Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou University attained the “National health system advanced group” reward
http://www.czfph.com/Article/ShowInfo.asp?InfoID=2411
https://archive.is/P1iCm
精以业医谋发展 仁以爱患创新篇 我院荣获“全国卫生系统先进集体”称号

506 Brief Introduction to The Third Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou University
http://www.czfph.com/ksdhnr.asp?id=38
https://archive.is/0dLeH
常州市第一人民医院泌尿外科

507 Analysis of 500 cases Long-term survival of kidney transplant
http://tieba.baidu.com/p/2959781170
https://archive.is/kIJr1
肾移植长期存活500例分析 来源:江苏医药2014年1月第40卷第2期

508 The Third Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou University attained the “National health system advanced group” reward
http://www.czfph.com/Article/ShowInfo.asp?InfoID=2411
https://archive.is/P1iCm
精以业医谋发展 仁以爱患创新篇 我院荣获“全国卫生系统先进集体”称号

509 Brief Introduction to The Third Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou University

http://www.czfph.com/ksdhnr.asp?id=38
https://archive.is/0dLeH
常州市第一人民医院泌尿外科

510 Introduce the experts at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou University
http://www.czfph.com/daoshinr.asp?id=45
https://archive.is/eSVCh
常州市第一人民医院专家介绍

511 Introduction to the Hepatobiliary Surgery department at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou University
http://www.czfph.com/ksdhnr.asp?id=43
https://archive.is/mU85C
常州市第一人民医院科室导航:肝胆外科

512 Introduce expert Zhu Feng at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou University
http://www.czfph.com/zjjs.asp?gh=1350&WebShieldSessionVerify=iqJmSmTj3nxrVmaDV7HW
https://archive.is/YwuqM
常州市第一人民医院专家介绍:朱峰

513 Introduction to the Cardiothoracic Surgery department at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou University
http://www.czfph.com/ksdhnr.asp?id=66
https://archive.is/iI47B
常州市第一人民医院科室导航:心胸外科

514 Introduce the experts at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou University
http://www.czfph.com/daoshinr.asp?id=45
https://archive.is/eSVCh
常州市第一人民医院专家介绍

515  Introduction to the ophthalmology department at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou University
http://www.czfph.com/ksdhnr.asp?id=66
https://archive.is/iI47B
常州市第一人民医院科室导航:眼科

516 Brief Introduction to the First Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou University
http://fyy.sdfyy.cn/Main/Display_B10_A0.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160125192611/http://fyy.sdfyy.cn/Main/Display_B10_A0.html
苏州大学附属第一医院简介

517 Introduction to the Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University
http://www3.sdfyy.cn/mnwk/index.htm
https://archive.is/VSjOJ
苏大学附属第一医院泌尿外科(含肾移植中心)简介

518 Shortage of the Kidney Sources in Soochow – 300-500 people waiting for one kidney   People.com.cn 2012-11-12
http://js.people.com.cn/html/2012/11/12/183109.html
http://archive.is/PG1dM
苏州肾源供应紧张 300至500人等待一个肾 人民网 – 江苏视窗 2012-11-12

519 Expert: Yan Chunyin, the Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University
http://www3.sdfyy.cn/mnwk/zjjc-ycy.htm
https://archive.is/cIpK2
苏州大学附属第一医院泌尿外科-专家-严春寅

520 Department of Cardiovascular Surgery at the First Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou University
http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4r08xQdKSLBvNDjSHzEWhYkCqt/jieshao.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160306034017/http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4r08xQdKSLBvNDjSHzEWhYkCqt/jieshao.htm
苏州大学附属第一医院心血管外科

521 The CCP Still Harvests Organs from Living Falun Gong Practitioners,
Source: World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong (WOIPFG)
https://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/45393
https://web.archive.org/web/20150907093823/http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/45393
中共活摘法轮功学员器官大屠杀还在进行, 来源:追查国际

522 Introduction to Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital
http://www.hospitalstar.com/index.php/Index/web/cCode/101
https://archive.is/oOwxL
195 浙江省人民医院介绍

523 Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital Introduction and 2016 graduates plan to recruit
Source: Beijing Union Medical College Graduate School website – Employment section
http://graduate.pumc.edu.cn/jiuye/view/509.aspx
https://archive.is/WSxIj
浙江省人民医院简介及2016年应届毕业生拟招聘计划   来源:北京协和医学院研究生院网站-就业栏目

524 Introduction to expert Yan Zhikun from Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital
http://www.hospitalstar.com/index.php/Index/newsContent/id/10935
https://archive.is/CeBso (can’t be archived properly)
浙江省人民医院专家介绍:严志焜

525 Introduction to expert Yan Zhikun from Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital
http://www.hospitalstar.com/index.php/Index/newsContent/id/10935
https://archive.is/CeBso (can’t be archived properly)
浙江省人民医院专家介绍:严志焜

526 Follow-up of twelve cases of heart transplantation
Source: National Medical Journal of China 2004 issue 11 page 885-887
http://113.31.20.172:81/article/detail.aspx?id=10040279
https://archive.is/qgAwA
心脏移植12例随访观察 来源:《中华医学杂志》2004年第11期 885-887

527 Introduction to Key disciplines: Cardiothoracic Surgery at Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital
http://www.hospitalstar.com/index.php/Index/newsContent/id/10776
https://archive.is/nm6wX
浙江省人民医院重点学科:心胸外科学

528 Kidney donation between couple has good result, next to twins
http://news.xinhuanet.com/society/2005-11/29/content_3854081.htm
https://archive.is/dLoXC
爱之神奇:夫妻间捐肾 效果仅次于孪生   来源:新华网

529 The transplant team of the Second Affiliated hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine celebrate their new year this way
Source: City Express (under Huangzhou Daily Media Group)
http://hzdaily.hangzhou.com.cn/dskb/html/2016-01/05/content_2168559.htm
https://archive.is/K6ETn
浙医二院器官移植团队这样跨年   来源:都市快报(杭州日报报业集团)

530 Kidney donation between couple has good result, next to twins
http://m.sohu.com/n/440533103/?wscrid=32576_2
https://archive.is/dLoXC
爱之神奇:夫妻间捐肾 效果仅次于孪生   来源:新华网

531 Looking at “A Grotesque Form of Evil New to This Planet” — Compilation of Investigation Leads (Part II),
Source: Clearwisdom.net, 10/10/2006
http://www.clearwisdom.net/emh/articles/2006/10/10/78823.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160306144538/http://www.clearwisdom.net/emh/articles/2006/10/10/78823.html
从调查线索看“这个星球上前所未有的罪恶”(上), 来源:明慧网, 9/23/2006

532 The Second Affiliated hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine conducted 7 transplant within 16 hours
http://www.eyezj.com/index.php/Web/newsContent/id/28.html
https://archive.is/S9mRU
浙医二院移植团队又成功完成7台移植手术   来源:搜狐新闻

533 Department of Thoracic Surgery at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital
http://www.sphchest.com
https://archive.is/iXz1s
上海市肺科医院胸外科

534 Introduction to Thoracic Surgery Department of Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital
http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4rO-XCoLU0ipEYw1mnSzFYx4/jieshao.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20150517153653/
http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4rO-XCoLU0ipEYw1mnSzFYx4/jieshao.htm
上海市肺科医院胸外科介绍

535 Brief Introduction to Thoracic Surgery Department of Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZShangHaiShiFeiKeYiYuanKuaiXun/2011-03/5519.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160312215314/
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZShangHaiShiFeiKeYiYuanKuaiXun/2011-03/5519.htm
上海市肺科医院胸外科简介

536 Introduction to Thoracic Surgery Department of Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital
http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4rO-XCoLU0ipEYw1mnSzFYx4/jieshao.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20150517153653/
http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4rO-XCoLU0ipEYw1mnSzFYx4/jieshao.htm
上海市肺科医院胸外科介绍

537 To Save Patients, Going to Hangzhou Through a Typhoon to Fetch Lungs,Shi Jie, eastday.com, August 7, 2015
http://sh.eastday.com/m/20150807/u1ai8829309.html
http://web.archive.org/web/20160301182159/
http://sh.eastday.com/m/20150807/u1ai8829309.html
《为救病人顶着台风去杭州取肺》2015-08-07 作者:施捷 来源:新民晚报

538 Introduction to Thoracic Surgery Department of Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital
http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4rO-XCoLU0ipEYw1mnSzFYx4/jieshao.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20150517153653/
http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4rO-XCoLU0ipEYw1mnSzFYx4/jieshao.htm
上海市肺科医院胸外科介绍

539 Dr. Gao Wen, chief Surgeon, Professor, PhD advisor, president of the Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital
http://baike.baidu.com/subview/305500/7381403.htm
http://archive.is/aZGZV
高文, 上海市胸科医院院长, 主任医师, 同济大学教授, 博士生导师

540 Introduction of the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University,
http://www.hosp1.ac.cn/wyyy/web/yygk/yyjs.aspx
https://web.archive.org/web/20160306144755/http://www.hosp1.ac.cn/wyyy/web/yygk/yyjs.aspx
温州医科大学附属第一医院介绍

541 Introduction of the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University,
http://www.hosp1.ac.cn/wyyy/web/yygk/yyjs.aspx
https://web.archive.org/web/20160306144755/http://www.hosp1.ac.cn/wyyy/web/yygk/yyjs.aspx
温州医科大学附属第一医院介绍

542 Introduction to the Transplant Department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University,
http://www.hosp1.ac.cn/wyyy/web/ksts/lcks.aspx?ksmc=%D2%C6%D6%B2%BF%C6
https://archive.is/g57y3
温州医科大学附属第一医院移植科

543 Introduction of Dr. Yang Yirong, Source: yynet.cn
http://yangyirong.u.yynet.cn/intro.php
https://web.archive.org/web/20160313075141/
http://yangyirong.u.yynet.cn/intro.php
专家介绍: 温州第一附属医院移植科杨亦荣,来源:医元网

544 Zheng Shaoling, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University
Source: Baidu Encyclopedia
http://baike.baidu.com/view/1826904.htm
https://archive.is/3Iox4
温州医科大学附属第一医院郑少玲 来源:百度百科

545 Comparative study on three kinds liver transplantation
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/cn/images/medicalarticles/10001.pdf
三种不同术式原位肝移植的临床研究

546 Brief Introduction to The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University
http://www.fyyy.com/fyjj/fyjj.asp
https://web.archive.org/web/20160125051955/
http://www.fyyy.com/fyjj/fyjj.asp
福建医科大学第一附属医院简介

547 Brief Introduction to the Liver Disease Centre at The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University
http://www.fyyy.com/ks_jj/xxjj.asp?string=58
https://web.archive.org/web/20160125052131/
http://www.fyyy.com/ks_jj/xxjj.asp?string=58
福建医科大学第一附属医院肝病中心简介

548 Brief Introduction to the Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery at The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University
http://www.fyyy.com/ks_jj/xxjj.asp?string=13
http://archive.is/aoeRd
福建医科大学附属第一医院,肝胆外科简介

549 Interview of Liu Jingfeng, president of The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University
http://fj.sina.com.cn/health/jkzx/2015-01-22/145963944.html
专访福建医科大学孟超肝胆院院长刘景丰

550 Introduction of Dr. Liu Jingfeng
http://liujingfeng8.u.yynet.cn/intro.php
http://archive.is/zIQcd
刘景丰简介

551 Brief Introduction to Fujian Medical University Union Hospital
http://www.fjxiehe.com/article/single.jsp?mid=185&parentmid=184
https://web.archive.org/web/20160125052439/
http://www.fjcts.com/zhuangti.php?types=ksjj
福建医科大学附属协和医院简介

552 Brief Introduction to Fujian Medical University Union Hospital
http://www.fjxiehe.com/article/single.jsp?mid=185&parentmid=184
https://web.archive.org/web/20160125052439/
http://www.fjcts.com/zhuangti.php?types=ksjj
福建医科大学附属协和医院简介

553 Brief Introduction to Zhongshan Hospital of Xiamen University
http://www.xmzsh.com/Pages/Home/NewsShow.aspx?id=7845
https://web.archive.org/web/20160125052848/
http://www.xmzsh.com/Pages/Home/NewsShow.aspx?id=7845
厦门大学附属中山医院简介

554 Road to the Peak of Medicine of a Professional with a PhD from Overseas
http://group.baike.com/hdyx/bbs/oXFlBVUVHBAgLTFlc.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160125053030/
http://group.baike.com/hdyx/bbs/oXFlBVUVHBAgLTFlc.html
一位留学博士的医学巅峰之路

556 Road to the Peak of Medicine of a Professional with a PhD from Overseas
http://group.baike.com/hdyx/bbs/oXFlBVUVHBAgLTFlc.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160125053030/
http://group.baike.com/hdyx/bbs/oXFlBVUVHBAgLTFlc.html
一位留学博士的医学巅峰之路

555 Introduction to the director Qi Zhongquan of Organ Transplantation Institute of Xiamen University
http://www.mrsta.com/Html/zhuanjiablog/0219914.html
https://archive.is/gdgnM
勇器官移植研究科学高峰——厦门大学器官移植研究所所长齐忠权教授

557 Introduction to the Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery at Zhongshan Hospital of Xiamen University
http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4rO-XCoLUnkduztx00uSYNw1/jieshao.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160313103936/
http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4rO-XCoLUnkduztx00uSYNw1/jieshao.htm
厦门大学附属中山医院肝胆外科介绍

558 Medical service price list of Zhongshan Hospital of Xiamen University
http://www.xmzsh.com/Upload/Doc/200910138431796304.xls
https://archive.is/O0ooM
厦门大学附属中山医院医疗服务价格表

559 Xiamen Heart Centre starts to run independently from 28
http://news.hxmyw.net/50585.html
https://archive.is/20cpM
厦门市心脏中心28日起正式独立运营 来源:海峡名医网

560 Brief Introduction to Xiamen Cardiovascular Hospital
http://www.xmheart.com/Cate/Index/2
https://archive.is/O0ooM
厦门心血管病医院简介

561 Introduction to Renowned cardiovascular surgeon – Professor Liao Chongxian
Source: China Review Academic Publishers Limited
http://hk.crntt.com/crn-webapp/cbspub/secDetail.jsp?bookid=52001&secid=52265
https://archive.is/Edwhi
我国著名心血管外科专家廖崇先教授 来源:中国评论学术出版社

564 Cardiovascular Surgeon Liao Chongxian’s successful story in heart and combined transplantation
Source: China Review Academic Publishers Limited
http://bj.crntt.com/crn-webapp/cbspub/secDetail.jsp?bookid=52001&secid=52266
https://archive.is/GnM97
功夫不负有心人—心血管外科专家廖崇先教授攻克心脏和联合器官移植的事迹 来源:中国评论学术出版社

563 Introduction to the Department of Heart Surgery at Xiamen Cardiovascular Hospital
http://www.xmheart.com/Cate/Index/79
https://archive.is/o8do7
厦门心血管病医院心外科

562 Heart transplant people has reached 600 nationally
http://www.xmzsh.com/Pages/Home/NewsShow.aspx?id=8735
https://archive.is/gND86
全国换心人已达600名   来源:厦门网

565 Over 150 heart transplant people get together in Xiamen
http://www.xmzsh.com/html/2008/08/20080814160229-1.htm
https://archive.is/UJvDO
150多名换心人来厦相聚   来源:厦门网/厦门晚报

566 Academicians joined Xiamen Digestion Centre as chief scientist
http://www.xmzsh.com/html/2009/10/20091015161721-1.htm
https://archive.is/DX0k6
院士加盟厦门消化中心任首席科学家

567 Yin Zhenyu – Professor, Deputy Chief Physician, Postdoctoral
http://www.xmzsh.com/html/2006/05/20060501113037-1.htm
https://archive.is/VehbO
尹震宇–教授, 副主任医师, 博士后

568 Brief introduction to Shandong Provincial Hospital
http://www.sph.com.cn/index.php?a=lists&catid=3
https://archive.is/GKtah
山东省立医院简介

569 Brief introduction to the General Surgery department at Shandong Provincial Hospital
http://www.sph.com.cn/index.php?a=shows&catid=68&id=164
https://archive.is/JA83f
山东省立医院普外科简介

570 Brief introduction to the Urologic Surgery department at Shandong Provincial Hospital
http://www.sph.com.cn/index.php?a=shows&catid=68&id=9
https://archive.is/VhQPW
山东省立医院泌尿外科简介

571 Brief introduction to the Urologic Surgery department at Shandong Provincial Hospital
http://www.sph.com.cn/index.php?a=shows&catid=68&id=9
https://archive.is/VhQPW
山东省立医院泌尿外科简介

572 Brief introduction to the Thoracic Surgery department at Shandong Provincial Hospital
http://www.sph.com.cn/index.php?a=shows&catid=68&id=68
https://archive.is/qi47l
山东省立医院胸外科简介

573 Brief Introduction to Qilu Hospital of Shandong University
http://www.qiluhospital.com/site2/yygk/yyjj/09/702.shtml
https://web.archive.org/web/20160125060220/http://www.qiluhospital.com/site2/yygk/yyjj/09/702.shtml
山东大学齐鲁医院简介

574 Qilu Hospital of Shandong University Liver Transplant Centre
http://www.qiluhospital.com/site61/ksjs/1902.shtml
https://web.archive.org/web/20160125060311/http://www.qiluhospital.com/site61/ksjs/1902.shtml
山东大学齐鲁医院肝脏移植中心

575 Introduction to General Surgery Department of Qilu Hospital of Shandong University
http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4rO-XCoLUnJ59Fh7UcoLDoWk/jieshao.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20150410124123/http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4rO-XCoLUnJ59Fh7UcoLDoWk/jieshao.htm
山东大学齐鲁医院普外科介绍

576 Introduction to Hu Sanyuan, deputy dean of Qilu Hospital of Shandong University
http://www.qiluhospital.com/site61/zjjs/38554.shtml
http://archive.is/y4lmh
山东大学齐鲁医院副院长胡三元介绍

577 Introduction to Xu Kesen, director of Hepatobiliary Vascular Surgery Institute of Shandong University
http://www.qiluhospital.com/site19/zjjs/9792.shtml
http://archive.is/47S6w
山东大学肝胆血管外科研究所所长徐克森介绍

578 Introduction to Dr. Chen Yuxin, Hepatobiliary Surgery Institute of Shandong University
http://www.qiluhospital.com/site19/zjjs/9787.shtml
http://archive.is/nJx2h
山东大学齐鲁医院肝胆外科陈雨信介绍

579 Qilu Hospital of Shandong University Blood Purification Centre for Organ Transplantation
http://www.qiluhospital.com/site57/ksjs/1902.shtml
https://web.archive.org/web/20110105101954/http://www.qiluhospital.com/site57/ksjs/1902.shtml
山东大学齐鲁医院血液净化器官移植中心

580 Why come to Qilu Hospital for kidney transplant?
http://www.qiluhospital.com/site57/ylts/20555.shtml
http://archive.is/v8m31
为什么到齐鲁医院做肾移植?

581 Tian Jun, director of Blood Purification and Organ Transplantation Centre
http://www.qiluhospital.com/site57/zjjs/9979.shtml
http://archive.is/PWWhc
齐鲁医院血液净化器官移植中心主任田军介绍

582 Brief Introduction to Qilu Hospital of Shandong University
http://www.qiluhospital.com/site2/yygk/yyjj/09/702.shtml
https://web.archive.org/web/20160125060220/http://www.qiluhospital.com/site2/yygk/yyjj/09/702.shtml
山东大学齐鲁医院简介

583 Introduction to the Second Hospital of Shandong University
http://sdey.net/html/yiyuangaikuang/yiyuanjianjie/2014/0505/211.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160125061155/http://sdey.net/html/yiyuangaikuang/yiyuanjianjie/2014/0505/211.html
山东大学第二医院医院简介

584 The Kidney Transplant Department of the Second Hospital of Shandong University
http://www.sdey.net/html/keshijieshao/keshijianjie/shenyizhike/2009/0325/179.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160125061240/http://www.sdey.net/html/keshijieshao/keshijianjie/shenyizhike/2009/0325/179.html
山东大学第二医院肾移植科

585
http://syzk.sdey.net/a/keshijieshao/2014/0716/1.html
http://archive.is/dnSMM
山东大学第二医院肾移植科介绍

586 The Urologic Surgery Department of the Second Hospital of Shandong University

http://sdey.net/html/caijiceshi/2015/0729/4715.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160118165540/http://sdey.net/html/caijiceshi/2015/0729/4715.html
245A-山东大学第二医院泌尿外科

587 Department of Kidney Transplantation at The Second Hospital of Shandong University – Doctor Profile – Wang, Hongwei
http://ysk.99.com.cn/ys/introduction/464446.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160125061436/http://ysk.99.com.cn/ys/introduction/464446.html
246-山东大学第二医院肾移植科-医生简介-王洪伟

588
http://syzk.sdey.net/a/yishengjieshao/2014/0716/2.html
http://archive.is/KK28Y
山东大学第二医院肾移植科-医生简介-王洪伟

589 Department of Kidney Transplantation at The Second Hospital of Shandong University – Doctor Profile – Tian, Chuan
http://ysk.99.com.cn/ys/introduction/464447.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20140831120657/http://ysk.99.com.cn/ys/introduction/464447.html
山东大学第二医院肾移植科-医生简介-田川

590 Brief Introduction to the Qianfoshan Hospital of Shandong Province
http://www.sdhospital.com.cn/index.php?m=content&c=index&a=lists&catid=653
https://archive.is/kGuFc
山东省千佛山医院简介

591 Brief Introduction to the Second Department of Urologic Surgery at Shandong Qianfoshan Hospital
http://www.sdhospital.com.cn/index.php?m=content&c=index&a=lists&catid=761
http://archive.is/XsEtg
山东省千佛山医院泌尿外二科 简介

592 Introduction of Meng Tongyi, Director of the Organ Transplant Centre at Shandong Qianfoshan Hospital
http://www.sdhospital.com.cn/index.php?m=content&c=index&a=show&catid=763&id=5954
http://archive.is/rJBgt
山东省千佛山医院器官移植中心主任门同义介绍

593 The Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery at Shandong Qianfoshan Hospital
http://www.sdhospital.com.cn/index.php?m=content&c=index&a=lists&catid=54
https://archive.is/Ntfej
山东省千佛山医院肝胆外科

594 The Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery at Shandong Qianfoshan Hospital
http://www.sdhospital.com.cn/index.php?m=content&c=index&a=lists&catid=54
http://archive.is/Ntfej
山东省千佛山医院肝胆外科

595 “Shandong Liver Transplantation Centre of Oriental Organ Transplantation Research Institute”
http://dpt46702.d.yynet.cn
http://web.archive.org/web/20160125012158/http://dpt46702.d.yynet.cn/
“东方器官移植研究所山东肝移植中心”

596 Qianfoshan Hospital of Shandong Province – Zang, Yunjin
http://cangyunjin9.u.yynet.cn/intro.php
https://archive.is/yxOSz
山东省千佛山医院臧运金

597 WOIPFG’s Investigative Report on Harvesting Organ from Live Falun Gong Practitioners all over China
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/699
https://archive.is/x8wQM
《追查国际》关于中国大陆各地活体摘取法轮功学员器官的调查报告

598 Investigating the Organ Harvesting Case Together to Stop the Persecution (Part 1)                Minghui.org
http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/6/22/130561.html
共同追查活摘器官案 制止迫害(上)
明慧网

599 Brief Introduction to Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital
http://www.ytyhdyy.com/comcontent_detail/&FrontComContent_list01-1359511234978CurrentIds=2__2&comContentId=2.html
https://archive.is/oypDC
烟台毓璜顶医院简介

600 The Department of Urologic Surgery at Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital
http://www.ytyhdyy.com/products_list/&pmcId=54.html
http://web.archive.org/web/20140331113149/http://www.ytyhdyy.com/products_list/&pmcId=54.html
烟台毓璜顶医院泌尿外科

601 The Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery at Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital
http://www.ytyhdyy.com/products_list/&pmcId=50.html
http://web.archive.org/web/20140730192135/http://www.ytyhdyy.com/products_list/&pmcId=50.html
烟台毓璜顶医院肝胆外科

602 Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital – Liu, Dongfu
http://www.ytyhdyy.com/products_detailmn/&productId=253.html
http://web.archive.org/web/20160125014244/http://www.ytyhdyy.com/products_detailmn/&productId=253.html
261-烟台毓璜顶医院柳东夫

603 Introduction to Dr. Gao Zhenli, director of the Organ Transplant Centre at Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital
http://www.ytyhdyy.com/products_detail/&productId=249.html
http://archive.is/KwlfM
烟台毓璜顶医院器官移植中心主任高振利 介绍

604 Renal Transplant Expert, Gao Henli, was selected to join the Expert Committee of the Ministry of Health. http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZYanTaiYuHuangDingYiYuanKuaiXun/2011-08/5825.htm
http://archive.is/sbDVh
肾移植专家高振利入选国家卫生部专家组

605 “Investigation Leads: Conversation with the Director of Urology, Yantaishan Hospital, Yantai City.” Minghui.org. July 26, 2006.
http://www.clearwisdom.net/emh/articles/2006/7/26/75958.html

606 Brief Introduction to the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University           
http://www.qyfy.cn/a/yiyuangaikuang/yiyuanjianjie/
http://web.archive.org/web/20150312104414/http://www.qyfy.cn/a/yiyuangaikuang/yiyuanjianjie/
青岛大学医学院附属医院简介

607 Introduction to the Department of Kidney Transplantation at the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University
http://qdumh.qd.sd.cn/ks/yizhizhongxin/shenzang
https://archive.is/L6p1A
青岛大学医学院附属医院肾移植科科室介绍

608 Introduction to the Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery at the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University
http://qdumh.qd.sd.cn/ks/yizhizhongxin/ganzang/
https://archive.is/dxO4Z
青岛大学医学院附属医院肝移植科科室介绍

609 Introduction to the Department of Liver Transplantation at the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University
http://qdumh.qd.sd.cn/ks/yizhizhongxin/ganzang/
https://archive.is/dxO4Z
青岛大学医学院附属医院肝移植科科室介绍

610 The Thoracic Surgery Department of the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University
http://qdumh.qd.sd.cn/ks/xiongwaike/benbuxiongwai/list_131_1.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20141002051158/http://qdumh.qd.sd.cn/ks/xiongwaike/benbuxiongwai/list_131_1.html
青岛大学附属医院胸外科科室介绍

611 The Ophthalmology Department of the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University
http://qmc.qdu.edu.cn/xkjs/gjzdxk/2013621/222.htm
https://archive.is/M842h
青岛大学医学院眼科

612 Brief Introduction to Linyi People’s Hospital
http://www.ly120.cn/info/zjyy/yygk/201012/2408.html
https://archive.is/UrH68
临沂市人民医院简介

613 Brief Introduction to Linyi People’s Hospital
http://www.chealth.org.cn/mon/hospitals/article/MG143028557.html
https://archive.is/Tx7R1
临沂市人民医院简介

614Introduction to Urology Department of Linyi People’s Hospital
http://www.organdonation.org.cn/thread.aspx?id=3470
https://web.archive.org/web/20160313105713/http://www.organdonation.org.cn/thread.aspx?id=3470
临沂市人民医院泌尿外科

615 Ten Best doctors in Linyi City
http://www.lyast.org.cn/ast/Doctor/Default.aspx
http://archive.is/OCPqh
临沂市十大名医

616 Focus on Talent – Transplant Expert Guo Fengfu at Linyi People’s Hospital
http://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XMTQ5MDM4MjYyNA==.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160405124632/http://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XMTQ5MDM3MjM4OA==.html
聚焦人才-临沂市人民医院肾移植专家 郭丰富(下)

617Brief Introduction to the Cataract section of Ophthalmology Department at Linyi People’s Hospital
http://www.lyyk.cn/keshitese.php
https://web.archive.org/web/20160405131803/http://www.lyyk.cn/keshitese.php
临沂市人民医院博爱眼科科室特色:白内障一科慨况

618Brief Introduction to the Ophthalmology Department of Linyi People’s Hospital
http://www.lyyk.cn/yiyuan1.php
https://web.archive.org/web/20160405131312/http://www.lyyk.cn/yiyuan1.php
临沂市人民医院博爱眼科简介

619 Linyi People’s Hospital – Guo, Fengfu
http://www.misunion.com/doctorinfo.php?id=457
https://archive.is/9lHlc
临沂市人民医院郭丰富

620 Brief Introduction to Henan Provincial People’s Hospital
http://www.hnsrmyy.net/survey.aspx
https://archive.is/9Vn0O
河南省人民医院简介

621 The Department of Urologic Surgery at Henan Provincial People’s Hospital
http://www.hnsrmyy.net/OfficesDescription.aspx?id=24
https://archive.is/b0H2c
河南省人民医院泌尿外科

622 Introduction to the Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery at Henan Provincial People’s Hospital
http://ksk.99.com.cn/ks/introduction/163350.html
http://archive.is/ArlQp
河省人民医院肝胆胰腺外科

623The Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery at Henan Provincial People’s Hospital
http://www.hnsrmyy.net/OfficesDescription.aspx?id=29
https://archive.is/Qx1FC
河南省人民医院肝胆胰腺外科

624 The Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery at Henan Provincial People’s Hospital – Xue, Huanzhou
http://www.hnsrmyy.net/doctor.aspx?id=29&did=267
http://web.archive.org/web/20130924051230/http://hnsrmyy.net/Doctor.aspx?did=267&id=29
河南省人民医院肝胆胰腺外科薛焕洲

625 Henan Provincial People’s Hospital – Chest Tumor Diagnosis and Treatment Centre
http://www.hnsrmyy.net/OfficesDescription.aspx?id=42
https://archive.is/GyCqF
河南省人民医院-胸部肿瘤诊疗中心

626 Henan Provincial People’s Hospital – Chest Tumor Diagnosis and Treatment Centre – Wei, Li
http://www.hnsrmyy.net/doctor.aspx?id=42&did=214
http://archive.is/9rgUp
http://web.archive.org/web/20160313153247/http://hnsrmyy.net/Doctor.aspx?did=214&id=42
河南省人民医院胸部肿瘤诊疗中心-魏立

627 Henan Provincial Eye Hospital / Henan Provincial Ophthalmology Institute – formerly Department of Ophthalmology at Henan Provincial People’s Hospital
http://www.hnsrmyy.net/OfficesDescription.aspx?id=30
http://archive.is/1vqdK
河南省立眼科医院

628 Brief Introduction to People’s Hospital of Zhengzhou University – Baidu Encyclopedia
http://baike.baidu.com/view/5747592.htm
https://archive.is/aX21v
郑州大学人民医院简介-百度百科

629 Henan Provincial Ophthalmology Institute
http://www.zgjsyw.com/gongsi/about/733/
http://archive.is/43U16
河南省眼科研究所

630 “The World’s Largest Hospital’s Annual Revenue Over 7.5 Million, A Joke Says Henan People’s Liver Hurt”
http://finance.chinanews.com/cj/2015/06-02/7314969.shtml
https://archive.is/JnSoo
《全球最大医院年营收超75亿 被戏言让河南人肝儿疼》-2015年06月02日00:52 来源:中国经济周刊

631 Brief Introduction to The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University
http://fcc.zzu.edu.cn/s_lan1.htm
https://archive.is/ZkwC9
郑州大学第一附属医院简介

632 “The World’s Largest Hospital’s Annual Revenue Over 7.5 Million, A Joke Says Henan People’s Liver Hurt”
http://finance.chinanews.com/cj/2015/06-02/7314969.shtml
https://archive.is/JnSoo
《全球最大医院年营收超75亿 被戏言让河南人肝儿疼》-2015年06月02日00:52 来源:中国经济周刊

633 Department of Kidney Transplantation at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University
http://fcc.zzu.edu.cn/newsss/vmsgisapi.dll/vonefun?fun=3a_s&id=8235
http://archive.is/mhK3P
郑州大学第一附属医院肾移植科

634 Liver Transplant Expert Zhang, Shuijun
http://www.henan100.com/health/2012/128384.shtml
https://archive.is/fhaRU
肝脏移植专家张水军

635 Organ Transplantation in Henan province has reached the advanced level nationwide — Henan Daily
http://fcc.zzu.edu.cn/newsss/vmsgisapi.dll/onemsg?msgid=1510291658589621218
http://archive.is/gobHk
我省器官移植水平进入国内先进行列–河南日报

636 “The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University Completes Four Liver Transplant Surgeries in One Day”
http://www.hnsgyz.com/archive/article/article-139.html
http://archive.is/0OnBx
《郑州大学第一附属医院 四台肝移植手术一天完成 》 河南省肝脏移植中心网站

637 Investigation Leads: Waiting Time for Matched Organs Still Very Short in China
http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2014/9/26/调查线索-中共仍在经营活体器官移植库-298157.html
https://archive.is/IMqfG
http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2014/9/28/3480.html
调查线索:中共仍在经营活体器官移植库-明慧网

638 Brief Introduction to Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science & Technology,
Source: Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science & Technology
http://www.whuh.com/about.php
https://archive.is/cp9q5
华中科技大学同济医学院附属协和医院简介,来源:华中科技大学附属协和医院

639 Introduction to the Urologic Surgery Department of Union Hospital affiliated with Tongji Medical College – Subject Characteristics
http://www.whuh.com/Depart_content.php?class=1&sections_id=25
https://web.archive.org/web/20160312120607/http://www.whuh.com/Depart_content.php?class=1&sections_id=25
华中科技大学同济医学院附属协和医院泌尿外科-学科特色

640 Department of Gallbladder Surgery at Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science & Technology,
Source: Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science & Technology
http://www.whuh.com/Depart_content.php?class=1&sections_id=15
https://archive.is/9JngZ
华中科技大学同济医学院附属协和医院肝胆外科,来源:华中科技大学附属协和医院

641 Department of Cardiovascular Surgery at Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science & Technology,
Source: Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science & Technology
http://www.whuh.com/Depart_content.php?class=1&sections_id=83
https://web.archive.org/web/20160312122008/http://www.whuh.com/Depart_content.php?class=1&sections_id=83
华中科技大学附属协和医院- 心血管外科,来源:华中科技大学附属协和医院

642 Expert: Dong Nianguo- Department of Cardiovascular Surgery at Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science & Technology,
Source: Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science & Technology
http://www.whuh.com/Depart_content.php?class=1&sections_id=83
https://web.archive.org/web/20160312122008/http://www.whuh.com/Depart_content.php?class=1&sections_id=83
华中科技大学附属协和医院心血管外科-专家介绍-董念国

643 Introduction to Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University
http://www.rmhospital.com/881/8811.aspx
https://archive.is/7WMjX
武汉大学人民医院简介

644 People’s Hospital of Wuhan University
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/cn/images/nationalcriminalreports/795.png
武汉大学人民医院

645 The Organ Transplantation Department at People’s Hospital of Wuhan University
http://www.rmhospital.com/883/8832.aspx?id=92704
https://archive.is/yYcos
武汉大学人民医院器官移植科

646 The Organ Transplant Department of Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University
Source: haodf.com
http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4r0Fy0C9LuZ0GoRfRKWHTQH5Fy7BKbP/jieshao.htm
https://archive.is/sO6hb
武汉大学人民医院器官移植科

647 The First Combined Liver-kidney Transplant in Hubei Province completed successfully
Source: Jingchu Online – www.cnhubei.com October 3rd, 2003
http://www.cnhubei.com/200309/ca341856.htm
https://archive.is/0ga0N
湖北省首例肝肾联合移植成功来源:荆楚在线 2003年10月3日

648 The Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, People’s Hospital of Wuhan University
Source: People’s Hospital of Wuhan University web site
http://www.rmhospital.com/mobile/773/7731_1.aspx?id=51704
https://archive.is/p4UhJ
武汉大学人民医院心血管外科来源:武汉大学人民医院网站

649 The strongest heart – heart transplant give the patient a “heart” life
Source: www.yx129.com
http://www.yx129.com/quanzi/thread_161726.html
https://archive.is/Ail3Z
最强心脏–心脏移植让患者重获“心”生

650 Brief Introduction to the Organ Transplantation Department at People’s Hospital of Wuhan University
http://www.rmhospital.com/883/8832.aspx?id=92704
http://archive.is/yYcos
武汉大学人民医院器官移植科介绍

651 Doctor Zhou Jiangqiao from The Organ Transplantation Department at People’s Hospital of Wuhan University
http://hospitalize.news.sina.com/doctor/DE4r08xQdKSLuwEC18upZO0ZUs6x.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160409140338/
http://hospitalize.news.sina.com/doctor/DE4r08xQdKSLuwEC18upZO0ZUs6x.htm
武汉大学人民医院器官移植科周江桥大夫

652 Zhou Jiangqiao, Director of the Organ Transplantation Department at People’s Hospital of Wuhan University
http://www.rmhospital.com/884/88421.aspx?id=358204
http://archive.is/DxvCF
武汉大学人民医院器官移植科主任周江桥

653 Ding Youyou, Organ Transplantation Department at People’s Hospital of Wuhan University
http://www.91160.com/doctors/index/docid-100223522.html
http://archive.is/gtTu1
武汉人民医院肝移植专家丁佑铭介绍

654 100 most competitive hospitals in China in 2015
http://health.sohu.com/20160328/n442639180.shtml
https://archive.is/FT6XC
2015中国顶级医院100强

655 Brief Introduction to the Organ Transplant Centre at Xiangya Hospital of Central South University
http://www.xiangya.com.cn/web/Content.aspx?chn=805&id=43
https://archive.is/txWua
中南大学湘雅医院器官移植中心简介

656 Liu, Weidong. “Hepatobiliary and Enteric Surgery Research Centre.” CNKI.
http://kns55.zh.eastview.com/KCMS/detail/detail.aspx?filename=N2004080009000159&dbcode=CYFD&dbname=CYFD
https://archive.is/NOcbb
卫生部肝胆肠外科研究中心 中南大学年鉴, 中国知网 2001

657 “Introduction to Central South University Xianya Hospital General Surgery Department and Liver and Thyroid Surgery Department.” Xiangya Hospital, Central South University.
http://www.xiangya.com.cn/web/Content.aspx?chn=1781&id=240 https://archive.is/v4WZo
中南大学湘雅医院普外科肝脏甲状腺外科简介

658 “Completing 1 Liver Transplant, 6 Kidney Transplants, and 8 Cornea Transplants in the Same Day.” Xiangya Hospital of Centre-south University. June 3, 2005. http://www1.renminbao.com/rmb/article_images/2006-5-30-changsha06.jpg
同一天完成1台肝移植6台肾移植8台角膜移植 中南大学湘雅医院 2005-6-3

659 “This Hospital Completed 7 Heart, Liver, and Kidney Transplants in One Day.” Xiangya Hospital of Centre-south University. September 3, 2005. http://www1.renminbao.com/rmb/article_images/2006-5-30-changsha05.jpg
我院一天完成7台换心肝肾手术 中南大学湘雅医院 2005-9-3

660 “Celebrating the New Year with New Livers.” Xiangya Hospital of Centre-south University. February 5, 2006.
http://www1.renminbao.com/rmb/article_images/2006-5-30-changsha03.jpg
我院72小时内完成2例肝移植手术 中南大学湘雅医院 2005-06-2-5

661 “Xiangya Hospital made new organ transplant record: 17 transplants completed in one day”
Xiangya Hospital Party Committee Office May 15, 2006
http://news.csu.edu.cn/info/1142/97907.htm
https://archive.is/ogLUL
湘雅医院器官移植创历史新高:一天完成17台移植手术         湘雅医院党委办 2006年5月15日

662 Kidney Disease and Blood Purification Research Institute of Central South University Established in Xiangya Hospital
Central South University News July 6, 2011
http://www.xiangya.com.cn/web/Content.aspx?chn=284&id=15062
https://archive.is/8LITv
中南大学肾脏病与血液净化研究所在湘雅医院成立    《中南新闻网》     July 6, 2011

663 Ocular Surface Diseases Subspecialty-Xiangya Hospital
http://www.xiangya.com.cn/web/Content.aspx?chn=888&id=11172
https://archive.is/mGwhi
眼表疾病亚专业-湘雅医院

664 100 most competitive hospitals in China in 2015
http://health.sohu.com/20160328/n442639180.shtml
https://archive.is/FT6XC
2015中国顶级医院100强

665 Brief Introduction to The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University
http://www.xyeyy.com/channel.aspx?listid=33
https://archive.is/62A6T
中南大学湘雅二医院简介

666 Six People were Completed Organ Transplanted simultaneously at the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University
http://www.zgxxwkzz.com/news/xsnew/104.aspx
中南大学湘雅二医院同期为六人成功完成器官移植 2014-12-4 作者:尹倪,袁运长

667 The Second Xiangya Hospital – Expert Profile – Peng, Longkai
http://www.xyeyy.com/Pages/MZB/ZjIntro.aspx?staffid=503
https://archive.is/bCwpK
湘雅附二院专家介绍-彭龙开

668 The Department of Urologic Organ Transplant Surgery at the Organ Transplant Centre of The Second Xiangya Hospital
http://www.xyeyy.com/Template/LCKS/ChannelInfo.aspx?listid=683&deptid=1030650
https://archive.is/G6xDb
湘雅二医院器官移植中心泌外器官移植科

669 The Department of Urologic Organ Transplant Surgery at the Organ Transplant Centre of The Second Xiangya Hospital
http://www.xyeyy.com/Template/LCKS/ChannelInfo.aspx?listid=683&deptid=1030650
https://archive.is/G6xDb
湘雅二医院器官移植中心泌外器官移植科

670 The Second Xiangya Hospital – Expert Profile – Peng, Longkai
http://www.xyeyy.com/Pages/MZB/ZjIntro.aspx?staffid=503
https://archive.is/bCwpK
湘雅附二院专家介绍-彭龙开

671 Time of Dragons Soaring and Tigers Leaping – Kidney Transplantation Department of Organ Transplantation Centre,

Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University               Hunan Online – Public Health Edition               October 21, 2005
http://hunan.voc.com.cn/content/2005-10/21/content_3479431.htm
https://archive.is/xlZWE
龙腾虎跃正当时―记中南大学湘雅二医院器官移植中心肾移植科”       《湖南在线-大众卫生报版》2005年10月21日

672 The Department of Urologic Organ Transplant Surgery at the Organ Transplant Centre of The Second Xiangya Hospital
http://www.xyeyy.com/Template/LCKS/ChannelInfo.aspx?listid=683&deptid=1030650
https://archive.is/G6xDb
湘雅二医院器官移植中心泌外器官移植科

673 “Time of Dragons Soaring and Tigers Leaping – Kidney Transplantation Department of Organ Transplantation Centre,

Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University”                “Hunan Online – Public Health Edition”             October 21, 2005
http://hunan.voc.com.cn/content/2005-10/21/content_3479431.htm
https://archive.is/xlZWE
龙腾虎跃正当时―记中南大学湘雅二医院器官移植中心肾移植科”《湖南在线-大众卫生报版》2005年10月21日

674 The urological transplant surgery department the Organ Transplant Centre of The Second Xiangya Hospital
http://www.xyeyy.com/Template/LCKS/ChannelInfo.aspx?listid=683&deptid=1030650
https://archive.is/G6xDb
湘雅二医院器官移植中心泌外器官移植科

675 Interview of Organ Transplant Expert Prof. Qi Zhihai
http://www.xyeyy.com/Article.aspx?artid=20142
http://archive.is/nmUVv
齐海智:不断刷新器官移植纪录 —— 访普外器官移植专家齐海智教授 【湖湘名医】

676 Department of Cardiovascular Surgery at Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University
http://www.xyeyy.com/Template/LCKS/ChannelInfo.aspx?listid=311&deptid=9
https://archive.is/kKB5L
中南大学湘雅二医院-心血管外科

677 Expert Introduction – Hu Jianguo
http://www.xyeyy.com/Template/LCKS/StaffInfo.aspx?staffid=387
http://archive.is/EAvpv
专家介绍-胡建国

678 Expert Introduction- YinBangliang
http://www.xyeyy.com/Template/LCKS/StaffInfo.aspx?staffid=388
archive.is/UF4Oq
专家介绍 – 尹邦良

679 Department of Ophthalmology at The Second Xiangya Hospital
http://old.xyeyy.com/web%20design/yanke/ksjs.htm
https://archive.is/F3SCu
湘雅二医院眼科

680 Introduction to the Specialist Transplantation Department of the Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University
http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4r08xQdKSLVGplG1I6Imj3t-5V/jieshao.htm
https://archive.is/bt2B7
中南大学湘雅三医院移植专科简介

681 Introduction of Xiangya Organ Transplant Institute of Central South University
http://hpt2000034444.h.yynet.cn/departments.php?section_id=1381
https://web.archive.org/web/20160118023937/http://hpt2000034444.h.yynet.cn/departments.php?section_id=1381
中南大学湘雅移植医学研究院简介- 科室导览

682 Event List, Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University
http://www.xy3yy.com/xy3yy20/20091126201431.html
https://archive.is/SgMay
中南大学湘雅三医院大事记

683 Huang Zuda, President of the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Talked About the Transplant Medicine Development
www.xy3yy.com/nyygj/yb09-21.html   Please refer its archive:
http://web.archive.org/web/20070105023111/http://www.xy3yy.com/nyygj/yb09-21.html
向着移植医学的理想王国进发—黄祖发院长纵论移植医学发展       中南大学湘雅三医院 院报第九期 2006-05

684 Event List, Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University
http://www.xy3yy.com/xy3yy20/20091126201431.html
https://archive.is/SgMay
中南大学湘雅三医院大事记

685 Event List, Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University
http://www.xy3yy.com/xy3yy20/20091126201431.html
https://archive.is/SgMay
中南大学湘雅三医院大事记

686 Deputy Minister of Health Performs Liver Transplantation at Central South University
Xinhua News Agency   September 19, 2003
http://news.xinhuanet.com/school/2003-09/20/content_1089770.htm
https://archive.is/CKDH4
国家卫生部副部长在中南大学”操刀”肝移植   《新华网》 2003年9月19日

687 Reproducer of the “Source of Life” – Report on The Kidney Transplant Centre of The Third People’s Hospital of Changde City
Public Health Newspaper (Hunan Daily Newspaper Group)     November 21, 2006
http://dzwsb.hnol.net/article/200611/2006112114504748045179.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124022252/http://dzwsb.hnol.net/article/200611/2006112114504748045179.html
356“生命之源”的再造者-记常德市第三人民医院肾移植中心 《大众卫生报》2006年11月21日

688 Introduction of Xiangya Organ Transplant Institute of Central South University
http://hpt2000034444.h.yynet.cn/departments.php?section_id=1381
htts://web.archive.org/web/20160118023937/http://hpt2000034444.h.yynet.cn/departments.php?section_id=1381
35 中南大学湘雅移植医学研究院简介- 科室导览

689 Huang Zuda, President of the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Talked About the Transplant Medicine Development
www.xy3yy.com/nyygj/yb09-21.html
http://web.archive.org/web/20070105023111/http://www.xy3yy.com/nyygj/yb09-21.html
向着移植医学的理想王国进发—黄祖发院长纵论移植医学发展   中南大学湘雅三医院院报第九期 2006-05

690 The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University – Organ Transplant Centre – Huang, Zufa
http://huangzufa7.u.yynet.cn/intro.php
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124022105/http://huangzufa7.u.yynet.cn/intro.php
中南大学湘雅三医院 移植医学中心黄祖发

691 Overview of The First People’s Hospital of Changde
http://www.cdsyy.com/col/col11611/index.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124021053/http://www.cdsyy.com/col/col11611/index.html
常德市第一人民医院医院概况

692 Changde City First People’s Hospital – Urology Surgery Department – 2nd
http://www.cdsyy.com/col/col21702/index.html
https://archive.is/IzG63
常德市第一人民医院医院 -泌尿外科二病区简介

693 National public hospital doctors recommended list – kidney transplant surgeon – Zhu Huacheng    120 Knowing
http://m.120bst.com/top/hunan/shenyizhi/238942.html
https://archive.is/CAGD9
全国公立医院医生推荐榜 – 肾移植医生 – 朱华臣       “120百事通”

694 Changde City First People’s Hospital – Urology Surgery Department – 2nd Ward – specialist features – quality services
http://www.cdsyy.com/art/2008/11/20/art_21712_1500536.html
https://archive.is/F4TWX
常德市第一人民医院-泌尿外科二病区-专科特色-优质的服务     发布日期:2010-10-06

695 Changde City First People’s Hospital – Urology Surgery Department – 2nd Ward – specialist – Zhou Jianhui
http://www.cdsyy.com/art/2010/10/6/art_21713_623966.html
https://archive.is/OWHjM
常德市第一人民医院-泌尿外科二病区-专家介绍-周建辉

696 Department of Kidney Transplantation at The First People’s Hospital of Changde – Good Doctors Online
http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4r0BCkuHzduSax6swOXKq2IWmiF/jieshao.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124020941/http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4r0BCkuHzduSax6swOXKq2IWmiF/jieshao.htm
常德市第一人民医院肾移植科-好大夫在线

697 The First People’s Hospital of Changde – Department of General Surgery – Expert Profile
http://www.wenyuanwang.com/MzA4MTgwNjIzNw_3200570242_7b662d8fd31cecadf6b230f351f7a010.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124020914/
http://www.wenyuanwang.com/MzA4MTgwNjIzNw_3200570242_7b662d8fd31cecadf6b230f351f7a010.html
常德市第一人民医院-普通外科专家简介

698 The Developing First People’s Hospital of Changdenews.163.comJuly 6, 2009
http://news.163.com/09/0706/08/5DHDID8L000120GR.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124020845/http://news.163.com/09/0706/08/5DHDID8L000120GR.html
发展中的常德市第一人民医院网易新闻6/07/2009

699 The First People’s Hospital of Changde – Department of Ophthalmology – Cornea Transplantation
http://www.cdsyy.com/art/2008/11/20/art_12473_115189.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124020801/http://www.cdsyy.com/art/2008/11/20/art_12473_115189.html
常德市第一人民医院-眼科-角膜移植

700 Brief Introduction to The Second Hospital, University of South China
http://www.nh2h.com/News_View.asp?NewsID=3
https//web.archive.org/web/20160124022037/http://www.nh2h.com/News_View.asp?NewsID=3
南华大学附属第二院简介

701 Brief Introduction to the Department and experts of Urologic Surgery and Experts Team of the Second Hospital, University of South China    2012-3-24
http://www.nh2h.com/News_View.asp?NewsID=1378
https//web.archive.org/web/20160124021957/http://www.nh2h.com/News_View.asp?NewsID=1378
南华大学附属第二院泌尿外科简介及专家团队     日期: 2012-3-24

702 Brief Introduction to the Department and experts of Urologic Surgery and Experts Team of the Second Hospital, University of South China    2012-3-24
http://www.nh2h.com/News_View.asp?NewsID=1378
https:/web.archive.org/web/20160124021957/http://www.nh2h.com/News_View.asp?NewsID=1378
南华大学附属第二院泌尿外科简介及专家团队     日期: 2012-3-24

703 The Second Hospital, University of South China – Department of Ophthalmology – Liu, Zuguo
http://www.yaofang.cn/yyb/doctor/info/269965
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124021931/http://www.yaofang.cn/yyb/doctor/info/269965
南华大学附属第二院眼科刘祖国

704   Brief Introduction to The First People’s Hospital of YueYang
http://www.yy8080120.com/html/yiyuangaikuang/YiYuanJianGe/11644.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124020713/http://www.yy8080120.com/html/yiyuangaikuang/YiYuanJianGe/11644.html
岳阳市一人民医院简介

705 First People’s Hospital of Yueyang, chief physician Tang min, Professional experiences
http://yyk.39.net/doctor/157982.html
https://archive.is/7G72B
岳阳市第一人民医院主任医师唐敏执业经历

706 The First People’s Hospital of YueYang
https://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/45808#_Toc405291331
追查国际发布湖南省非军队系统医疗机构涉嫌活摘法轮功学员器官医务人员的追查名单:9岳阳市一人民医院

707 Introduction to the Organ Transplant Department at The First People’s Hospital of YueYangs
http://jiuyi.ewsos.com/yiyuan/keshi-QiGuanYiZhiKe469993
https://archive.is/HbTWQ
岳阳市第一人民医院器官移植科

708 Introduction to Wen Dingjun from the Organ Transplant Department at The First People’s Hospital of YueYangs
http://ysk.familydoctor.com.cn/217095/
https://archive.is/dj20F
岳阳市第一人民医院泌尿移植科文定军

709 Recommend famous doctors in Yueyang – Tang Xiuying
http://jk.803.com.cn/contents/242/9203.html
https://archive.is/irH6Z
健康岳阳名医推荐-唐秀英

710 Renew the contract with life through transplant – the excellent transplant team at The First People’s Hospital of Yueyang
http://www.yyr.cn/News/2014-7/4/de0546894.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160410072343/http://www.yyr.cn/News/2014-7/4/de0546894.htm
器官移植:与生命“续约”—记市一医院器官移植科优秀团队 来源:岳阳日报

711 Renew the contract with life through transplant – the excellent transplant team at The First People’s Hospital of Yueyang
http://www.yyr.cn/News/2014-7/4/de0546894.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160410072343/
http://www.yyr.cn/News/2014-7/4/de0546894.htm
器官移植:与生命“续约”—记市一医院器官移植科优秀团队 来源:岳阳日报

712 Zhou Zhixiong from the ophthalmology department at the First People’s Hospital of Yueyang
http://www.yy8080120.com/html/zhuanjiaminglv/WenKe/186.html
https://archive.is/abzEQ
岳阳市一人民医院眼科副主任医师, 周志雄

713 The Ophthalmology Department at The First People’s Hospital of Yueyang
http://yiyuan.999ask.com/hospital/2271/category/48655.html
https://archive.is/TIyUH
岳阳市一人民医院眼科 来源:99健康网

714 The Hepatobiliary Surgery Department of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University
Source: Medical Advisory              ifeng.com
http://haodf.health.ifeng.com/faculty/DE4rO-XCoLUE-3Urbc1P6dS2aO.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20140815030902/http://haodf.health.ifeng.com/faculty/DE4rO-XCoLUE-3Urbc1P6dS2aO.htm
中山三院肝胆外科(科室简介) – 导医 – 凤凰网

715 The Kidney transplant Department of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University
http://www.zssy.com.cn/Home/Detail/GanZangWaiKe?colType=10&colID=10145&pageIndex=1
https://archive.is/1lwit
中山大学附属第三医院肝脏移植中心

716 The Hepatobiliary Surgery Department of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University
Source: Medical Advisory              ifeng.com
http://haodf.health.ifeng.com/faculty/DE4rO-XCoLUE-3Urbc1P6dS2aO.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20140815030902/http://haodf.health.ifeng.com/faculty/DE4rO-XCoLUE-3Urbc1P6dS2aO.htm
中山三院肝胆外科(科室简介) – 导医 – 凤凰网

717 Guangdong Provincial Organ Transplantation Research Centre – Centre News, Dated: February 23, 2006
https://web.archive.org/web/20070806054714/http://www.organtransplantation.cn/newsdetail.asp?id=57
广东省器官移植研究中心—中山大学肝脏移植中心     “中心新闻”   23/02/2006

718 Chen Guihua at the Liver Transplant Centre at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University
http://chengh.u.yynet.cn/intro.php
https://archive.is/IUM7W
中山大学附属第三医院 -肝脏移植中心-陈规划

719 Guangdong Provincial Organ Transplantation Research Centre – Centre News, Dated: February 23, 2006
https://web.archive.org/web/20070806054714/
http://www.organtransplantation.cn/newsdetail.asp?id=57
广东省器官移植研究中心—中山大学肝脏移植中心     “中心新闻”   23/02/2006

720 The Hepatobiliary Surgery Department of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University
Source: Medical Advisory              ifeng.com
http://haodf.health.ifeng.com/faculty/DE4rO-XCoLUE-3Urbc1P6dS2aO.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20140815030902/http://haodf.health.ifeng.com/faculty/DE4rO-XCoLUE-3Urbc1P6dS2aO.htm
中山三院肝胆外科(科室简介) – 导医 – 凤凰网

721 Kidney Transplantation at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University
haodf.com http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4r0BCkuHzduTWTnxuJs56FCrgRH/jieshao.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20150412132553/
http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4r0BCkuHzduTWTnxuJs56FCrgRH/jieshao.htm
中山三院肾移植     好大夫在线

722 Kidney Transplantation at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University
haodf.com
http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4r0BCkuHzduTWTnxuJs56FCrgRH/jieshao.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20150412132553/
http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4r0BCkuHzduTWTnxuJs56FCrgRH/jieshao.htm

中山三院肾移植     好大夫在线

723 Introduction to Sun Qiquan – Kidney Transplantation at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University
haodf.com  http://sunqiquan.haodf.com/
https://web.archive.org/web/20150316070356/
http://sunqiquan.haodf.com/
孙启全- 中山三院肾移植       好大夫在线

722 Kidney Transplantation at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University
haodf.com http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4r0BCkuHzduTWTnxuJs56FCrgRH/jieshao.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20150412132553/
http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4r0BCkuHzduTWTnxuJs56FCrgRH/jieshao.htm
中山三院肾移植     好大夫在线

725 Brief Introduction to Guangdong General Hospital
http://www.gdghospital.org.cn/Framework/InfoMessage.aspx?did=2&bid=7&sid=128&nva=1&minnva=0
htts://archive.is/2jDv5
广东省人民医院简介

726 Brief Introduction to the Department of Urologic Surgery at Guangdong General Hospital
http://www.gdghospital.org.cn/office/IntroduceInfoID.aspx?bid=70
https://archive.is/YSVpE
广东省人民医院泌尿外科简介

727 Brief Introduction to the Department of Cardiac Surgery at Guangdong General Hospital
http://www.gdghospital.org.cn/office/IntroduceInfoID.aspx?bid=20
https://archive.is/vOSTR
广东省人民医院心外科简介

728 Wu Ruobin – Heart transplantation expert, chief physician, professor, and doctoral advisor
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZGuangDongShengRenMinYiYuanZhuanJiaTuanDui/2011-02/5267.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160420022117/
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZGuangDongShengRenMinYiYuanZhuanJiaTuanDui/2011-02/5267.htm
吴若彬–心脏移植专家,主任医师, 教授, 博士生导师

729 Brief Introduction to the Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery at Guangdong General Hospital
http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4rO-XCoLUmQ17Bfmw7E-sSlj/jieshao.htm
http://archive.is/E1dfR
广东省人民医院肝胆外科

730 Multiple Organ Harvest, The Journal of Practical Medicine, 2001, Issue 3, 227-228
http://qikan.cqvip.com/article/detail.aspx?id=5097572&from=zk_search
http://archive.is/8lkYP
多器官联合切取,《实用医学杂志》2001年第3期 227-228 (The Journal of Practical Medicine)

731
http://e5413.com/Framework/NewsMessage.aspx?ID=60&did=2&bid=7&sid=129&nva=1&minnva=4
2001年广东省人民医院“十件大事”
732 Brief Introduction to Guangdong No.2 Provincial People’s Hospital
http://www.gd2h.com/yygk/
http://web.archive.org/web/20160427182925/http://www.gd2h.com/yygk/
广东省第二人民医院简介

733 Brief Introduction to the Organ Transplantation Department at Guangdong No.2 Provincial People’s Hospital
http://www.gd2h.com/ks/0040/
http://web.archive.org/web/20160124015650/http://www.gd2h.com/ks/0040/
广东省第二人民医院器官移植科-科室简介

734 Dr, Zheng Keli, the Organ Transplantation Department at Guangdong No.2 Provincial People’s Hospital
http://zhengkeli.u.yynet.cn/intro.php
https://archive.is/opbWC
广东省第二人民医院 器官移植科 – 郑克立

735 Dr, Zheng Keli, the Organ Transplantation Department at Guangdong No.2 Provincial People’s Hospital
http://www.gd2h.com/ks/0040/doctor_5093.html
https://archive.is/xlQHc
器官移植科-郑克立-广东省第二人民医院

736 Brief Introduction to the Organ Transplantation Department at Guangdong No.2 Provincial People’s Hospital
http://www.gd2h.com/ks/0040/
http://web.archive.org/web/20160124015650/http://www.gd2h.com/ks/0040/
广东省第二人民医院器官移植科-科室简介

737 Dr. Liu Dong, Expert office
http://liudong.baikemy.com/expert/profile#resume
http://archive.is/Vk9qP
刘东专家工作室

738 Leads to Investigation: 6 transplants were carried out on August 4 at Guangdong No.2 Provincial People’s Hospital
http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2013/9/30/%E8%B0%83%E6%9F%A5%E7%BA%BF%E7%B4%A2-%E9%9B%B6%E5%85%AD%E5%B9%B4%E5%85%AB%E6%9C%88%E5%9B%9B%E6%97%A5%E5%B9%BF%E4%B8%9C%E7%9C%81%E7%AC%AC%E4%BA%8C%E4%BA%BA%E6%B0%91%E5%8C%BB%E9%99%A2%E5%81%9A%E5%85%AD%E4%BE%8B%E8%82%BE%E7%A7%BB%E6%A4%8D-279442.html

《明慧网-调查线索:零六年八月四日广东省第二人民医院做六例肾移植》

739 Brief Introduction to the Organ Transplantation Department at Guangdong No.2 Provincial People’s Hospital
http://www.gd2h.com/ks/0040/
http://web.archive.org/web/20160124015650/http://www.gd2h.com/ks/0040/
广东省第二人民医院器官移植科-科室简介

740 Experts, the Organ Transplantation Department at Guangdong No.2 Provincial People’s Hospital
http://www.gd2h.com/ks/0040/dept_doctor.html
http//archive.is/JHYZ6
广东省第二人民医院器官移植科-专家

741 Dr. Liu Dong, Expert office
http://liudong.baikemy.com/expert/profile#resume
http://archive.is/Vk9qP
刘东专家工作室

742 The Organ Transplantation Department at Guangdong No.2 Provincial People’s Hospital
http://www.gd2h.com/ks/0040/doctor_5649.html
http://web.archive.org/web/20160507200923/
http://www.gd2h.com/ks/0040/doctor_5649.html
器官移植科-黎程-广东省第二人民医院

743 The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University
http://www.gyey.com/cn/BYyygk.aspx?TypeID=3
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124013450/http://www.gyey.com/cn/BYyygk.aspx?TypeID=3
广州医学院第二附属医院

744 Department of Organ Transplantation at The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University
http://www.gyey.com/cn/BYKSnews_info.aspx?ks=44&TypeID=26&id1=44
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124013345/
http://www.gyey.com/cn/BYKSnews_info.aspx?ks=44&TypeID=26&id1=44
广医二院器官移植科

745 Department of Organ Transplantation at The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University
http://www.gyey.com/cn/BYKSnews_info.aspx?ks=44&TypeID=26&id1=44
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124013345/
http://www.gyey.com/cn/BYKSnews_info.aspx?ks=44&TypeID=26&id1=44
广医二院器官移植科

746 Investigation Lead: 6 Kidney Transplants Completed at Guangdong No. 2 Provincial People’s Hospital on August 4, 2006 Minghui.org   September 30, 2013
http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2013/9/30/279442.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124013303/
http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2011/1/8/调查线索-广州中共系统活摘法轮功学员器官-234649p.html
调查线索:广州中共系统活摘法轮功学员器官   明慧网

747 Brief Introduction to The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University
http://www.gyfyy.com/cn/list-1-1-28.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124013242/
http://www.gyfyy.com/cn/list-1-1-28.html
广州医科大学附属第一医院简介

748 Department of Thoracic Surgery at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University
http://www.gyfyy.com/cn/list-58-2386.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124013052/http://www.gyfyy.com/cn/list-58-2386.html
广州医科大学附属第一医院胸外科

749 Department of Thoracic Surgery at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University
http://www.gyfyy.com/cn/list-58-2386.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124013052/http://www.gyfyy.com/cn/list-58-2386.html
广州医科大学附属第一医院胸外科

750 Department of Thoracic Surgery at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University
http://www.gyfyy.com/cn/list-58-2386.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124013052/http://www.gyfyy.com/cn/list-58-2386.html
广州医科大学附属第一医院胸外科

751 The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University
http://www.baike.com/wiki/%E5%B9%BF%E5%B7%9E%E5%8C%BB%E7%A7%91%E5%A4%A7%E5%AD%A6%E9%99%84%E5%B1%9E%E7%AC%AC%E4%B8%80%E5%8C%BB%E9%99%A2&prd=so_1_doc
https://archive.is/iLvyJ
广州医科大学附属第一医院 互动百科

752 Liu Guochang from the Ophthalmology Department at The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University
http://20032115.hos.999120.net/hospital/Doctor.aspx?PageNo=2&DoctorID=20426370&DepartmentID=&hosdate=&hostime=&hospitalid=&special=
https://archive.is/qaQX7
广州医科大学附属第一医院眼科刘国昌 导医网

753 Introduction to Sun Yat-Sen Cardiovascular Hospital of Shenzhen
http://www.szsyxyy.com/about/list.php?catid=26
https://archive.is/EkyHZ
深圳市孙逸仙心血管医院介绍

754 Brief Introduction to Sun Yat-Sen Cardiovascular Hospital of Shenzhen
http://www.szwsjob.com/index?module=A010&name=detail&pk=4
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124013016/http://www.szwsjob.com/index?module=A010&name=detail&pk=4
深圳市孙逸仙心血管医院简介

755 Introduction to Sun Yat-Sen Cardiovascular Hospital of Shenzhen
http://www.szsyxyy.com/about/list.php?catid=26
https://archive.is/EkyHZ
深圳市孙逸仙心血管医院介绍

756 End-stage heart disease specialist at Sun Yat-Sen Cardiovascular Hospital of Shenzhen
http://www.szsyxyy.com/keshi/
https://web.archive.org/web/20160410095433/
http://www.szsyxyy.com/keshi/
深圳孙逸仙心血管医院终末期心脏病专科

757 The 14th heart transplantation completed and longest survival time has reached 12 years
http://www.sznews.com/news/content/2015-01/16/content_11049927.htm
http://archive.is/i6T8m
我市完成第14例心脏移植手术 最长存活时间可达12年

758 Sun Yat-Sen Cardiovascular Hospital of Shenzhen: conducted two heart transplant within 6 hours
http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2003-10-29/09371014898s.shtml
https://web.archive.org/web/20160410093721/
http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2003-10-29/09371014898s.shtml
深圳孙逸仙心血管医院:6小时移植两心脏 来源:南方日报

759 The well-known Thoracic and Cardiovascular expert Ji Shangyi
http://qhwhyj.cn/xx-1/News_View.asp?NewsID=171
http://archive.is/KKf9O
著名胸心血管专家姬尚义

760 Story materials about Yang Jianan Source: Chinese Association of Cardiovascular Surgeons
http://www.cacvs.net/?p=30&a=view&r=51&c=3
https://web.archive.org/save/
http://www.cacvs.net/?p=30&a=view&r=51&c=3
2013年优秀医师奖获奖人事迹材料:杨建安医师事迹材料 来源:中国医师协会心血管外科医师分会

761 Brief Introduction to The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University
http://jd.jnu.edu.cn/yxsz/yxsz2014/default.asp?see=clg&id=30
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124012643/http://jd.jnu.edu.cn/yxsz/yxsz2014/default.asp?see=clg&id=30
暨南大学附属第一医院简介

762 The Urology Surgery Department at the First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University
http://www.medste.gd.cn/Html/dip/sywztjs/zkjj/zdzk/25491620090318121000.html
https://archive.is/6FQjZ
暨南大学附属第一医院泌尿外科

763 The Organ Transplant Centre at the First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University
http://www.medste.gd.cn/Html/dip/sywztjs/zkjj/zdzk/25491620090318121000.html
https://archive.is/XwUBT
暨南大学附属第一医院器官移植中心 好大夫在线

764 The New Ward Building Put into Operation Day at the First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University
http://photo.familydoctor.com.cn/social/201212/9252712182938.html
https://archive.is/YUwih
暨南大学附属第一医院新住院大楼于公开日活动

765 The new ward building put into operation on Dec. 9, 2012 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University
http://zl.39.net/zt/kfr/kfr/#a4
https://web.archive.org/web/20160419210027/
http://zl.39.net/zt/kfr/kfr/
暨南大学附属第一医院新住院大楼于2012年12月9日开放

766 Brief Introduction to The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University
http://jd.jnu.edu.cn/yxsz/yxsz2014/default.asp?see=clg&id=30
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124012643/
http://jd.jnu.edu.cn/yxsz/yxsz2014/default.asp?see=clg&id=30
暨南大学附属第一医院简介

767 The Urology Surgery Department at the First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University
http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4rO-XCoLUoys8hm0TUy35vjf/jieshao.htm
https://archive.is/6FQjZ
暨南大学附属第一医院泌尿外科

768 Su Zhexuan, Organ Transplant Centre at the First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University
http://www.haodf.com/doctor/DE4r08xQdKSLBglZnYSdpUn-8HdJ.htm
http://archive.is/LV3gb
暨南大学附属第一医院器官移植中心,苏泽轩简介

769 Chen Jie, Organ Transplant Centre at the First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University
http://jd.jnu.edu.cn/yxsz/yxsz2014/detail.asp?id=24335
http://archive.is/3X1wk
暨南大学附属第一医院器官移植中心,陈洁介绍

770 The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University – Ding, Hongwen
http://dinghongwen.u.yynet.cn/intro.php
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124012554/
http://dinghongwen.u.yynet.cn/intro.php
暨南大学附属第一医院丁泓文

771 Introduction of The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University
http://www.gy3y.com/aboutus/yyjs/a_100015.html
http://web.archive.org/web/20160501085442/
http://www.gy3y.com/aboutus/yyjs/a_100015.html
广州医科大学附属第三医院

772 Department of Organ Transplantation at The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University –
http://www.gy3y.com/ks/wkxt/qgyzk/
https://web.archive.org/web/20160411053410/
http://www.gy3y.com/ks/wkxt/qgyzk/
广医三院器官移植科

773 Department of Organ Transplantation at The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University –
http://www.gy3y.com/ks/wkxt/qgyzk/
https://web.archive.org/web/20160411053410/
http://www.gy3y.com/ks/wkxt/qgyzk/
广医三院器官移植科

774 Dr. Lin Minzhuan of the Department of Organ Transplantation at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University
http://www.gy3y.com/ks/wkxt/qgyzk/doctor_103.html
http://archive.is/UW5W9
广医三院器官移植科专家介绍-林民专

775 The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University- A+ Medical Encyclopedia
http://www.a-hospital.com/w/%E5%B9%BF%E5%B7%9E%E5%8C%BB%E5%AD%A6%E9%99%A2%E7%AC%AC%E4%B8%89%E9%99%84%E5%B1%9E%E5%8C%BB%E9%99%A2
http://archive.is/t6Rgn
广州医学院第三附属医院 – A+医学百科

776 The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University- Hudong Encyclopedia http://www.baike.com/wiki/%E5%B9%BF%E5%B7%9E%E5%8C%BB%E5%AD%A6%E9%99%A2%E7%AC%AC%E4%B8%89%E9%99%84%E5%B1%9E%E5%8C%BB%E9%99%A2&prd=so_1_doc
http://archive.is/F8o8n
广州医学院第三附属医院_互动百科

777 The Organ Transplant Department of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College – Good Doctors Online
http://www.haodf.com/faculty/DE4r08xQdKSLPTmx2rpF9fQsVXyf/jieshao.htm
http://archive.is/ZxdoQ
广医三院器官移植科-好大夫在线

778

779 Dr. Lin Minzhuan of the Department of Organ Transplantation at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University
http://www.gy3y.com/ks/wkxt/qgyzk/doctor_103.html
http://archive.is/UW5W9
广医三院器官移植科专家介绍-林民专

780 Brief Introduction to The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University
http://www.gxmuyfy.cn/gxmufy1/1fy/browse/browse3.asp?module_id=71&ID=0
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124012323/
http://www.gxmuyfy.cn/gxmufy1/1fy/browse/browse3.asp?module_id=71&ID=0
广西医大一院简介

781 Brief Introduction to the Organ Transplant Centre at The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University – Health Group
http://yiyuan.jiankangzu.com/keshi-22683/
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124012003/http://yiyuan.jiankangzu.com/keshi-22683/
广西医大一院器官移植中心简介-健康族

782 Brief Introduction to the Organ Transplant Centre at The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University – Health Group
http://yiyuan.jiankangzu.com/keshi-22683/
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124012003/
http://yiyuan.jiankangzu.com/keshi-22683/
广西医大一院器官移植中心简介-健康族

783 Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery at The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University
http://www.gxmuyfy.cn/gxmufy1/1fy/browse/browse4.asp?module_id=110&ID=4089
https://web.archive.org/web/20160124011935/
http://www.gxmuyfy.cn/gxmufy1/1fy/browse/browse4.asp?module_id=110&ID=4089
广西医大一院肝胆外科

784 Peng, Minhao – Liver Transplantation Expert                   China Organ Transplant Network
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZGuangXiYiKeDaXueDiYiFuShuYiYuanZhuanJiaTuanDui/2011-02/5216.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20160122190727/
http://www.transplantation.org.cn/ZGuangXiYiKeDaXueDiYiFuShuYiYuanZhuanJiaTuanDui/2011-02/5216.htm
彭民浩–肝移植专家   中国器官移植网

785 The Progress of Clinical Renal Homotransplantation in China
Medical Journal of the Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces, June 2004, 15 (6)
By: Yu Lixin , Southern Medical University Organ Transplantation Centre
http://qikan.9med.net/upload/pdf/160/1653/98377_3634.pdf
https://web.archive.org/web/20160131013506/
http://qikan.9med.net/upload/pdf/160/1653/98377_3634.pdf
《武警医学》2004年6月15卷6期《我国临床同种肾脏移植进展》
作者:广州南方医院器官移植中心主任于立新

786 Department of Kidney Transplantation, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University
http://www.dyyy.xjtu.edu.cn/jypt/yyks/lcks/zbyysyzk.htm
https://archive.is/XzGJs
西安交通大学附属第一医院肾移植科

787 Organ Transplantation Research Institute of Xi’an Jiaotong University
http://www.dyyy.xjtu.edu.cn/jypt/yyks/yjzx/qgyzyjs.htm
https://archive.is/p1ZKd
西安交通大学附一院-器官移植研究所

788 The first affiliated hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University has breakthrough 4,000 kidney transplants
Source: news.xjtu.edu.cn,       Date: 2015-04-17
http://news.xjtu.edu.cn/info/1012/53225.htm
https://archive.is/HGleb
西安交大一附院肾脏移植突破4000例        来源:交大新闻网 日期 2015-04-17

789 A healthy Chinese power—a special report on the 60 Anniversary of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi Daily, Jan 20, 2016
http://www.jdswzl.com/yydt/5040.html
https://archive.is/AQtO7
西安交大一附院60华诞报道—一支健康中国的力量, 《陕西日报》,2016-01-20

790 One of “Kidney transplants key technological innovation and its clinical application” report series:
Development of the Kidney transplant at The first affiliated hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University
Source: www.dyyy..xjtu.edu.cn
http://www.dyyy.xjtu.edu.cn/info/1779/9006.htm
https://archive.is/F03dG
2013年国家科学技术进步二等奖 “肾脏移植关键技术创新及临床应用”系列报道之一:
我院肾脏移植事业的发展历程 来源:交大新闻网

791 Department of Kidney Transplantation, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University
http://www.dyyy.xjtu.edu.cn/jypt/yyks/lcks/zbyysyzk.htm
https://archive.is/XzGJs
西安交通大学附属第一医院肾移植科

792 Investigation Clue: Kidney Transplant Status at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University – minghui.org
http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/7/10/132658.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20160123212325/
http://www.minghui.org/mh/articles/2006/7/10/132658.html
调查线索:西安交通大学医学院第一附属医院肾移植情况-明慧网

793 WOIPFG Investigation Report on Mainland China Over the Live Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners
http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/699
https://web.archive.org/web/20160123212439/http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/699
《追查国际》关于中国大陆各地活体摘取法轮功学员器官的调查报告